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Plutarch

Plutarch
Plutarch of Chaeronea-03.jpg
Plutarch's bust at Chaeronea, his home town.
Born c. AD 46
Chaeronea, Boeotia
Died c. AD 120
Delphi, Phocis
Occupation Biographer, essayist, priest, ambassador, magistrate
Subject Biography, various
Literary movement Middle Platonism,
Hellenistic literature
External video
North's translation of Plutarch.jpg
Shakespeare: Metamorphosis - Plutarch’s “Lives” (1579), Senate House Library

Plutarch (/ˈpltɑːrk/; Greek: Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos, Koine Greek: [plǔːtarkʰos]; later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος); c. AD 46 – AD 120) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers.

Plutarch was born to a prominent family in the small town of Chaeronea, which lies approximately eighty kilometres east of Delphi, in the Greek region known as Boeotia. His family was wealthy. The name of Plutarch's father has not been preserved, but it was probably Nikarchus (Nίκαρχoς), from the common habit of Greek families to repeat a name in alternate generations. The name of Plutarch's grandfather was Lamprias, as he attested in Moralia and in his Life of Antony.

His brothers, Timon and Lamprias, are frequently mentioned in his essays and dialogues, wherein Timon in particular is spoken of in the most affectionate terms. Rualdus, in his 1624 work Life of Plutarchus, recovered the name of Plutarch's wife, Timoxena, from internal evidence afforded by his writings. A letter is still extant, addressed by Plutarch to his wife, bidding her not give way to excessive grief at the death of their two-year-old daughter, who was named Timoxena after her mother. Interestingly, he hinted at a belief in reincarnation in that letter of consolation.



Plutarch's works
Secondary material
  • Battista Alessandro Iaconelli, Vite di Plutarcho traducte de Latino in vulgare in Aquila, L’Aquila, 1482.
  • Dario Tiberti, Le Vite di Plutarco ridotte in compendio, per M. Dario Tiberto da Cesena, e tradotte alla commune utilità di ciascuno per L. Fauno, in buona lingua volgare, Venice, 1543.
  • Lodovico Domenichi, Vite di Plutarco. Tradotte da m. Lodouico Domenichi, con gli suoi sommarii posti dinanzi a ciascuna vita..., Venice, 1560.
  • Francesco Sansovino, Le vite de gli huomini illustri greci e romani, di Plutarco Cheroneo sommo filosofo et historico, tradotte nuovamente da M. Francesco Sansovino..., Venice, 1564.
  • Marcello Adriani il Giovane, Opuscoli morali di Plutarco volgarizzati da Marcello Adriani il giovane, Florence, 1819-1820.
  • Girolamo Pompei, Le Vite Di Plutarco, Verona, 1772-1773.
  • Vitae parallelae. Vergleichende Lebensbeschreibungen. 10 Bände. Magdeburg 1799-1806.
  • Moralia. Moralische Abhandlungen. 9 Bde. Frankfurt a.M. 1783-1800.
  • Biographies
    • Konrat Ziegler () (Hrsg.): Große Griechen und Römer. 6 Bde. Zürich 1954-1965. (Bibliothek der alten Welt).
  • Moralia
    • Konrat Ziegler (Hrsg.):Plutarch. Über Gott und Vorsehung, Dämonen und Weissagung, Zürich 1952. (Bibliothek der alten Welt)
    • Bruno Snell (Hrsg.):Plutarch. Von der Ruhe des Gemüts - und andere Schriften, Zürich 1948. (Bibliothek der alten Welt)
    • Hans-Josef Klauck (Hrsg.): Plutarch. Moralphilosophische Schriften, Stuttgart 1997. (Reclams Universal-Bibliothek)
    • Herwig Görgemanns (Hrsg.):Plutarch. Drei Religionsphilosophische Schriften, Düsseldorf 2003. (Tusculum)
  • Konrat Ziegler () (Hrsg.): Große Griechen und Römer. 6 Bde. Zürich 1954-1965. (Bibliothek der alten Welt).
  • Konrat Ziegler (Hrsg.):Plutarch. Über Gott und Vorsehung, Dämonen und Weissagung, Zürich 1952. (Bibliothek der alten Welt)
  • Bruno Snell (Hrsg.):Plutarch. Von der Ruhe des Gemüts - und andere Schriften, Zürich 1948. (Bibliothek der alten Welt)
  • Hans-Josef Klauck (Hrsg.): Plutarch. Moralphilosophische Schriften, Stuttgart 1997. (Reclams Universal-Bibliothek)
  • Herwig Görgemanns (Hrsg.):Plutarch. Drei Religionsphilosophische Schriften, Düsseldorf 2003. (Tusculum)
  • Blackburn, Simon (1994). Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  • Russell, D.A. (2001) [1972]. Plutarch. Duckworth Publishing. ISBN . 
  • Duff, Timothy (2002) [1999]. Plutarch's Lives: Exploring Virtue and Vice. UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
  • Hamilton, Edith (1957). The Echo of Greece. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 194. ISBN . 
  • Honigmann, E. A. J. "Shakespeare's Plutarch." Shakespeare Quarterly, 1959: 25-33.
  • Pelling, Christopher: Plutarch and History. Eighteen Studies, London 2002.
  • Wardman, Alan (1974). Plutarch's "Lives". Elek. p. 274. ISBN . 
  • John M. Dillon, The Middle Platonists: 80 B.C. to A.D. 220, Cornell University Press, 1996
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Wikipedia

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