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Near-close near-front unrounded vowel

Near-close near-front unrounded vowel
IPA number 319
Entity (decimal) ɪ
Unicode (hex) U+026A
Kirshenbaum I
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio •

The near-close near-front unrounded vowel, or near-high near-front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɪ⟩, i.e. a small capital letter i. The International Phonetic Association advises serifs on the symbol's ends. Some sans-serif fonts do meet this typographic specification. Prior to 1989, there was an alternate symbol for this sound: ⟨ɩ⟩, the use of which is no longer sanctioned by the IPA. Despite that, some modern writings still use it.

The Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ɪ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close front unrounded vowel, therefore, an alternative transcription of this vowel is ⟨⟩ (a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ï̞⟩). For the fully central equivalent of this vowel, see near-close central unrounded vowel. Some languages, such as Australian English,Danish and Swedish, have the near-close front unrounded vowel, which differs from its near-front counterpart in that it is a lowered, but not centralized close front unrounded vowel, transcribed in the IPA as ⟨ɪ̟⟩, ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Burmese [mjɪʔ] 'root' Allophone of /i/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized.
Czech Bohemian byli [ˈbɪlɪ] 'they were' Also described as close-mid front [e]; corresponds to close front [i] in Moravian Czech. See Czech phonology
Danish Standard hel [ˈhe̝ːˀl] 'whole' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ - the way it is pronounced in the conservative variety. The vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɪ⟩ is pronounced similarly to the short /e/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard blik About this sound [blɪk] 'glance' Also described as close-mid [ɪ̞] in Belgian Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Rotterdam [blɪ̟k] Slightly more front and higher than in Standard Dutch.
The Hague
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect 'plate' Somewhat fronted. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Many dialects bit About this sound [bɪt] 'bit' See English phonology
Australian [bɪ̟t] Front. See Australian English phonology
New Zealand bed [be̝d] 'bed' Either front or near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e⟩. May be close-mid [e] instead, but cultivated speakers realize it as even lower, i.e. mid []. See New Zealand English phonology
Some Broad and General South African speakers Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨e⟩. In the Broad variety, it is usually lower [ɛ], whereas in the General variety, it can be close-mid [e] instead. See South African English phonology
Gayo tingkep [tɪŋˈkəp] 'window' Possible allophone of /i/ and /e/; in both cases the backness varies between front and near-front.
German Standard bitte About this sound [ˈbɪtə] 'please' Described variously as front and near-front. See German phonology
Hungarian visz [vɪs] 'to carry' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Kaingang [ɸɪˈɾi] 'rattlesnake' Atonic allophone of /i/ and /e/.
Limburgish Hamont dialect noorderweend [ˈnoːʀdəʀβ̞ɪːnt] 'north wind' Standard Dutch-influenced pronunciation; may be realized as []. See Hamont dialect phonology
Hasselt dialect mìs [mɪs] 'wrong'
Weert dialect zeen [zɪːn] 'to be' Allophone of /eə/ before nasals.
Luxembourgish Been [be̝ːn] 'leg' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩. Also described as close-mid []. See Luxembourgish phonology
Mongolian ? [xɪɾɘ̆] 'hillside'
Norwegian Standard Eastern litt [l̻ɪ̟t̻ː] 'a little' Front; also described as close [i]. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian cine [ˈsinɪ] 'cine' Reduction and neutralization of unstressed /e/ (can be epenthetic), /ɛ/ and /i/. Can be voiceless. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Banat dialect râu [rɪw] 'river' Corresponds to [ɨ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian дерево About this sound [ˈdʲerʲɪvə] 'tree' Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Sandawe dtine [tì̞né] 'trap' Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.
Sema pi [pì̞] 'to say' Front; also described as close [i].
Shiwiar Allophone of /i/.
Slovak rýchly [ˈrɪːxlɪ] 'fast' Backness varies between front and near-front. See Slovak phonology
Slovene Standard mira [ˈmɪ̀ːɾä] 'measure' Allophone of /i/ before /r/. See Slovene phonology
Sorbian Upper być [bɪt͡ʃ] 'to be' Allophone of /i/ after hard consonants. See Upper Sorbian phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian mis [mɪ̟ː] 'my' (pl.) Front. It corresponds to [i] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard sill About this sound [s̪ɪ̟l̪ː] 'herring' Front. See Swedish phonology
Temne pim [pí̞m] 'pick' Front, typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨i⟩.
Turkish müşteri [my̠ʃt̪e̞ˈɾɪ] 'customer' Allophone of /i/ described variously as "word-final" and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase". See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian ходити [xoˈdɪtɪ] 'to walk' See Ukrainian phonology
Yoruba Front; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ĩ⟩. It is nasalized, and may be close [ĩ] instead.



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