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Doubling (textiles)

Cotton Manufacturing Processes
FCIcon odo.svg
Bale Breaker Blowing Room
FCIcon orh.svg FCIcon h.svg FCIcon h1o.svg
Willowing FCIcon ovo.svg
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Breaker Scutcher Batting
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Finishing Scutcher Lapping
FCIcon ozh.svg FCIcon A.svg FCIcon h2o.svg
Carding Carding Room
FCIcon orh.svg FCIcon h.svg FCIcon h1o.svg
Sliver Lap FCIcon ovo.svg
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Combing FCIcon ovo.svg
FCIcon ozh.svg FCIcon A.svg FCIcon h2o.svg
Drawing
FCIcon ovo.svg
Slubbing
FCIcon ovo.svg
Intermediate
FCIcon ovo.svg
Roving FCIcon h.svg Fine Roving
FCIcon orh.svg FCIcon h.svg FCIcon hzo.svg
Mule Spinning - Ring Spinning Spinning
FCIcon ozh.svg FCIcon A.svg FCIcon h2o.svg
FCIcon orh.svg FCIcon h.svg FCIcon hrh.svg FCIcon h.svg FCIcon h1o.svg
FCIcon ovo.svg Reeling FCIcon a.svg Doubling
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Winding Bundling Bleaching
FCIcon orh.svg FCIcon h.svg FCIcon 1vo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Weaving shed FCIcon vvo.svg Winding
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon vvo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Beaming FCIcon vvo.svg Cabling
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon vvo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Warping FCIcon vvo.svg Gassing
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon vvo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Sizing/Slashing/Dressing FCIcon vvo.svg Spooling
FCIcon ovo.svg FCIcon vvo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
Weaving FCIcon vvo.svg FCIcon ovo.svg
FCIcon odo.svg FCIcon ddo.svg FCIcon odo.svg
Cloth Yarn (Cheese)- - Bundle Sewing Thread

Doubling is a textile industry term synonymous with combining. It can be used for various processes during spinning. During the carding stage, several sources of roving are doubled together and drawn, to remove variations in thickness. After spinning, yarn is doubled for many reasons. Yarn may be doubled to produce warp for weaving, to make cotton for lace, crochet and knitting. It is used for embroidery threads and sewing threads, for example: sewing thread is usually 6-cable thread. Two threads of spun 60s cotton are twisted together, and three of these double threads are twisted into a cable, of what is now 5s yarn. This is mercerised, gassed (AKA flamed) and wound onto a bobbin.

In a wider sense carding can refer to the four processes of willowing, lapping, carding and drawing. During willowing the fibres are loosened; in lapping the dust is removed to create a flat sheet or lap of fibres. Carding combs the tangled lap into a thick rope or sliver of 1/2 inch in diameter, and removes the shorter fibres creating a stronger yarn.

During the carding process the staples are separated and then assembled into a loose strand (sliver or tow). The carders line up the staples to prepare them for spinning. The carding machine consists mainly of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered in small teeth, and as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer (i.e. closer together). The cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver; a large rope of fibres.

In drawing, 4 slivers are combined into one. Repeated drawing increases the quality of the sliver allowing for finer counts to be spun. Each sliver will have thin and thick spots. By combining, or doubling several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached. The slivers are separated into rovings. These rovings (or slubbings) are then what are used in the spinning process.

For machine processing, a roving is about the width of a pencil. The rovings are collected in a drum and proceed to the slubbing frame which adds twist, and winds onto bobbins. Intermediate Frames are used to repeat the slubbing process to produce a finer yarn, and then the roving frames reduces it to a finer thread, gives more twist, makes more regular and even in thickness, and winds onto a smaller tube.



Notes
Bibliography
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