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Emergency management


Disaster management (or emergency management) is the creation of plans through which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters. Disaster management does not avert or eliminate the threats; instead, it focuses on creating plans to decrease the effect of disasters. Failure to create a plan could lead to human mortality, lost revenue, and damage to assets. Events covered by disaster management include acts of terrorism, industrial sabotage, fire, natural disasters (such as earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.), public disorder, industrial accidents, and communication failures.

If possible, emergency planning should aim to prevent emergencies from occurring, and failing that, should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies. As time goes on, and more data becomes available, usually through the study of emergencies as they occur, a plan should evolve. The development of emergency plans is a cyclical process, common to many risk management disciplines, such as Business Continuity and Security Risk Management, as set out below:

There are a number of guidelines and publications regarding Emergency Planning, published by various professional organizations such as ASIS, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), and the International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM). There are very few Emergency Management specific standards, and emergency management as a discipline tends to fall under business resilience standards.

In order to avoid, or reduce significant losses to a business, emergency managers should work to identify and anticipate potential risks, hopefully to reduce their probability of occurring. In the event that an emergency does occur, managers should have a plan prepared to mitigate the effects of that emergency, as well as to ensure Business Continuity of critical operations post-incident. It is essential for an organisation to include procedures for determining whether an emergency situation has occurred and at what point an emergency management plan should be activated.

An emergency plan must be regularly maintained, in a structured and methodical manner, to ensure it is up-to-date in the event of an emergency. Emergency managers generally follow a common process to anticipate, assess, prevent, prepare, respond and recover from an incident.

Emergency management plans and procedures should include the identification of appropriately trained staff members responsible for decision-making when an emergency occurs. Training plans should include internal people, contractors and civil protection partners, and should state the nature and frequency of training and testing.



  • Recognition or identification of risks
  • Ranking or evaluation of risks
    • Responding to significant risks
    • Tolerate
    • Treat
    • Transfer
    • Terminate
  • Resourcing controls
  • Reaction Planning
  • Reporting & monitoring risk performance
  • Reviewing the Risk Management framework
  • Responding to significant risks
  • Tolerate
  • Treat
  • Transfer
  • Terminate
  • Identification of facilities and transportation routes of extremely hazardous substances
  • Description of emergency response procedures, on and off site
  • Designation of a community coordinator and facility emergency coordinator(s) to implement the plan
  • Outline of emergency notification procedures
  • Description of how to determine the probable affected area and population by releases
  • Description of local emergency equipment and facilities and the persons responsible for them
  • Outline of evacuation plans
  • A training program for emergency responders (including schedules)
  • Methods and schedules for exercising emergency response plans
  • Three-day supply of non-perishable food.
  • Three-day supply of water – one gallon of water per person, per day.
  • Portable, battery-powered radio or television and extra batteries.
  • Flashlight and extra batteries.
  • First aid kit and manual.
  • Sanitation and hygiene items (e.g. toilet paper, menstrual hygiene products).
  • Matches and waterproof container.
  • Whistle.
  • Extra clothing.
  • Kitchen accessories and cooking utensils, including a can opener.
  • Photocopies of credit and identification cards.
  • Cash and coins.
  • Special needs items, such as prescription medications, eyeglasses, contact lens solutions, and hearing aid batteries.
  • Items for infants, such as formula, diapers, bottles, and pacifiers.
  • Other items to meet unique family needs.
  • Water—one gallon per person, per day
  • Food—nonperishable, easy-to-prepare items
  • Flashlight
  • Battery powered or hand crank radio (NOAA Weather Radio, if possible)
  • Extra batteries
  • First aid kit
  • Medications (7-day supply), other medical supplies, and medical paperwork (e.g., medication list and pertinent medical information)
  • Multipurpose tool (e.g., Swiss army knife)
  • Sanitation and personal hygiene items
  • Copies of personal documents (e.g., proof of address, deed/lease to home, passports, birth certificates, and insurance policies)
  • Cell phone with chargers
  • Family and emergency contact information
  • Extra cash
  • Emergency blanket
  • Map(s) of the area
  • Extra set of car keys and house keys
  • Manual can opener
  • Books and magazines
  • Arts and crafts painting
  • Children's entertainment
  • Crayons and coloring books
  • Notebooks and writing supplies
  • Nuts, bolts, screws, nails, etc.
  • Religious material
  • Sporting equipment, card games and board games
  • Posters and banners creating awareness
  • Food and water for at least 3 days for each pet; bowls, and a manual can opener.
  • Depending on the pet you may need a litter box, paper towels, plastic trash bags, grooming items, and/or household bleach.
  • Medications and medical records stored in a waterproof container.
  • First aid kit with a pet first aid book.
  • Sturdy leash, harness, and carrier to transport pet safely. A carrier should be large enough for the animal to stand comfortably, turn around, and lie down. Your pet may have to stay in the carrier for several hours.
  • Pet toys and the pet's bed, if you can easily take it, to reduce stress.
  • Current photos and descriptions of your pets to help others identify them in case you and your pets become separated, and to prove that they are yours.
  • Information on feeding schedules, medical conditions, behavior problems, and the name and telephone number of your veterinarian in case you have to board your pets or place them in foster care.
  • Jumper cables: might want to include flares or reflective triangle
  • Flashlights, to include extra batteries (batteries have less power in colder weather)
  • First Aid Kit, to include any necessary medications, baby formula and diapers if caring for small children
  • Non-perishable food such as canned food (be alert to liquids freezing in colder weather), and protein rich foods like nuts and energy bars
  • Manual can opener
  • At least 1 gallon of water per person a day for at least 3 days (be alert to hazards of frozen water and resultant container rupture)
  • Basic toolkit: pliers, wrench, screwdriver
  • Pet supplies: food and water
  • Radio: battery or hand cranked
  • For snowy areas: cat litter or sand for better tire traction; shovel; ice scraper; warm clothes, gloves, hat, sturdy boots, jacket and an extra change of clothes
  • Blankets or sleeping bags
  • Charged Cell Phone: and car charger
  • Have I chosen to participate?
  • Have I taken ICS training?
  • Have I taken other required background courses?
  • Have I made arrangements with my practice to deploy?
  • Have I made arrangements with my family?
  • Have I been invited to participate
  • Are my skill sets a match for the mission?
  • Can I access just-in-time training to refresh skills or acquire needed new skills?
  • Is this a self-support mission?
  • Do I have supplies needed for three to five days of self-support?
  • Reduction = Mitigation
  • Readiness = Preparedness
  • Response
  • Recovery
...
Wikipedia

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