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Fudoki (風土記?) are ancient reports on provincial culture, geography, and oral tradition presented to the reigning monarchs of Japan, also known as local gazetteers. They contain agricultural, geographical, and historical records as well as mythology and folklore. Fudoki manuscripts also document local myths, rituals, and poems that are not mentioned in the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki chronicles, which are the most important literature of the ancient national mythology and history. In the course of national unification, the imperial court enacted a series of criminal and administrative codes called ritsuryō and surveyed the provinces established by such codes to exert greater control over them.

In the narrower sense, Fudoki refer to the oldest records written in the Nara period, later called Kofudoki (古風土記?) (Old-Fudoki). Compilation of Kofudoki began in 713 and was completed over a 20-year period. Following the Taika Reform in 646 and the Code of Taihō enacted in 701, there was need to centralize and solidify the power of the imperial court. This included accounting for lands under its control. According to the Shoku Nihongi, Empress Genmei issued a decree in 713 ordering each provincial government ( kokuga?) to collect and report the following information:

Name Prefecture Province Municipalities Museum
Ukitamu Fudoki no Oka Yamagata Uzen Takahata Yamagata Prefectural Ukitama Fudoki no Oka Archaeological Museum
Shimotsuke Fudoki no Oka Shimotsuke Tochigi Prefectural Shimotsuke Fudoki no Oka Museum
Nasu Fudoki no Oka Tochigi Shimotsuke and Nakagawa Municipal Nasu Fudoki no Oka Museum
Sakitama Fudoki no Oka () Saitama Musashi Gyōda Saitama Prefectural Museum of the Sakitama Ancient Burial Mounds
Chiba Prefectural Boso-no-Mura () Chiba Shimōsa Sakae and Narita Boso-no-Mura Museum
Tateyama Fudoki no Oka Toyama Etchū Tateyama Toyama Prefectural Tateyama Museum ()
Kai Fudoki no Oka () Yamanashi Kai Kōfu Yamanashi Prefectural Archaeological Museum
Ōmi Fudoki no Oka Shiga Ōmi Ōmihachiman and Azuchi Shiga Prefectural Azuchi Castle Archaeological Museum ()
Chikatsu Asuka Fudoki no Oka Osaka Kawachi Kanan Osaka Prefectural Chikatsu Asuka Museum
Kii Fudoki no Oka Wakayama Kii Wakayama Wakayama Prefecture Kii-fudoki-no-oka Museum of Archaeology and Folklore
Yakumotatsu Fudoki no Oka Shimane Izumo Matsue Shimane Prefectural Yakumotatsu Fudoki no Oka Museum
Kibiji Fudoki no Oka Okayama Bitchū Sōja Sōja Kibiji Museum
Miyoshi Fudoki no Oka () Hiroshima Bingo Miyoshi Hiroshima Prefectural Miyoshi Fudoki no Oka Museum
Higo Kodai no Mori Kumamoto Higo Yamaga and Nagomi Kumamoto Prefectural Ancient Burial Mound Museum
Usa Fudoki no Oka () Ōita Bungo Usa Ōita Prefectural Museum of History
Saitobaru Fudoki no Oka Miyazaki Hyūga Saito Miyazaki Prefectural Saitobaru Archaeological Museum

  • Names of districts and townships
  • Natural resources and living things
  • Land fertility
  • Etymology of names for geographic features, such as mountains, plains, and rivers
  • Myths, legends, and folktales told orally by old people
  • Akimoto, Kichirō (1958). Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 2: Fudoki. Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten. ISBN . 
  • Sakamoto, Masaru (2011). Zusetsu Chizu to Arasuji de Wakaru! Fudoki. Seishun Publishing. ISBN . 
  • Kojima, Noriyuki; Naoki, Kōjirō; Nishimiya, Kazutami; Kuranaka, Susumu; Mōri, Masamori; Uegaki, Setsuya (2007). Nihon no Koten wo Yomu 3 Nihon Shoki Ge • Fudoki. Shogakukan. ISBN . 


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