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Hawaiian language

Hawaiian
ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi
Region Hawaiʻi, concentrated on Niʻihau and Hawaiʻi
Ethnicity Native Hawaiians
Native speakers
2,000 (1997) 24,000+ (2006–2008)
Latin (Hawaiian alphabet)
Hawaiian Braille
Official status
Official language in
 Hawaii
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3
Glottolog hawa1245
Linguasphere 39-CAQ-e
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi, pronounced [ʔoːˈlɛlo həˈvɐjʔi]) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiʻi, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along with English, is an official language of the state of Hawaii. King Kamehameha III established the first Hawaiian-language constitution in 1839 and 1840.

For various reasons, including territorial legislation establishing English as the official language in schools, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian gradually decreased during the period from the 1830s to the 1950s. Hawaiian was essentially displaced by English on six of seven inhabited islands. In 2001, native speakers of Hawaiian amounted to under 0.1% of the statewide population. Linguists were unsure that Hawaiian and other endangered languages would survive.

Nevertheless, from around 1949 to the present day, there has been a gradual increase in attention to and promotion of the language. Public Hawaiian-language immersion preschools called Pūnana Leo were started in 1984; other immersion schools followed soon after that. The first students to start in immersion preschool have now graduated from college and many are fluent Hawaiian speakers. The federal government has acknowledged this development. For example, the Hawaiian National Park Language Correction Act of 2000 changed the names of several national parks in Hawaiʻi, observing the Hawaiian spelling.

A pidgin or creole language spoken in Hawaiʻi is Hawaiian Pidgin (or Hawaii Creole English, HCE). It should not be mistaken for the Hawaiian language nor for a dialect of English.


Numbers in Austronesian languages
Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAN, c. 4000 BCE *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq
Amis cecay tusa tulu sepat lima enem pitu falu siwa pulu'
Tagalog isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu
Ilocano maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo
Cebuano usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu
Chamorro maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu
Malagasy isa roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo
Malay/Indonesian satu/suatu dua tiga empat lima enam tujuh lapan/delapan sembilan sepuluh
Minangkabau ciek duo tigo ampek limo anam tujuah salapan sambilan sapuluah
Javanese siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh
Tetun ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu
Fijian dua rua tolu lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini
Kiribati teuana uoua teniua aua nimaua onoua itiua waniua ruaiua tebuina
Tongan taha ua tolu nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu
Sāmoan tasi lua tolu lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu
Māori tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau (archaic: ngahuru)
Tahitian hō'ē piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva 'ahuru
Marquesan tahi 'ua to'u 'ima ono hitu va'u iva 'ahu'u
Leeward Islands (Society Islands) language tahi rua toru rima ono fitu varu iva 'ahuru
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu lima ono hiku walu iwa -'umi
Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Hh Kk Ll Mm Nn Pp Ww ʻ
/a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /h/ /k~t/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /v~w/ /ʔ/
Consonants
Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n    
Plosive p t ~ k ʔ
Fricative       h
Sonorant w ~ v l    
Monophthongs
Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Close i u
Mid ɛ ~ e o
Open ɐ ~ ə
Short diphthongs 
 Ending with /u/   Ending with /i/   Ending with /o/   Ending with /e/ 
Starting with /i/ iu      
Starting with /o/ ou oi    
Starting with /e/ eu ei    
Starting with /a/ au ai ao ae
Long diphthongs 
 Ending with /u/   Ending with /i/   Ending with /o/   Ending with /e/ 
Starting with /o/ oːu      
Starting with /e/   eːi    
Starting with /a/ aːu aːi aːo aːe

  • Hawaiian
  • Niʻihau has been privately owned for over 100 years;
  • visiting by outsiders has been only rarely allowed;
  • the European-American owners/managers of the island have favored the Niʻihauans' continuation of their language;
  • and, most of all, because the Niʻihau speakers themselves have naturally maintained their own native language, even though they sometimes use English as a second language for school.
  • Interchangeable B/P. B was dropped, P was kept.
  • Interchangeable L/R. R and D were dropped, L was kept.
  • Interchangeable K/T. T was dropped, K was kept.
  • Interchangeable V/W. V was dropped, W was kept.
  • turned comma: ʻ, Unicode hex value 02BB (decimal 699). This does not always have the correct appearance because it is not supported in some fonts.
  • opening single quote, a.k.a. left single quotation mark: Unicode hex value 2018 (decimal 8216). In many fonts this character looks like either a left-leaning single quotation mark or a quotation mark thicker at the bottom than at the top. In more traditional serif fonts such as Times New Roman it can look like a very small "6" with the circle filled in black: .
  • the ASCII apostrophe ', Unicode hex value 27 (decimal 39), following the missionary tradition.
  • the ASCII grave accent (often called "backquote" or "backtick") `,Unicode hex value 60 (decimal 96)
  • the right single quotation mark, or "curly apostrophe" , Unicode hex value 2019 (decimal 146)
  • ka honu (the turtle)
  • nā honu (the turtles)
  • ka hale (the house)
  • ke kanaka (the person)
  • kekahi pipi (one of the cows)
  • kekahi mau pipi (some of the cows)
...
Wikipedia

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