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    Weather and climate


    • There is often confusion between weather and climate. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place over a short period of time, whereas climate refers to the weather pattern of a place over a long period , long enough to yield meaningful averages.

      Meteorology studies weather, while climatology studies climate; both are atmospheric sciences.

      There are several elements that make up the weather and climate of a place. The major of these elements are the following: temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, and precipitation. Analysis of these elements can provide the basis for forecasting weather and defining its climate. These same elements make also the basis of climatology study, of course, within a longer time scale rather than it does in meteorology.

      These are known as elements of weather.

      The more important are also five: latitude, altitude, distance to the ocean and/ or sea, orientation of mountain ranges toward prevailing winds and ocean current.



      • Temperature is how hot or cold the atmosphere is, how many degrees it is above or below freezing. Temperature is a very important factor in determining the weather because it influences or controls other elements of the weather, such as precipitation, humidity, clouds and atmospheric pressure.
      • Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.
      • Precipitation is the product of a rapid condensation process (if this process is slow, it only causes cloudy skies). It may include snow, hail, sleet, drizzle and rain.
      • Atmospheric pressure (or air pressure) is the weight of air resting on the earth's surface. Pressure is shown on a weather map, often with lines called isobars.
      • Wind is the movement of air masses, especially on the Earth's surface.
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