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Hip hop

Hip hop is a subcultural art movement that was formed during the early 1970s primarily by African-American and Puerto Rican youths residing in the South Bronx in New York City. Art historian Robert Farris Thompson describes the demographics of the youth that characterize the South Bronx in the early 1970s as "English-speaking blacks from Barbados" like Grandmaster Flash, "black Jamaicans" like DJ Kool Herc, "thousands of Nuyoricans", who introduced the rhythms from Salsa (music), as well as Afro conga and bonga drums, as well as many who emulated the sounds of Tito Puente and Willie Colón with existing styles of musical styles from jazz to funk associated with African Americans prior to the 1970s. Hip hop music became popular outside of the African-American community in the late 1980s. After the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0 technology of the Internet, fans would primarily consume the musical genre through social networking sites (SNS) beginning with Myspace evolving to notable mobile apps like YouTube, Worldstarhiphop, SoundCloud, and Spotify.

Hip hop is characterized by anywhere from four to nine distinct elements or expressive realms. The main four are MCing (orality), turntablism or DJing (aural/sound practice), b-boying (movement/dance), and graffiti art (visual). Other elements often cited are knowledge (intellectual/philosophical), beatboxing, street entrepreneurism, language, and fashion among others. The cultural critic Greg Tate described the hip hop movement as "the only avant-garde still around, still delivering the shock of the new, and its got a shockable bourgeoisie, to boot." Even as the genre continues to develop globally in myriad styles, the four foundational elements provide coherence to hip hop culture. The term is often used as if synonymous with the rhymed oral tradition known as rap music.