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Istanbul

Istanbul
İstanbul
Metropolitan municipality
See caption
Clockwise from top: View of the Golden Horn between Karaköy and Sarayburnu within the historic areas; Maiden's Tower; a nostalgic tram on İstiklal Avenue; Levent business district with Dolmabahçe Palace; Ortaköy Mosque in front of the Bosphorus Bridge; and Hagia Sophia.
Turkey, with Istanbul pinpointed at the northwest along a thin strip of land bounded by water
Turkey, with Istanbul pinpointed at the northwest along a thin strip of land bounded by water
Istanbul
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 41°00′49″N 28°57′18″E / 41.01361°N 28.95500°E / 41.01361; 28.95500
Country Turkey
Region Marmara
Province Istanbul
Founded as Byzantium c. 660 BCE
Constantinople 330 CE
Districts 39
Government
 • Mayor Kadir Topbaş (AKP)
Area
 • Urban 1,539 km2 (594 sq mi)
 • Metro 5,343 km2 (2,063 sq mi)
Elevation 39 m (128 ft)
Population (31 December 2015)
 • Metropolitan municipality 14,025,646
 • Rank 1st
 • Urban 14,100,000
 • Metro 14,657,434
 • Metro density 2,691/km2 (6,970/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Istanbulite (modern)
(Turkish: İstanbullu)
Stambouliote
Constantinopolitan
Time zone FET (UTC+3)
Postal code 34000 to 34990
Area code(s) 0212 (European side)
0216 (Asian side)
Vehicle registration 34
Nominal GDP 2012
 - Total $301 billion
 - Per capita $22,765
GeoTLD .ist, .istanbul
Website www.ibb.gov.tr
www.istanbul.gov.tr
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Areas of Istanbul
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
A close-up view of Topkapı Palace, with the Prince Islands in the background.
Location Turkey
Type Cultural
Criteria I, II, III, IV
Reference 356
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1985 (9th Session)
İstanbul district Municipalities
Turkish local elections, 2014
İstanbul 2014.png
AK Party
25 / 39
CHP
14 / 39
Members of Parliament for İstanbul
Turkish general election, November 2015
İstanbul2015Kasım.png
AK Party
46 / 88
CHP
28 / 88
HDP
7 / 88
MHP
7 / 88

Istanbul (UK /ɪstænbʊl/ or US /-stɑːn-/;Turkish: İstanbul [isˈtɑnbuɫ]), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality ( with Istanbul Province), both hosting a population of around 14.7 million residents. Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities and ranks as the world's 7th-largest city proper and the largest European city.


Climate data for Istanbul (Sarıyer), 1950–2015
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
23.2
(73.8)
29.3
(84.7)
33.6
(92.5)
34.5
(94.1)
40.0
(104)
41.5
(106.7)
39.6
(103.3)
36.6
(97.9)
34.0
(93.2)
26.5
(79.7)
25.8
(78.4)
41.5
(106.7)
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
9.0
(48.2)
10.8
(51.4)
15.4
(59.7)
20.0
(68)
24.6
(76.3)
26.6
(79.9)
26.8
(80.2)
23.7
(74.7)
19.1
(66.4)
14.7
(58.5)
10.8
(51.4)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
5.7
(42.3)
7.0
(44.6)
11.1
(52)
15.7
(60.3)
20.4
(68.7)
22.9
(73.2)
23.1
(73.6)
19.8
(67.6)
15.6
(60.1)
11.5
(52.7)
8.0
(46.4)
13.88
(56.98)
Average low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.1
(37.6)
4.2
(39.6)
7.7
(45.9)
12.1
(53.8)
16.5
(61.7)
19.5
(67.1)
20.1
(68.2)
16.8
(62.2)
13.0
(55.4)
8.9
(48)
5.5
(41.9)
10.88
(51.6)
Record low °C (°F) −11.0
(12.2)
−8.4
(16.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.0
(37.4)
8.5
(47.3)
12.0
(53.6)
12.3
(54.1)
7.1
(44.8)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.2
(28)
−7.0
(19.4)
−11
(12.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 105.0
(4.134)
78.0
(3.071)
70.8
(2.787)
45.2
(1.78)
34.1
(1.343)
35.0
(1.378)
31.6
(1.244)
40.7
(1.602)
59.5
(2.343)
90.0
(3.543)
101.3
(3.988)
122.0
(4.803)
813.2
(32.016)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.5 15.3 13.8 10.4 8.1 6.1 4.2 4.9 7.4 11.3 13.2 17.2 129.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.3 87.6 133.3 180.0 251.1 300.0 322.4 294.5 243.0 164.3 102.0 68.2 2,217.7
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service (sun, 1960–2012)

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