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John of England

John
A drawing of the effigy of King John in Worcester Cathedral.
Tomb effigy of King John, Worcester Cathedral
King of England (more...)
Reign 6 April 1199 – 19 October 1216
Coronation 27 May 1199
Predecessor Richard I
Successor Henry III
Lord of Ireland
Reign May 1177 – 19 October 1216
Successor Henry III
Born (1166-12-24)24 December 1166
Beaumont Palace, Oxford
Died 19 October 1216(1216-10-19) (aged 49)
Newark Castle, Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire
Burial Worcester Cathedral
Spouse Isabella, Countess of Gloucester
(m. 1189; ann. 1199)

Isabella, Countess of Angoulême
(m. 1200)
Issue Henry III, King of England
Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall
Joan, Queen of Scotland
Isabella, Holy Roman Empress
Eleanor, Countess of Pembroke
House Plantagenet / Angevin
Father Henry II, King of England
Mother Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. John lost the Duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

John, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, however, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed the Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young; by the time Richard I became king in 1189, John was a potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade. Despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England, and came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200.


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