• Rush hour

    Rush hour

    • A rush hour (American English, British English) is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. Normally, this happens twice every weekday—once in the morning and once in the afternoon-evening, the times during when the most people commute. The term is often used for a period of peak congestion that may last for more than one hour.

      The term is very broad, but often refers specifically to private automobile transportation traffic, even when there is a large volume of cars on a road but not a large number of people, or if the volume is normal but there is some disruption of speed. By analogy to vehicular traffic, the term Internet rush hour has been used to describe periods of peak data network usage, resulting in delays and slower delivery of data packets.

      The name is sometimes a misnomer, as the peak period often lasts more than one hour and the "rush" refers to the volume of traffic, not the speed of its flow. Rush hour may be 6–10 am (06:00–10:00) and 4–8 pm (16:00–20:00). Peak traffic periods may vary from city to city, from region to region, and seasonally.

      The frequency of public transport service is usually higher in the rush hour, and longer trains or larger vehicles are often used. However, the increase in capacity is often less than the increased number of passengers, due to the limits on available vehicles, staff and, in the case of rail transport, track capacity including platform length. The resulting crowding may force many passengers to stand, and others may be unable to board. If there is inadequate capacity, this can make public transport less attractive, leading to higher car use and partly shifting the congestion to roads.

      Transport demand management, such as road pricing or a congestion charge, is designed to induce people to alter their travel timing to minimize congestion. Similarly, public transport fares may be higher during peak periods; this is often presented as an off peak discount for single fares. Season tickets or multi-ride tickets, sold at a discount, are commonly used in rush hours by commuters, and may or may not reflect rush hour fare differentials.

      Ending in Every
      1 and 2 Monday
      3 and 4 Tuesday
      5 and 6 Wednesday
      7 and 8 Thursday
      9 and 0 Friday

      • Inbound transit lanes on busy freeways which are limited to motorcycles and other vehicles with more than one occupant during busy periods.
      • Free travel on metropolitan trains before 7am. Passengers must exit the system at their destination station before 7am.
      • Dedicated bus lanes on major inner city roads such as Hoddle Street.
      • Introduction of dedicated bicycle lanes (often by removing vehicle lanes) in the inner city area to encourage cyclists and deter dual-track vehicles.
      • Prohibition of parking along busy roads during peak traffic periods to create an extra lane for traffic.
      • Buses increase from 4 per hour to 12 per hour on the Metrobus network, other routes increase limited and express services
      • The largest rail network in Sydney is heavy rail and run double deckers electric multiple unit trains that were introduced in 1972 with the S sets, these have allowed many more passengers to board the trains compared to the 1950s single level 'Red Rattlers', and 'Silver Ghosts'.
      • Time of day ticket prices allow train commuters to board trains before 6am or after 7pm at a cheaper rate on single or day return tickets
      • T Ways where built in Sydney during 2008–2010, these are dedicated roads for buses, and connect major employment centres with the suburban sprawl
      • ClearWays project allows for broken down trains on the CityRail network to not effect the running of trains on separate lines due to building bypasses, and loop backs alongside the existing track.
      • Most major motorways have the ability for Contra-flow to allow continuing flow of traffic in case of a major accident
      • Transit Lanes are installed on most major arterial roads, these lanes require a minimum amount of people in the car to be used, an example is T2 require the driver, and 1 passenger to drive in the lane
      • Dedicated bus lanes, where buses, taxi, and private rental cars are only allowed to drive, this reduces congestion with set down, and pick up of passengers, and normal commuters
      • Older motor ways have been upgraded from 2 lanes in each direction, to 3 lanes in each direction
      • Motor way toll booths have been replaced with electronic toll systems (Hills M2 was the last to do so on 21 January 2012); time of day tolling is in use on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, and Sydney Harbour Tunnel to provide cash incentives for commuters to remain out of the city in peak times.
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    • Rush hour