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    Writing

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    • Writings by topic

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    • Written communication

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    • Writing awards

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    • Calligraphy

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    • Collaborative writing

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    • Communication design

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    • Composition

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    • Writing contests

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    • Creative writing programs

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    • Editing

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    • Fiction-writing mode

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    • Grammatology

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    • Graphology

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    • History of writing

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    • Inscriptions

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    • Writing implements

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    • Writing-related lists

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    • Literacy

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    • Literature

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    • Writing media

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    • Newswriting

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    • Writing occupations

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    • Penmanship

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    • Philology

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    • Plain English

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    • Pseudepigraphy

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    • Questioned document examination

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    • Random text generation

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    • Screenwriting

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    • Signature

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    • Songwriting

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    • Spelling

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    • Writing systems

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    • Text

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    • Transcription (linguistics)

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    • Works about writing

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    • Writing

    • Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a language but a form of technology that developed as tools developed with human society. Wit ... Read »


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    • Acknowledgment (creative arts and sciences)

    • In the creative arts and scientific literature, an acknowledgment (also spelled acknowledgement) is an expression of gratitude for assistance in creating an original work. Receiving credit by way of acknowledgment rather than authorship indicates that the person or organization did not have a direct hand in producing ... Read »


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    • Addendum

    • An addendum, in general, is an addition required to be made to a document by its author subsequent to its printing or publication. It comes from the Latin verbal phrase addendum est, being the gerundive form of the verb addo, addere, addidi, additum, "to give to, add to", meaning "(that which) must be added". Addenda i ... Read »


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    • Alphabetic principle

    • According to the alphabetic principle, letters and combinations of letters are the symbols used to represent the speech sounds of a language based on systematic and predictable relationships between written letters, symbols, and spoken words. The alphabetic principle is the foundation of any alphabetic writing system ( ... Read »


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    • Annotation

    • An annotation is a metadatum (e.g. a comment, explanation, presentational markup) attached to text, image, or other data. Often, annotations make reference to a specific part of the original data. Textual scholarship is a discipline that often uses the technique of annotation to describe or add additional historic ... Read »


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    • Archi-writing

    • "Archi-writing" (French: archi-écriture) is a term used by French philosopher Jacques Derrida in his attempt to re-orient the relationship between speech and writing. Derrida argued that as far back as Plato, speech had been always given priority over writing. In the West, phonetic writing was considered as a secon ... Read »


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    • Article (publishing)

    • An article is a written work published in a print or electronic medium. It may be for the purpose of propagating news, research results, academic analysis or debate. A news article discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers) or of a specific topic (i.e. political or trade ne ... Read »


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    • Article structure

    • News stories and features, whether in magazine writing or broadcast news, can be categorized in terms of article structures that define the order in which information is introduced to the story. Some writers deny consciously organizing articles according to specific structures, but may use them to describe the writing ... Read »


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    • Author function

    • In the writing of Michel Foucault, the author function is the author as a function of discourse. The term was developed by Michel Foucault in his 1969 essay "What Is an Author?" where he discusses whether a text requires or is assigned an author. Foucault posits that the legal system was central in the rise of the aut ... Read »


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    • Authors' conference


    • Balanced sentence

    • A balanced sentence is a sentence that employs parallel structures of approximately the same length and importance. ... Read »


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    • Basic writing

    • Basic writing, or developmental writing, is a discipline of composition studies which focuses on the writing of students sometimes otherwise called "remedial" or "underprepared", usually freshman college students. Sometimes called “remedial” or “developmental” writing, basic writing (BW) was de ... Read »


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    • Begging letter

    • A begging letter is a letter to a rich person or organisation, usually written by a poor person, or a person claiming to be poor, begging for money or help. Examples of begging letters include a variant of the Nigerian 419 scam, where a letter is sent to a wealthy individual asking for financial assistance for orphane ... Read »


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    • Bite, snack and meal

    • Bite, snack and meal is a content writing and editing strategy. First put forth by Leslie O'Flahavan in 1997 during her web writing courses, but popularized in the 2001 Inc. article she co-wrote under the E-Write LLC by-line with Marilynne Rudick, her former partner in the business. A method of chunking content for t ... Read »


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    • Block quotation

    • A block quotation (also known as a long quotation or extract) is a quotation in a written document that is set off from the main text as a paragraph, or block of text, and typically distinguished visually using indentation and a different typeface or smaller size font. This is in contrast to setting it off with quotati ... Read »


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    • Book hand

    • A book hand was any of several stylized handwriting scripts used during ancient and medieval times. It was intended for legibility and often used in transcribing official documents (prior to the development of printing and similar technologies). In palaeography and calligraphy the term hand is still used to refer to a ... Read »


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    • Book packaging

    • Book-packaging (or book producing) is a publishing activity in which a publishing company outsources the myriad tasks involved in putting together a book—writing, researching, editing, illustrating, and even printing—to an outside company called a book-packaging company. Once the book-packaging company has pr ... Read »


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    • Business writing process prewriting

    • In terms of the 3 × 3 writing process, prewriting belongs to phase one of the writing process. Prewriting focuses on how to properly convey the information in a message by analyzing its purpose, anticipating the audience's reaction and adapting the content of the message to that audience. Examples of methods that ma ... Read »


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    • Capsule review

    • A capsule review is a form of criticism, usually associated with journalism, that offers a relatively short critique of a specified artistic work (movie, music album, restaurant, painting, etc.). Capsule reviews generally appear in publications like newspapers and magazines, and can range anywhere from just a few sente ... Read »


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    • Chancery hand

    • The term "chancery hand" can refer to either of two very different styles of historical handwriting. A chancery hand was at first a form of handwriting for business transactions that developed in the Lateran chancery (the Cancelleria Apostolica) of the thirteenth century, then spread to France, notably through the Avi ... Read »


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    • Chunking (writing)

    • Chunking is a method of presenting information which splits concepts into small pieces or "chunks" of information to make reading and understanding faster and easier. Chunking is especially useful for material presented on the web because readers tend to for specific information on a web page rather than read the page ... Read »


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    • Codicology

    • Codicology (from Latin cōdex, genitive cōdicis, "notebook, book"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the study of codices or manuscript books written on parchment (or paper) as physical objects. It is often referred to as 'the archaeology of the book', concerning itself with the materials (parchment, som ... Read »


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    • Cognitive philology

    • Cognitive philology is the science that studies written and oral texts as the product of human mental processes. Studies in cognitive philology compare documentary evidence emerging from textual investigations with results of experimental research, especially in the fields of cognitive and ecological psychology, neuros ... Read »


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    • Communication design

    • Communication Design is a mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how media intervention such as printed, crafted, electronic media or presentations communicate with people. A communication design approach is not only concerned with developing the message aside from the aesth ... Read »


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    • Confessional writing

    • In literature, confessional writing is a first-person style that is often presented as an ongoing diary or letters, distinguished by revelations of a person's heart and darker motivations. Originally, the term derived from confession: the writer is not only autobiographically recounting his life, but confessing to his ... Read »


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    • Constructed script

    • A constructed script (also artificial script, neography, and conscript for short) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script. Some are designed for use with constructed languages, although several of them are ... Read »


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    • Conversion of scripts

    • The conversion of scripts or writing is a procedure of replacing text written in one script or writing system with the characters of another script or system in order to make the text (e.g., proper names) legible for users of another language or script. It has two basic forms and many practical implementations of each ... Read »


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    • Copying

    • Copying is the duplication of information or an based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it. With analog forms of information, copying is only possible to a limited degree of accuracy, which depends on the quality of the equipment used and the skill ... Read »


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    • Court hand

    • Court hand (or common law hand) was a style of handwriting used in medieval English law courts. Originally used by the official courts, it later came into use by professionals such as lawyers and clerks. "It is noticeably upright and packed together with exaggeratedly long ascenders and descenders, the latter often and ... Read »


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    • Creative writing

    • Creative writing is any writing that goes outside the bounds of normal professional, journalistic, academic, or technical forms of literature, typically identified by an emphasis on narrative craft, character development, and the use of literary tropes or with various traditions of poetry and poetics. Due to the loosen ... Read »


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    • Credit (creative arts)

    • In general, the term credit in the artistic or intellectual sense refers to an acknowledgement of those who contributed to a work, whether through ideas or in a more direct sense. In the creative arts, credits are an acknowledgement of those who participated in the production. They are often shown at the end of mo ... Read »


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    • Critical précis


    • Crossed letter

    • A crossed letter is a manuscript letter which contains two separate sets of writing, one written over the other at right-angles. This was done during the early days of the postal system in the 19th century to save on expensive postage charges, as well as to save paper. The technique is also called cross-hatching. This ... Read »


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    • Cursive

    • Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names), is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster. Formal cursive is generally joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts. The writ ... Read »


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    • Description

    • Description is the pattern of development that presents a word picture of a thing, a person, a situation, or a series of events. It is one of four rhetorical modes (also known as modes of discourse), along with exposition, argumentation, and narration. Each of the rhetorical modes is present in a variety of forms and e ... Read »


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    • Dialogue in writing

    • Dialogue, in fiction, is a verbal exchange between two or more characters. If there is only one character talking aloud, it is a monologue. "This breakfast is making me sick," George said. The George said is the identifier. Said is the verb most writers use because reader familiarity with said prevents it from dr ... Read »


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    • Dictated but not read

    • "Dictated but not read" is a phrase used at the end of a text to warn that the written material has not been personally written or verified by the author. The material may have been dictated to a secretary when the author had no time to proofread or edit it. This practice is more common within the medical community, t ... Read »


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    • Dictation (exercise)

    • Dictation is the transcription of spoken text: one person who is "dictating" speaks and another who is "taking dictation" writes down the words as they are spoken. Among speakers of several languages, dictation is used as a test of language skill, similar to spelling bees in the English-speaking world. Secondary to tea ... Read »


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    • Diplomatics

    • Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of documents: especially, historical documents. It focuses on the conventions, protocols and formulae that have been used by document creators, and uses the ... Read »


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    • Distributive writing

    • Distributive writing is the collective authorship of texts. This further requires both a definition of collective and texts, where collective means a connected group of individuals and texts are inscribed symbols chained together to achieve a larger meaning than isolated symbols. This places emphasis on texts being re ... Read »


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    • Ductus (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, ductus refers to qualities and characteristics of writing or speaking instantiated in the act of speaking or the flow of writing the text. For instance, in writing, ductus includes the direction, sequencing, and speed with which the strokes making up a character are drawn. Unlike rhythm, ductus is the ... Read »


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    • Dyslexia

    • Dyslexia

      Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud an ... Read »


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    • Dysorthography

    • Dysorthography is a specific dysgraphic disorder of spelling which accompanies dyslexia by a direct consequence of the phonological disorder. ... Read »


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    • Eataw

    • The European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing (EATAW) is an academic association supporting scholarly activity in academic writing. The association was first established in 1999 with the first conference being held in 2001. The Europe-wide association has three main activities: a bi-annual conference, a ... Read »


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    • Ecocomposition

    • Ecocomposition is a way of looking at literacy using concepts from ecology. It is a postprocess theory of writing instruction that tries to account for factors beyond hierarchically defined goals within social settings; however, it doesn't dismiss these goals. Rather, it incorporates them within an ecological view that ... Read »


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    • Emergent literacies

    • Emergent literacy is a term that is used to explain a child's knowledge of reading and writing skills before they learn how to read and write words. It signals a belief that, in literate society, young children—even one- and two-year-olds—are in the process of becoming literate. Through the support of parents ... Read »


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    • English script (calligraphy)

    • English script is a cursive style, used especially for capital letters, which first emerged in 18th century England, and later spread across the world. This very elaborate script appeared with the spread of metallic quill. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, calligraphy experienced a new-found resurgence due to ... Read »


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    • Eratosphere

    • Eratosphere is the largest online free-to-join workshop for formal poetry. Additionally, it is a forum for free verse, poetry and prose translation, fiction, art, literary criticism and critical discussions on writing. It was founded in 1999 by Alexander Pepple as a workshop complement to Able Muse. Eratosphere moderat ... Read »


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    • Essay

    • An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet, and a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Formal essays are characterized by "serious purpose, dignity, log ... Read »


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    • Feminist theory in composition studies

    • In composition studies, feminism’s goal is to foster a nurturing classroom that focuses on much positive, constructive feedback on writing. An instructor with a feminist pedagogy is unlikely to favor or focus on an androcentric direction of teaching nor will they give any sort of critique on the androcentric viewp ... Read »


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    • Fiction writing

    • Fiction writing is the composition of non-factual prose texts. Fictional writing often is produced as a story meant to entertain or convey an author's point of view. The result of this may be a short story, novel, novella, screenplay, or drama, which are all types (though not the only types) of fictional writing styles ... Read »


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    • Five-paragraph essay

    • The five-paragraph essay is a format of essay having five paragraphs: one introductory paragraph, three body paragraphs with support and development, and one concluding paragraph. Because of this structure, it is also known as a hamburger essay, one three one, or a three-tier essay. The five-paragraph essay is a f ... Read »


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    • Fix-up

    • A fix-up (or fixup) is a novel created from several short fiction stories that may or may not have been initially related or previously published. The stories may be edited for consistency, and sometimes new connecting material, such as a frame story or other interstitial narration, is written for the new work. The ter ... Read »


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    • Free writing

    • Free writing is a prewriting technique in which a person writes continuously for a set period of time without regard to spelling, grammar, or topic. It produces raw, often unusable material, but helps writers overcome blocks of apathy and self-criticism. It is used mainly by prose writers and writing teachers. Some wri ... Read »


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    • Graffiti

    • Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface, often within public view. Graffiti range from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and they have existed since ancient times, with ... Read »


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    • Graphism

    • Graphism refers to the "expression of thought in material symbols". Graphism began some 30,000 years BC, not as a photographic representation of reality but as an abstraction that was geared toward magical-religious matters. Early graphism then was a form of writing that constitutes a 'symbolic transposition, not copyi ... Read »


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    • Graphology

    • Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics. It is generally considered a pseudoscience. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to ref ... Read »


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    • Graphomania

    • Graphomania (from Greek γραφειν — writing, and μανία — insanity), also known as scribomania, refers to an obsessive impulse to write. When used in a specifically psychiatric context, it labels a morbid mental condition which results in writing rambling and confused statemen ... Read »


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    • Grundschrift

    • Grundschrift (base font, literally ground script) is a simplified form of handwriting adopted by Hamburg schools, and it is currently endorsed by the German National Primary Schoolteachers' Union. If nationally adopted, it would replace the three different German cursives currently being taught in schools: the (intro ... Read »


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    • Horizontal progression

    • In Western handwriting, horizontal progression is the gradual movement from left to right during writing a line of text. In Hebrew and Arabic writing systems, the movement is from right to left. ... Read »


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    • Hypergraphia

    • Hypergraphia is a behavioral condition characterized by the intense desire to write. Forms of hypergraphia can vary in writing style and content. It is a symptom associated with temporal lobe changes in epilepsy, which is the cause of the Geschwind syndrome, a mental disorder. Structures that may have an effect on hype ... Read »


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    • IMRAD

    • In scientific writing, IMRaD (/ˈɪmræd/) (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) refers to a common organization structure. IMRAD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type. Original research articles are typically structured in this ... Read »


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    • Incunable

    • An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside (such as the Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474) that was printed—not handwritten—before the year 1501 in Europe. "Incunable" is the anglicised singular form of "incunabula", Latin for "sw ... Read »


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    • Initial sound table

    • An initial sound table is a table, list or chart which shows the initial sound letter of a word together with its picture (pictured words). The initial sound table can assist students to recognise initial sounds and to get first reading and writing skills. In 1658 John Amos Comenius created an initial sound table in Or ... Read »


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    • Intensive journal method

    • The intensive journal method is a psychotherapeutic technique largely developed in 1966 at Drew University and popularized by Ira Progoff (1921–1998). It consists of a series of writing exercises using loose leaf notebook paper in a simple ring binder, divided into sections to help in accessing various areas of th ... Read »


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    • Interactive writing

    • Interactive writing has been described by Swartz (2001) as "a teaching method in which children and teacher negotiate what they are going to write and then share the pen to construct the message." Interactive writing is a cooperative event in which text is jointly composed and written. The teacher uses the interactive ... Read »


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    • International Association of Master Penmen, Engrossers and Teachers of Handwriting

    • International Association of Master Penmen, Engrossers and Teachers of Handwriting

      The International Association of Master Penmen, Engrossers and Teachers of Handwriting (IAMPETH) (pronounced "I am Peth") is an international association for practicing and preserving the arts of calligraphy, engrossing and penmanship. It is currently the largest penmanship organization in the world and was founded in ... Read »


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    • Introduction (writing)

    • In an essay, article, or book, an introduction (also known as a prolegomenon) is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing. This is generally followed by the body and conclusion. The introduction typically describes the scope of the document and gives the brief explanation or summ ... Read »


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    • Jötunvillur


    • Journal therapy

    • Journal therapy is a type of writing therapy that focuses on the writer's internal experiences, thoughts and feelings. Journal therapy uses reflective writing so that the writer can receive mental and emotional clarity, validate experiences and come to a deeper understanding of him or herself. Journal therapy can also ... Read »


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    • Latrinalia

    • Latrinalia is a type of deliberately inscribed marking made on latrines: that is, bathrooms or lavatory walls. It can take the form of art, drawings, or words, including poetry and personal reflections. Other types of latrinalia include political commentary as well as derogatory comments and pictures. When done without ... Read »


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    • Lead paragraph

    • In writing, especially in journalism, a lead paragraph (sometimes shortened to lead; also spelled lede) is the opening (leading) paragraph of an article, essay, book chapter, or other written work that summarizes its main ideas. The term is sometimes spelled "lede" with a claim it was a historical spelling intende ... Read »


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    • Legibility

    • Legibility is the ease with which a reader can recognize individual characters in text. "The legibility of a typeface is related to the characteristics inherent in its design … which relate to the ability to distinguish one letter from the other." Aspects of type design that affect legibility include "x-height, ch ... Read »


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    • Level of detail (writing)

    • Level of detail in writing, sometimes known as level of abstraction, refers to three concepts: the precision in using the right words to form phrases, clauses and sentences; the generality of statements; and the organisational strategy in which authors arrange ideas according to a common topic in the hierarchy of detai ... Read »


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    • Liner notes

    • Liner notes (also sleeve notes or album notes) are the writings found on the sleeves of LP record albums and in booklets which come inserted into the Compact Disc jewel case or the equivalent packaging for vinyl records and cassettes. Liner notes are descended from the notes of text that were printed on the inner ... Read »


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    • List of constructed scripts

    • This list of constructed scripts is in alphabetical order. ISO 15924 codes are provided where assigned. This list includes neither shorthand systems nor ciphers of existing scripts. ... Read »


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    • Literacy

    • Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read, write, and use arithmetic. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture ... Read »


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    • Literary element

    • A literary element, or narrative element, or element of literature is a constituent of all works of narrative fiction—a necessary feature of verbal storytelling that can be found in any written or spoken narrative. This distinguishes them from literary techniques, or non-universal features of literature that accom ... Read »


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    • Manu propria

    • Manu propria is a Latin phrase in the ablative case meaning "(signed) with one's own hand". In its abbreviated form (m.p.), it is sometimes used at the end of typewritten or printed documents or official notices right after the name of the person(s) who "signed" the document exactly in those cases when there is no hand ... Read »


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    • Manuscript (publishing)

    • "Manuscript" is a broad concept in publishing, that can about one or both: A manuscript is the work that an author submits to a publisher, editor, or producer for publication. Even with the advent of desktop publishing, making it possible for anyone to prepare text that appears professionally typeset, many publishers ... Read »


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    • Marginalia

    • Marginalia (or apostils) are marks made in the margins of a book or other document. They may be scribbles, comments, glosses (annotations), critiques, doodles, or illuminations. Biblical manuscripts have liturgical notes at the margin, for liturgical use. Numbers of texts' divisions are given at the margin (κΠ... Read »


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    • Master of Professional Writing Program

    • The Master of Professional Writing Program is a graduate degree program in professional writing. Chatham University in Pennsylvania has an online MPW program. The University of Southern California's MPW program will be closing in May 2016. ... Read »


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    • Naked Writing

    • Naked writing is a creative writing process which allows readers to observe the writing as it happens, before final edits are made by parties including the writer, agents, editors or publishers. Traditionally, a manuscript changes between the initial draft and final publication. Naked writing "exposes" the author's wo ... Read »


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    • Note-taking

    • Note-taking (sometimes written as notetaking or note taking) is the practice of recording information captured from another source. By taking notes, the writer records the essence of the information, freeing their mind from having to recall everything. Notes are commonly drawn from a transient source, such as an oral d ... Read »


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    • Opening sentence

    • At the beginning of a written work stands the opening sentence. The opening line is part or all of the opening sentence that may start the lead paragraph. For older texts the Latin term "incipit" (it begins) is in use for the very first words of the opening sentence. As in speech, a personal document such as a letter ... Read »


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    • Ourboox

    • Ourboox is a free online platform for creating and sharing ebooks that incorporate text, images, videos, puzzles, maps and quizzes. The Ourboox platform enables users to add text in any language that is compatible with html5, to add artwork in jpeg, png, or gif formats, and to embed various media content from other we ... Read »


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    • Outline (list)

    • An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure. It is used to present the main points or topics of a given subject, often used as a draft or summary of the content of a document. Preparation of an outline is an intermediate step in t ... Read »


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    • Palaeography

    • Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from Greek: , palaiós, "old", and , graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents). Included in the discipline is the practice of deciphering, readi ... Read »


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    • Paragraph

    • A paragraph (from the Ancient Greek παράγραφος paragraphos, "to write beside" or "written beside") is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea. A paragraph consists of one or more sentences. Though not required by the syntax of any language, p ... Read »


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    • Paragraphos

    • A paragraphos (Ancient Greek: , parágraphos, from para-, “beside”, and graphein, “to write”) was a mark in ancient Greek punctuation, marking a division in a text (as between speakers in a dialogue or drama) or drawing the reader's attention to another division mark, such as the two dot punctu ... Read »


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    • Penmanship

    • Penmanship is the technique of writing with the hand using a writing instrument. Today, this is most commonly done with a pen, or pencil, but throughout history has included many different implements. The various generic and formal historical styles of writing are called "hands" whilst an individual's style of penmansh ... Read »


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    • Performative writing

    • Performative writing is a form of post-modernist or avant-garde academic writing, often taking as its subject a work of visual art or performance art. It is heavily informed by critical theory, but arises ultimately from linguistic ideas around performative utterances. The term is often applied to a bricolage of other ... Read »


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    • Persuasive writing

    • Persuasive writing is a form of writing in which the writer uses words to convince the reader that the writer's opinion is correct in regard to an issue. Persuasive writing sometimes involves persuading the reader to perform an action, or it may simply consist of an argument or several arguments to align the reader wit ... Read »


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    • Philology

    • Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics. It is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. ... Read »


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    • Phonetic complement

    • A phonetic complement is a phonetic symbol used to disambiguate word characters (logograms) that have multiple readings, in mixed logographic-phonetic scripts such as Egyptian hieroglyphs, Akkadian cuneiform, Japanese, and Mayan. Often they reenforce the communication of the ideogram by repeating the first or last syll ... Read »


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    • Phonological dyslexia

    • Phonological dyslexia is a reading disability that is a form of alexia (acquired dyslexia), resulting from brain injury, stroke, or progressive illness and that affects previously acquired reading abilities. The major distinguishing symptom of acquired phonological dyslexia is that a selective impairment of the ability ... Read »


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    • Poetic contraction

    • Poetic contractions are archaic and obsolete contractions of words not commonly used today in modern English, but are still found used extensively in early modern English poetry, particular that of William Shakespeare. The extent to which the usage of poetic contractions really helps with matching poetic meters is negl ... Read »


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    • Postscript

    • PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business. It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton from 1982 to 1984. The concepts of the Po ... Read »


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    • Potboiler

    • A potboiler or pot-boiler is a novel, play, opera, film, or other creative work of dubious literary or artistic merit, whose main purpose was to pay for the creator's daily expenses—thus the imagery of "boil the pot", which means "to provide one's livelihood". Authors who create potboiler novels or screenplays are ... Read »


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    • Prewriting

    • Prewriting is the first stage of the writing process, typically followed by drafting, revision, editing and publishing. Prewriting can consist of a combination of outlining, diagramming, storyboarding, clustering (for a technique similar to clustering, see mindmapping). Prewriting usually begins with motivation a ... Read »


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    • Probatio pennae

    • Probatio pennae (also written probatio pennę; in Medieval Latin; literally "pen test") is the medieval term for breaking in a new pen, and used to refer to text written to test a newly cut pen. A scribe would normally test a newly cut pen to see if it wrote well by writing a few lines of text on a piece of blotting ... Read »


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    • Professional writing

    • Professional writing is writing for reward or as a profession, or it is any form of written communication produced in a workplace environment or context. Works produced with the professional writing style allow professionals (e.g. employers, lawyers, businesspeople, etc.) to make informed decisions. Professional writin ... Read »


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    • Readability survey

    • A readability survey is a statistical survey of the ability of people to read given passages of text, written, formatted and/or laid-out in a variety of . The intent is to discover which are the preferable styles to use in order to maximise the ability of the reading audience to receive the intended message. Tests may ... Read »


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    • Readability

    • Readability is the ease with which a reader can understand a written text. In natural language, the readability of text depends on its content (the complexity of its vocabulary and syntax) and its presentation (such as typographic aspects like font size, line height, and line length). Researchers have used various fact ... Read »


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    • Reflective writing

    • Reflective writing is an analytical practice in which the writer describes a real or imaginary scene, event, interaction, passing thought, memory, form, adding a personal reflection on the meaning of the item or incident, thought, feeling, emotion, or situation in his or her life. Many reflective writers keep in mind q ... Read »


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    • Regional handwriting variation

    • Although people in many parts of the world share common alphabets and numeral systems (versions of the Latin writing system are used throughout the Americas, Australia, and much of Europe and Africa; the Hindu-Arabic numerals are nearly universal), styles of handwritten letterforms vary between individuals, and sometim ... Read »


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    • Revision (writing)

    • Revision is the stage in the writing process where the author reviews, alters, and amends her or his message, according to what has been written in the draft. Revision follows drafting and precedes editing. Drafting and revising often form a loop as a work moves back and forth between the two stages. It is not uncommon ... Read »


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    • Round hand

    • Round Hand (also Roundhand) is a type of handwriting and calligraphy originating in England in the 1660s primarily by the writing masters John Ayres and William Banson. Characterised by an open flowing hand and subtle contrast of thick and thin strokes deriving from metal pointed nibs, its popularity grew rapidly, beco ... Read »


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    • Rustic capitals

    • Rustic capitals (Latin: littera capitalis rustica) is an ancient Roman calligraphic script. Because the term is negatively connotated supposing an opposition to the more 'civilized' form of the Roman square capitals, Bernhard Bischoff prefers to call the script canonized capitals. Rustic capitals are similar to Roman ... Read »


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    • Saam kap dai

    • Saam kap dai (Chinese: 三及第; IPA: [saːmË¥ kʰɐp̚˨ tɐi̯˧˥]) is a writing style combining Classical Chinese, Cantonese and Standard Chinese. The articles and stories written in saam kap dai first appeared in Canton (Guangzhou) newspapers in the 1940s to 1950s. It became ... Read »


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    • Schaffer paragraph

    • The Jane Schaffer paragraph is a five-sentence paragraph developed by Jane Schaffer, used to write essays. The paragraph only makes up one of many paragraphs in an essay, most of which have a non-Schaffer-like introduction and conclusion. The structure is utilized because it is thought to help students who struggle wit ... Read »


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    • Screenwriting

    • Screenwriting, also called scriptwriting, is the art and craft of writing scripts for mass media such as feature films, television productions or video games. It is frequently a freelance profession. Screenwriters are responsible for researching the story, developing the narrative, writing the screenplay, and deliveri ... Read »


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    • Script doctor

    • A script doctor, also called a script consultant, is a screenwriter or playwright hired by a film, television, or theatre production to rewrite an existing script or polish specific aspects of it, including structure, characterization, dialogue, pacing, theme, and other elements. Script doctors generally do their work ... Read »


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    • Second language writing

    • Second-language writing is the study of writing performed by non-native speakers/writers of a language as a second or foreign language. In addition to disseminating research through the Journal of Second Language Writing, scholars in the field regularly participate in three academic conferences, the Symposium on Secon ... Read »


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    • Secretary hand

    • Secretary hand is a style of European handwriting developed in the early sixteenth century that remained common in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries for writing English, German, Welsh and Gaelic. Predominating before the dominance of Italic script, it arose out of the need for a hand more legible and universally ... Read »


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    • Section (typography)

    • In books and documents, a section is a subdivision, especially of a chapter. Sections are visually separated from each other with a section break, typically consisting of extra space between the sections, and sometimes also by a section heading for the latter section. They are a concern in the process of typography an ... Read »


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    • Semisoft sign

    • Semisoft sign

      The semisoft sign (Ҍ ҍ; italics: Ҍ ҍ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script. The semisoft sign is used in the alphabet of the Kildin Sami language, where it indicates palatalization (sometimes also called "half-palatalization") of a preceding stop, /nʲ/, /tʲ/, or /dʲ/. ... Read »


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    • Show, don't tell


    • Signature

    • A signature (/ˈsɪɡnətʃər/; from Latin: signare, "to sign") is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent. The writer of a signature is a signatory or signer. Similar to ... Read »


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    • SMOG

    • Smog is a type of air pollutant. The word "smog" was coined in the early 20th century as a portmanteau of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog, its opacity, and odour. The word was then intended to refer to what was sometimes known as pea soup fog, a familiar and serious problem in London from the 19th century ... Read »


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    • Space (punctuation)

    • Space (punctuation)

      ₳ ​ ฿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ... Read »


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    • Speedwriting

    • Speedwriting

      Speedwriting is the trademark under which three versions of a shorthand system were marketed during the 20th century. The original version was designed so that it could be written with a pen or typed on a typewriter. At the peak of its popularity Speedwriting was taught in more than 400 vocational schools and its adver ... Read »


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    • Teaching writing in the United States

    • Teaching writing in the United States has progressed through several approaches during the history of education in the United States. At its most basic level, writing is how people keep track of the thoughts that are important to them. From the ancient Egyptians, to the monks of the Middle Ages, to Thomas Jefferso ... Read »


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    • Text types

    • Textual types refer to the following four basic aspects of writing: descriptive, narrative, expository, and argumentative. Based on perception in space. Impressionistic of landscapes or persons are often to be found in narratives such as novels or short stories. Example: About fifteen miles below Monterey, on the ... Read »


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    • Thesis statement

    • A thesis statement usually appears at the end of the introductory paragraph of a paper, and it offers a concise summary of the main point or claim of the essay, research paper, etc. A thesis statement is usually one sentence that appears at the beginning, though it may occur more than once. The thesis statement is deve ... Read »


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    • Marcel Thiry

    • Born (1897-03-13)13 March 1897
      Charleroi, Belgium Died 5 September 1977
    • Marcel Thiry

      Marcel Thiry (13 March 1897 – 5 September 1977) was a French-speaking [Belgian poet. During World War I, he and his brother Oscar served in the Belgian Expeditionary Corps in Russia. He was awarded the Prix Valery Larbaud in 1976 for Toi qui pâlis au nom de Vancouver, a book of poems reminiscent of Blaise Cend ... Read »


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    • Tibetan calligraphy

    • Tibetan calligraphy refers to the calligraphic traditions used to write the Tibetan language. As in other parts of East Asia, nobles, high lamas, and persons of high rank were expected to have high abilities in calligraphy. However, unlike calligraphy in China, Japan, and Korea, calligraphy was done using a reed pen as ... Read »


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    • Transcription (linguistics)

    • Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form. The source can either be utterances (speech or sign language) or preexisting text in another writing system. Transcription should not be confused with translation, which means representing the meaning of a source langua ... Read »


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    • Transcription (service)

    • A transcription service is a business which converts speech (either live or recorded) into a written or electronic text document. Transcription services are often provided for business, legal, or medical purposes. The most common type of transcription is from a spoken-language source into text such as a computer file s ... Read »


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    • Transition (fiction)

    • Transitions in fiction are words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, or punctuation that may be used to signal various changes in a story, including changes in time, location, point-of-view character, mood, tone, emotion, and pace. Transitions are sometimes listed as one of various fiction-writing modes. Transitions ... Read »


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    • Transliteracy

    • Transliteracy is about 'a fluidity of movement across a range of technologies, media and contexts'. A more detailed definition is the following: 'Transliteracy is an ability to use diverse analog and digital technologies, techniques, modes, and protocols to search for and work with a variety of resources; to collaborat ... Read »


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    • Uncial script

    • Uncial is a majusculescript (written entirely in capital letters) commonly used from the 4th to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. Uncial letters were used to write Greek, Latin, and Gothic. Early uncial script is likely to have developed from late Old Roman cursive. Early forms are characterized by broa ... Read »


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    • Valediction

    • A valediction (derivation from Latin vale dicere, "to say farewell"), or complimentary close in American English, is an expression used to say farewell, especially a word or phrase used to end a letter or message, or the act of saying parting words whether brief or extensive. For the greetings counterpart to valedicti ... Read »


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    • Verbosity

    • Verbosity or verboseness is speech or writing which uses more words than needed. A common example is "Despite the fact that" as a common replacement for "Although". Antonyms of verbosity include succinctness, concision, laconism, and plain language. Some teachers, including the author of The Elements of Style, warn wri ... Read »


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    • Visual rhetoric and composition

    • In the field of composition studies, the place of visual rhetoric is often uncertain or contested. Proponents of its inclusion in composition typically point to the increasingly visual nature of society, and the increasing presence of visual texts. Literacy, they argue, can no longer be limited only to written text and ... Read »


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    • Word count

    • The word count is the number of words in a document or passage of text. Word counting may be needed when a text is required to stay within certain numbers of words. This may particularly be the case in academia, legal proceedings, journalism and advertising. Word count is commonly used by translators to determine the p ... Read »


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    • Words per minute

    • Words per minute, commonly abbreviated WPM, is a measure of words processed in a minute, often used as a measurement of typing speed or reading speed. For the purpose of typing measurement, each word is standardized to be five characters or keystrokes long in English, including spaces and punctuation. For example, the ... Read »


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    • Writer's block


    • Writing about Writing

    • Writing about Writing (WAW), is a method or theory of teaching composition which puts emphasis on reading and writing about writing in the writing course, and reimagines first-year composition as an "introduction to writing studies." This is not to say WAW only teaches a first-year writing course as if it were an intro ... Read »


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    • Writing circle

    • A writing circle is a group of like-minded writers needing support for their work, either through writing peer critiques, workshops or classes, or just encouragement. There are many different types of writing circles or writing groups based on location, style of writing, or format. Normally, the goal of a writing circl ... Read »


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    • Writing in space

    • Several instruments have been used to write in outer space, including different types of pencils and pens. Some of them have been unmodified versions of conventional writing instruments; others have been invented specifically to counter the problems with writing in space conditions. A common urban legend states that, ... Read »


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    • Writing material

    • Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments to inscribe writings. The same materials can also be used for symbolic or representational drawings. Building material on which writings or drawings are produced are not included. The gross characterization of wri ... Read »


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    • Writing motivation

    • Writing motivation is one's activation or energizing to give more effort to writing activity. It focuses on one’s appraisal of the relationship between writing activity and writing outcome. Like reading motivation writing motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic writing motivation comes from within. It inc ... Read »


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    • Writing system

    • A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer. The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understand ... Read »


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    • Writing therapy

    • Writing therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the act of writing and processing the written word as therapy. Writing therapy posits that writing one's feelings gradually eases feelings of emotional trauma. Writing therapeutically can take place individually or in a group and it can be administered in person ... Read »


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    • Writing Workshop

    • A writing circle is a group of like-minded writers needing support for their work, either through writing peer critiques, workshops or classes, or just encouragement. There are many different types of writing circles or writing groups based on location, style of writing, or format. Normally, the goal of a writing circl ... Read »


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    • Written language

    • A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will pick up spoken language (oral or sign) by exposure even if they are not specifically taught. A written language exists only as a compl ... Read »


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    • Youth Literacy Organisation

    • Youth Literacy Organisation (YouLI) is a non-profit NGO registered in the Republic of Rwanda, founded by Gilbert Rwabigwi in 2009. Its mission is to advance literacy and learning. ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Writing

Extras