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Mathematical analysis


Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).

Mathematical analysis formally developed in the 17th century during the Scientific Revolution, but many of its ideas can be traced back to earlier mathematicians. Early results in analysis were implicitly present in the early days of ancient Greek mathematics. For instance, an infinite geometric sum is implicit in Zeno's paradox of the dichotomy. Later, Greek mathematicians such as Eudoxus and Archimedes made more explicit, but informal, use of the concepts of limits and convergence when they used the method of exhaustion to compute the area and volume of regions and solids. The explicit use of infinitesimals appears in Archimedes' The Method of Mechanical Theorems, a work rediscovered in the 20th century. In Asia, the Chinese mathematician Liu Hui used the method of exhaustion in the 3rd century AD to find the area of a circle.Zu Chongzhi established a method that would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere in the 5th century. The Indian mathematician Bhāskara II gave examples of the derivative and used what is now known as Rolle's theorem in the 12th century.



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  • Apostol, Tom M. 1974. Mathematical Analysis. 2nd ed. Addison–Wesley. .
  • Binmore, K.G. 1980–1981. The foundations of analysis: a straightforward introduction. 2 volumes. Cambridge University Press.
  • Johnsonbaugh, Richard, & W. E. Pfaffenberger. 1981. Foundations of mathematical analysis. New York: M. Dekker.
  • Nikol'skii, S. M. 2002. "Mathematical analysis". In Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Michiel Hazewinkel (editor). Springer-Verlag. .
  • Rombaldi, Jean-Étienne. 2004. Éléments d'analyse réelle : CAPES et agrégation interne de mathématiques. EDP Sciences. .
  • Rudin, Walter (1976). Principles of Mathematical Analysis (PDF) (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN . 
  • Rudin, Walter (1987). Real and Complex Analysis (PDF) (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN . 
  • Smith, David E. 1958. History of Mathematics. Dover Publications. .
  • Whittaker, E. T. and Watson, G. N.. 1927. A Course of Modern Analysis. 4th edition. Cambridge University Press. .
  • Real Analysis - Course Notes
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