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Islamic philosophy


Islamic philosophy is the systematic investigation of problems connected with life, the universe, ethics, society, and so on as conducted in the Muslim world.

Early Islamic philosophy began in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasted until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE). The period is known as the Islamic Golden Age, and the achievements of this period had a crucial influence on the development of modern philosophy and science; for Renaissance Europe, the influence represented “one of the largest technology transfers in world history.”. This period began with al-Kindi in the 9th century and ended with Averroes (Ibn Rushd) at the end of 12th century. The death of Averroes effectively marked the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Arabic School, and philosophical activity declined significantly in Western Islamic countries such as Islamic Spain and North Africa.

Philosophy persisted for much longer in the Eastern countries, in particular Persia and India where several schools of philosophy continued to flourish: Avicennism, Illuminationist philosophy, Mystical philosophy, and Transcendent theosophy. Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, made important contributions to the philosophy of history. Interest in Islamic philosophy revived during the Nahda (awakening) movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and continues to the present day.



"An actual infinite cannot exist."
"An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite."
"∴ An infinite temporal regress of events cannot exist."
"An actual infinite cannot be completed by successive addition."
"The temporal series of past events has been completed by successive addition."
"∴ The temporal series of past events cannot be an actual infinite."
"An actual infinite cannot exist."
"An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite."
".•. An infinite temporal regress of events cannot exist."
"An actual infinite cannot be completed by successive addition."
"The temporal series of past events has been completed by successive addition."
".•. The temporal series of past events cannot be an actual infinite."
Citations
  • Ibn Nujaym (Hanafi) writing in al-Ashbaah wa’l-Nazaa’im;
  • al-Dardeer (Maaliki) said in al-Sharh al-Kabeer;
  • Al-Dasooqi in his Haashiyah (2/174);
  • Zakariya al-Ansaari (Shaafa’i) in Asna al-Mataalib (4/182);
  • al-Bahooti (Hanbali) said in Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’ (3/34);
  • Ruhollah Khomeini, founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, was a famous teacher of the philosophical school of Hikmat-ul-Mutaliya. Before the Islamic Revolution, he was one of the few who formally taught philosophy at the Religious Seminary at Qum.
  • Abdollah Javadi-Amoli, Grand Ayatollah is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja. He is a conservative Iranian politician and one of the prominent Islamic scholars of the Hawza (seminary) in Qom.
  • Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi,Grand Ayatollah is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric. he advocates of Islamic philosophy, particularly Hikmat Mutaliyyah.
  • Geydar Dzhemal, famouos Russian islamic philosopher, author of Orientation - North. fnd ideologist of islamic marxism.
  • Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i,Grand Ayatollah is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric (Allameh Tabatabaei), author of numerous works including the 27-volume Quranic commentary al-Mizan (الميزان).
  • Muhammad Akram Awan Sheikh Silsila Naqshbandia Owaisiah. He acquired basics of Islamic Knowledge directly from his Sheikh. Blessed with (Ilm- al-ladunni) (Knowledge form the Divine presence). He has special insight in Tafsir (interpretation of the Holy Quran).He used to deliver regular lectures on Quranic teachings during the life of his Sheikh and embarked upon writing a Tafsir of the Quran, entitled Asrar at-Tanzeel, soon after his Sheikh’s death. This was in fulfillment of Sheikh Allah Yar Khan’s desire, for he could not undertake this work himself due to the enormous demands of his mission. He is Dean of the Siqarah Education System, a unique System which (integrates the Islamic education with Traditional education) at both secondary and college levels and strives to transform its young students into enlightened, practical Muslims. He is the Patron-in Chief of Al-Murshid, a monthly magazine of the Order in Urdu. He regularly writes for the Magazine to provide guidance for seekers on the spiritual heritage of Muslim Ummah. He is also the Patron-in Chief of Al Falah Foundation an organization established in 1989 for the welfare of the people, especially the poor, in Pakistan’s rural areas. His sole mission in life is to create in Muslims awareness about their spiritual heritage and to carry the prophetic lights and blessings to every comer of the globe for the guidance of mankind as a whole. He is an ardent advocate and supporter of Muslim causes and is committed to Islamic renewal along the lines of Khair ul-Quroon (the best period in human history form 13 B.H. to 325 A.H.)
  • Hamka or Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amirullah was a prominent Indonesian author, Ulema politician, philosophical thinker, and author of Tafir Al Azhar. He was head of Indonesia's mufti council(MUI). He resigned when his fatwa against the celebration of Christmas by Muslims was condemned by the Suharto regime. Highly respected in his country, he was also appreciated in Malaysia and Singapore.
  • Murtaza Motahhari, the best student of Allamah Tabatabai, a martyr of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, and author of numerous books (an incomplete compilation of his works comprises 25 volumes). He, like his teachers Allama Tabatabai and Ayatollah Khomeini, belong to the philosophical schools of Hikmat-ul-Mutaliya
  • Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, who is credited with creating modern Islamist political thought in the 20th century, was the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami and spent his life attempting to revive the Islamic intellectual tradition.
  • Israr Ahmed, (1932-2010) was a Pakistani Islamic theologian followed particularly in South Asia and also among the South Asian diaspora in the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America. Founder of the Tanzeem-e-islami, an offshoot of the Jamaat-e-Islami, he was significant scholar of Islam and the Quran.
  • Muhammad Hamidullah (1908-2002) belonged to a family of scholars, jurists, writers and sufis. He was a world-renowned scholar of Islam and International Law from India, who was known for contributions to the research of the history of Hadith, translations of the Koran, the advancement of golden age Islamic learning, and to the dissemination of Islamic teachings in the Western world.
  • Fazlur Rahman was professor of Islamic thought at the University of Chicago.
  • Wahid Hasyim first Indonesian minister of religious affairs. Former head of Indonesian Nahdwatul Ulema, and founder of Islamic state universities in Indonesia. He is best known for reformation of the Madrasah curriculum.
  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Iranian University Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University.
  • Javed Ahmad Ghamidi is a well-known Pakistani Islamic scholar, exegete, and educator. A former member of the Jamaat-e-Islami, who extended the work of his tutor, Amin Ahsan Islahi.
  • In Malaysia, Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas is a prominent metaphysical thinker.
  • Ali Shariati Iranian revolutionary thinker and sociologist who focused on Marxism and Islam.
  • Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri (born 1942) is a Saudi Arabian polymath primarily focused on the reconciliation of reason and revelation.
  • Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr (died 1980) is a Shi'ite Grand Ayatollah and one of the most influential Islamic philosophers of the 20th century. His two most important contributions to philosophy are his books "Our Philosophy" and "The Logical Foundations of Induction." He is also widely known for his work on economics, including "Our Economics" and "The Non-Usury Banking System" which are two of the most influential works in contemporary Islamic economics.
  • Corbin, Henry (April 1993). History of Islamic Philosophy. Liadain Sherrard (trans). London and New York: Kegan Paul International. ISBN . 
  • Russell, G. A. (1994). The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England. Brill. ISBN . 
  • Toomer, G. J. (1996). Eastern Wisedome and Learning: the Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England. Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • History of Islamic Philosophy (Routledge History of World Philosophies) by Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman [eds.]
  • History of Islamic Philosophy by Majid Fakhry.
  • Islamic Philosophy by Oliver Leaman.
  • The Study of Islamic Philosophy by Ibrahim Bayyumi Madkour.
  • Falsafatuna (Our Philosophy) by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr.
  • McGinnis, Jon & Reisman, David C. (eds.), Classical Arabic Philosophy. An Anthology of Sources, Indianapolis: Hackett, 2007.
  • Schuon, Frithjof. Islam and the Perennial Philosophy. Trans. by J. Peter Hobson; ed. by Daphne Buckmaster. World of Islam Festival Publishing Co., 1976, cop. 1975. xii, 217 p. pbk
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