Democratic education is an educational ideal in which democracy is both a goal and a method of instruction. It brings democratic values to education and can include self-determination within a community of equals, as well as such values as justice, respect and trust. Democratic education is often specifically emancipatory, with the students' voices being equal to the teacher's.
The history of democratic education spans from at least the 1600s. While it is associated with a number of individuals, there has been no central figure, establishment, or nation that advocated democratic education.
In 1693, John Locke published Some Thoughts Concerning Education. In describing the teaching of children, he declares,
None of the things they are to learn, should ever be made a burthen to them, or impos'd on them as a task. Whatever is so propos'd, presently becomes irksome; the mind takes an aversion to it, though before it were a thing of delight or indifferency. Let a child but be order'd to whip his top at a certain time every day, whether he has or has not a mind to it; let this be but requir'd of him as a duty, wherein he must spend so many hours morning and afternoon, and see whether he will not soon be weary of any play at this rate.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s book of advice on education, Émile, was first published in 1762. Émile, the imaginary pupil he uses for illustration, was only to learn what he could appreciate as useful. He was to enjoy his lessons, and learn to rely on his own judgement and experience. “The tutor must not lay down precepts, he must let them be discovered,” wrote Rousseau, and urged him not make Émile learn science, but let him discover it. He also said that we should not substitute books for personal experience because this does not teach us to reason; it teaches us to use other people’s reasoning; it teaches us to believe a great deal but never to know anything.
While Locke and Rousseau were concerned only with the education of the children of the wealthy, in the 19th century Leo Tolstoy set up a school for peasant children. This was on his own estate at Yasnaya Polyana, Russia, in the late 19th century. He tells us that the school evolved freely from principles introduced by teachers and pupils; that in spite of the preponderating influence of the teacher, the pupil had always had the right not to come to school, or, having come, not to listen to the teacher, and that the teacher had the right not to admit a pupil, and was able to use all the influence he could muster to win over the community, where the children were always in the majority.
Joseph Agassi - Israeli philosopher and proponent of democracy
Titus Alexander - Founder Democracy Matters UK and author of Citizenship Schools: A practical guide to education for citizenship
Michael Apple - Social scientist, democratic education scholar, University of Wisconsin–Madison
Matthew Arnold - Wrote about education in an age of democracy
Pierre Bourdieu - Anthropologist, social theorist, College de France
George Dennison - American writer, author
John Dewey - Social scientist, progressive education theorist, University of Chicago
Émile Durkheim - Sociologist, functionalist education theorist
Michel Foucault - Post-modern philosopher, University of California, Berkeley
Peter Gray - Psychologist, democratic education scholar, Boston College
Daniel Greenberg - One of the founders of the Sudbury Valley School
Amy Gutmann - Political scientist, democratic education scholar, President of the University of Pennsylvania
John Holt - Critic of conventional education and proponent of un-schooling, which can be also done at home
Ivan Illich - Philosopher, priest, author of "Deschooling Society"
Lawrence Kohlberg - Professor, pioneer in moral and democratic education
Homer Lane - Democratic education pioneer, founder of the Ford Republic (1907–12) and the Little Commonwealth (1913–17)
Deborah Meier - Founder of democratic schools in New York and Boston, writer
A.S. Neill - Democratic education pioneer, founder of the Summerhill School
Claus Offe - Political Scientist, theorist of deliberative democratic culture, Hertie School of Governance
Karl Popper - Philosopher at the London School of Economics
Bertrand Russell - Philosopher, author of On Education and founder of Beacon House School
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