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    Furniture


    • Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, tables and sofas) and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture is also used to hold objects at a convenient height for work (as horizontal surfaces above the ground, such as tables and desks), or to store things (e.g., cupboards and shelves). Furniture can be a product of design and is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a symbolic or religious purpose. It can be made from many materials, including metal, plastic, and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which often reflect the local culture.

      People have been using natural objects, such as tree stumps, rocks and moss, as furniture since the beginning of human civilisation. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood, stone, and animal bones. Early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne. The first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, and includes cupboards, dressers and beds all constructed from stone. Complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt. This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory. The evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing, eating, and sleeping. The furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak, and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century. The seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is usually defined by revival styles. The first three-quarters of the twentieth century are often seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural shapes and textures.



      • EN 527 Office furniture - Work tables and desks
      • EN 1335 Office furniture - Office work chair
      • ANSI/BIFMA X 5.1 Office Seating
      • DIN 4551 Office furniture; revolving office chair with adjustable back with or without arm rests, adjustable in height
      • EN 581 Outdoor furniture - Seating and tables for camping, domestic and contract use
      • EN 1728:2014 Furniture - Seating - Test methods for the determination of strength and durability– updated in 2014.
      • EN 1730:2012 Furniture - Test methods for the determination of stability, strength and durability.
      • BS 4875 Furniture. Strength and stability of furniture. Methods for determination of stability of non-domestic storage furniture (British Standard)
      • EN 747 Furniture – Bunk beds and high beds – Test methods for the determination of stability, strength and durability
      • EN 13150 Workbenches for laboratories - Safety requirements and test methods
      • EN 1729 Educational furniture, chairs and tables for educational institutions
      • RAL-GZ 430 Furniture standard from Germany
      • NEN 1812 Furniture standard from the Netherlands
      • GB 28007-2011 Children’s furniture - General technical requirements for children’s furniture designed and manufactured for children between 3 and 14 years old
      • BS 5852: 2006 Methods of test for assessment of the ignitability of upholstered seating by smouldering and flaming ignition sources
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