Main

  • Culture

    Culture


    • Culture (/ˈkʌlər/) can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E.B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses and material expressions, which, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common."

      The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time."Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person[s] of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the merely physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain.

      As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively. This ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, and is often thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is also used to denote the complex networks of practices and accumulated knowledge and ideas that is transmitted through social interaction and exist in specific human groups, or cultures, using the plural form. Some aspects of human behavior, such as language, social practices such as kinship, gender and marriage, expressive forms such as art, music, dance, ritual, and religion, and technologies such as cooking, shelter, and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science make up the intangible cultural heritage of a society.



      Books
      Articles
      • Barker, C. (2004). The Sage dictionary of cultural studies. Sage. 
      • Terrence Deacon (1997). The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain. New York and London: W. W. Norton. 
      • Ralph L. Holloway Jr. (1969). "Culture: A Human domain". Current Anthropology. 10 (4): 395–412. doi:10.1086/201036. 
      • Dell Hymes (1969). Reinventing Anthropology. 
      • James, Paul; Szeman, Imre (2010). Globalization and Culture, Vol. 3: Global-Local Consumption. London: Sage Publications. 
      • Michael Tomasello (1999). "The Human Adaptation for Culture". Annual Review of Anthropology. 28: 509–29. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.28.1.509. 
      • Whorf, Benjamin Lee (1941). "The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language". Language, Culture, and Personality: Essays in Honor of Edward Sapir. Menasha, WI: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund. 
      • Walter Taylor (1948). A Study of Archeology. Memoir 69, American Anthropological Association. Carbondale IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 
      • "Adolf Bastian", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, January 27, 2009
      • Ankerl, Guy (2000) [2000]. Global communication without universal civilization, vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INU societal research. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN . 
      • Arnold, Matthew. 1869. Culture and Anarchy. New York: Macmillan. Third edition, 1882, available online. Retrieved: 2006-06-28.
      • Bakhtin, M. M. (1981) The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Press. .
      • Barzilai, Gad. 2003. Communities and Law: Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities University of Michigan Press.
      • Benedict, Ruth (1934). "Patterns of Culture". Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
      • Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press.
      • Cohen, Anthony P. 1985. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Routledge: New York,
      • Dawkins, R. 1982. The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene. Paperback ed., 1999. Oxford Paperbacks.
      • Findley & Rothney. Twentieth-Century World (Houghton Mifflin, 1986)
      • Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York. .
      • 1957. "Ritual and Social Change: A Javanese Example", American Anthropologist, Vol. 59, No. 1. doi:10.1525/aa.1957.59.1.02a00040
      • Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
      • Hoult, T. F., ed. 1969. Dictionary of Modern Sociology. Totowa, New Jersey, United States: Littlefield, Adams & Co.
      • Jary, D. and J. Jary. 1991. The HarperCollins Dictionary of Sociology. New York: HarperCollins.
      • Keiser, R. Lincoln 1969. The Vice Lords: Warriors of the Streets. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. .
      • Kroeber, A. L. and C. Kluckhohn, 1952. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum
      • Kim, Uichol (2001). "Culture, science and indigenous psychologies: An integrated analysis." In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), Handbook of culture and psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press
      • McClenon, James. "Tylor, Edward B(urnett)". Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Ed. William Swatos and Peter Kivisto. Walnut Creek: AltaMira, 1998. 528–29.
      • Middleton, R. 1990. Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. .
      • O'Neil, D. 2006. Cultural Anthropology Tutorials, Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marco, California. Retrieved: 2006-07-10.
      • Reagan, Ronald. "Final Radio Address to the Nation", January 14, 1989. Retrieved June 3, 2006.
      • Reese, W.L. 1980. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought. New Jersey U.S., Sussex, U.K: Humanities Press.
      • Tylor, E.B. (1974) [1871]. Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, art, and custom. New York: Gordon Press. ISBN . 
      • UNESCO. 2002. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, issued on International Mother Language Day, February 21, 2002. Retrieved: 2006-06-23.
      • White, L. 1949. The Science of Culture: A study of man and civilization. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
      • Wilson, Edward O. (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Vintage: New York. .
      • Wolfram, Stephen. 2002 A New Kind of Science. Wolfram Media, Inc.
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Culture

Extras