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    Sports terminology

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    • Glossaries of sports

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    • Positions (team sports)

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    • Sports techniques

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    • Terminology used in multiple sports

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    • American football terminology

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    • Association football terminology

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    • Athletics (track and field) terminology

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    • Australian rules football terminology

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    • Baseball terminology

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    • Basketball terminology

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    • Boxing terminology

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    • Canadian football terminology

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    • Cricket terminology

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    • Curling terminology

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    • Darts terminology

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    • Field hockey terminolgy


    • Futsal terminology

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    • Gaelic games terminology

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    • Golf terminology

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    • Handball terminology

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    • Ice hockey terminology

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    • Kickboxing terminology

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    • Lacrosse terminology

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    • Martial arts terminology

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    • Motorsport terminology

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    • Netball terminology

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    • Professional wrestling slang

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    • Road bicycle racing terminology

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    • Rugby league terminology

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    • Rugby union terminology

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    • Snooker terminology

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    • Sumo terminology

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    • Tennis terminology

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    • Volleyball terminology

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    • Lactate threshold

    • Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins to exponentially increase. Often expressed as 85% of maximum heart rate or 75% of maximum oxygen intake. When exercising at or below the LT, any lactate produced by the muscles is removed by t ... Read »


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    • All-star

    • All-star (also stylized as All-Star) is a term designating an individual as having a high level of performance in their field. Originating in sports, it has since drifted into vernacular and been borrowed heavily by the entertainment industry. It can also be used for a group of individuals who are popular in certain ar ... Read »


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    • Arteriovenous oxygen difference

    • The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main fa ... Read »


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    • Asian handicap

    • Asian handicap betting is a form of betting on football in which teams are handicapped according to their form, so that a stronger team must win by more goals for a punter betting on them to win. The system originated in Indonesia and has gained popularity in the early 21st century. It is a form of spread betting. Hand ... Read »


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    • Athlete

    • An athlete (American and British English) or sportsman (British English) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed and/or endurance. The term's application to those who participate in other activities, such as horse riding, driving, or sleeping is somewhat controversial. Ath ... Read »


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    • Athletics (physical culture)

    • Athletics is a term encompassing the human competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance. Athletic sports or contests, are competitions which are primarily based on human, competition, demanding the qualities of stamina, fitness, an ... Read »


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    • Attacker

    • In some team sports, an attacker is a specific type of player, usually involved in aggressive play. Heavy attackers are, usually, placed up front: their goal is to score the most possible points for the team. In association football, attackers are also referred to as strikers. ... Read »


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    • Away colours

    • Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials, players, and spectators. In most sports it is the visiting ... Read »


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    • Beginner's luck


    • Bench (metonymy)

    • Bench can be used as a figure of speech for a group of people associated with sitting on particular benches. The words chair, seat and desk can be used in similar ways. ... Read »


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    • Bench-clearing brawl

    • A bench-clearing brawl, sometimes known as a basebrawl or a rhubarb, is a form of ritualistic fighting that occurs in sports, most notably baseball and ice hockey, in which every player on both teams leave their dugouts, bullpens, or benches and charge the playing area in order to fight one another or try to break up a ... Read »


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    • Benefit (sports)

    • A benefit is a match or season of activities granted by a sporting body to a loyal sportsman to boost their income before retirement. Often this is in the form of a match for which all the ticket proceeds are given to the player in question. However hosting one of these matches is a risk for the player in question as h ... Read »


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    • Big-ways

    • A big way is a type of formation skydiving involving a large group of skydivers coming together while in freefall to form a specific and predetermined formation. All the skydivers involved aim to connect with each other and hold the complete formation for a designated period (a number of seconds). A sequential skydive ... Read »


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    • Blackout (broadcasting)

    • In broadcasting, the term blackout refers to the non-airing of television or radio programming in a certain media market. It is particularly prevalent in the broadcasting of sports events, although other television or radio programs may be blacked out as well. Most blackout policies serve to protect local broadcasters ... Read »


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    • Blondes vs. Brunettes (charity event)

    • Blondes vs. Brunettes is a powderpuff football game played in cities across the United States. Proceeds from the event are donated to The Alzheimer's Association. Games have been held in more than 40 cities and have cumulatively raised more than $5 Million for the care, support and research efforts of the Association. ... Read »


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    • Blue chip (sports)

    • Blue chips are athletes, particularly high school players, targeted for drafting or signing by teams at the college level. Collegiate players being scouted by professional franchises may also be referred to as blue chips. Blue chip players are those who have proven themselves to be among the best at their positions in ... Read »


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    • Bronze medal

    • A bronze medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of bronze awarded to the third-place finisher of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives a gold medal and the second place a silver medal. More generally, bronze is tr ... Read »


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    • Bye (sports)

    • A bye is a special privilege given to a team in the initial rounds because of which it gets exempted from playing in the first round and directly enters the second round. In knock-out (single-elimination) tournaments, if the number of participants is not a power of two (e.g. 16 or 32), one of the methods used to make a ... Read »


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    • Cann table

    • A Cann table or Visual league table, is a method of displaying data in a league table. The purpose of the table is to give some idea of the actual points gap between the teams in the league by listing them next to their current points total. Where teams are tied on points, teams are then ranked by goal difference from ... Read »


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    • Cantera

    • Cantera, literally meaning "quarry" in Spanish, is a term used in Spain to refer to youth academies and farm teams organized by sports clubs. It is also used to refer to the geographical area that clubs recruit players from. The term is widely used in football but is also applied to other sports, such as basketball. Th ... Read »


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    • Cap (sport)

    • In British sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance (not including substitute appearances) in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the ... Read »


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    • Carbohydrate loading

    • Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver. Carbohydrate loading is also used in healthcare to optimise the condition of patients prior to color ... Read »


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    • Card stunt

    • Card stunts are a planned, coordinated sequence of actions performed by an audience, whose members raise cards that, in the aggregate, create a recognizable image. The images they create can range widely and, through careful planning, the same cards can create a number of different images by systematically changing how ... Read »


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    • Chronic training load

    • Chronic training load, often abbreviated as CTL, is the cumulative training dose that builds up over a long period of time. This concept is especially popular in cycling, among athletes who use a cycling power meter, which simplifies the collection and review of training data. The main concept is that an appropriate le ... Read »


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    • Cinderella (sports)

    • In sports, the terms Cinderella, "Cinderella story", and Cinderella team are used to refer to situations in which competitors achieve far greater success than would reasonably have been expected. Cinderella stories tend to gain much media and fan attention as they move closer to the championship game at the end of the ... Read »


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    • Club seating

    • Club-level seating is a special section of seating in modern sports stadiums and arenas. The club level is usually located towards the middle of the stage of seating sections, above the lower deck but below the upper deck. They are usually situated near the luxury boxes, whether right above, right below, or sandwiched ... Read »


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    • Comeback (sports)

    • A comeback (or come-from-behind) is an occurrence of an athlete or sports team engaged in a competition overcoming a substantial disadvantage in points or position, particularly if this results in the disadvantaged team winning. It has been described as "the single greatest aspect of competition that most embodies the ... Read »


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    • Contact sport

    • Contact sports are sports that emphasize or require physical contact between players. Some sports, such as mixed martial arts, are scored on impacting an opponent, while others, including rugby football, require tackling of players. These sports are often known as full-contact, as the sport cannot be undertaken without ... Read »


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    • Continental championship

    • Continental championship may refer to: ... Read »


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    • Cooper test

    • The Cooper test is a test of physical fitness. It was designed by Kenneth H. Cooper in 1968 for US military use. where d12 is distance (in metres) covered in 12 minutes, alternatively where dmiles12 is distance (in miles) covered in 12 minutes, The following is an example of the many tables that exist for the te ... Read »


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    • Crest (sports)

    • In sport, a crest is a logo used by a sports club. The logos of many clubs are inspired by heraldic design. In Scotland, the Court of the Lord Lyon has forbidden the use of some football crests due to them being to closely resembling existing coats of arms. ... Read »


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    • Glossary of cue sports terms

    • The following is a glossary of traditional English-language terms used in the three overarching cue sports disciplines: carom (or carambole) billiards referring to the various carom games played on a billiard table without pockets; pool (pocket billiards), which denotes a host of games played on a table with six pocket ... Read »


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    • Dead rubber

    • Dead rubber is a term used in sporting parlance to describe a match in a series where the series result has already been decided by earlier matches. The dead rubber match therefore has no effect on the winner and loser of the series, other than the number of matches won and lost. The term is widely used in Davis Cup a ... Read »


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    • Debenture (sport)

    • In sport, a debenture is defined as a certificate of agreement of loans which is given under the company's stamp and carries an undertaking that the debenture holder will get a fixed return (fixed on the basis of interest rates) and the principal amount whenever the debenture matures. The terms may also include ancilla ... Read »


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    • Depth chart

    • In sports, a depth chart is used to show the placements of the starting players and the secondary players. Generally a starting player will be listed first or on top while a back-up will be listed below. Depth charts also tend to resemble the actual position locations of certain players. The typical Major League Baseb ... Read »


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    • Dispersal draft

    • A dispersal draft is a process in professional sports for assigning players to a new team when their current team ceases to exist or is merged with another team. Since most sports drafts are held in North America, this is where most dispersal drafts are conducted as well. Since no major professional sports team has fo ... Read »


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    • Division (sport)

    • In sports, a division is a group of teams who compete against each other for a championship. In sports using a league system (also known as a pyramid structure), a division consists of a group of teams who play a sport at a similar competitive level. Teams can move up to a higher division of play or drop down to a ... Read »


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    • Draft (sports)

    • A draft is a process used in some countries and sports to allocate certain players to teams. In a draft, teams take turns selecting from a pool of eligible players. When a team selects a player, the team receives exclusive rights to sign that player to a contract, and no other team in the league may sign the player. T ... Read »


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    • Draft blunder

    • A draft is a process used in some countries and sports to allocate certain players to teams. In a draft, teams take turns selecting from a pool of eligible players. When a team selects a player, the team receives exclusive rights to sign that player to a contract, and no other team in the league may sign the player. T ... Read »


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    • Draft steal

    • A draft is a process used in some countries and sports to allocate certain players to teams. In a draft, teams take turns selecting from a pool of eligible players. When a team selects a player, the team receives exclusive rights to sign that player to a contract, and no other team in the league may sign the player. T ... Read »


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    • Drought (sport)

    • In sports, a drought refers to instances in which an individual or team has gone through a lengthy period of time without accomplishing some goal. For a team, this usually refers to an extended period of time without making the playoffs or winning a championship. Droughts occur for a variety of reasons, from chronic mi ... Read »


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    • List of sports dynasties

    • A sports dynasty is a team or individual that dominates their sport or league for an extended length of time. Some leagues maintain official lists of dynasties, often as part of a hall of fame (e.g., National Hockey League), but in many cases, whether a team has achieved a dynasty is subjective. This can result in freq ... Read »


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    • Elite Eight

    • In the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship or the NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship, the "Elite Eight" are the final eight teams and, thus represent the regional finals, or national quarterfinals. In Division I, the Elite Eight consists of the two teams in each of the four regional championship ... Read »


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    • Exhibition game

    • An exhibition game (also known as a friendly, a scrimmage, a demonstration, a preseason game, a warmup match, or a preparation match, depending at least in part on the sport) is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the player's or the team's rankings is either zero or otherwise greatly reduced. In team spor ... Read »


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    • Expansion team

    • An expansion team is a new team in a sports league, usually from a city that has not hosted a team in that league before, formed with the intention of satisfying the demand for a local team from a population in a new area. Sporting leagues also hope that the expansion of their competition will grow the popularity of th ... Read »


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    • Falcon (sport)

    • Falcon is a tongue-in-cheek term that is used in different forms of football to describe an accidental knock to the head with the ball. The phrase originated from rugby league in Australia. On The Footy Show, casual presenter Mario Fenech's weekly segment was introduced by a piece of footage from his playing days show ... Read »


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    • Fight song

    • In American and Canadian sports, a fight song is a song associated with a team. In both professional and amateur sports, fight songs are a popular way for fans to cheer for their team. Although the term "fight song" is primarily used in America, the use of fight songs is commonplace around the world, but they may be re ... Read »


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    • Final (competition)

    • The final of a competition is the match or round in which the winner of the entire event is decided. In sports competitions following a knockout system, where only two individuals or teams compete in each match, the final is usually played between the winners of two semi-finals. However, if more than two entrants are ... Read »


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    • Final four

    • In American sports, the final four is the last four teams remaining in a playoff tournament. Usually the final four compete in the two games of a single-elimination tournament's semi-final (penultimate) round. Of these teams, the two who win in the semi-final round play another single-elimination game whose winner is t ... Read »


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    • Forfeit (sport)

    • In various sports, a forfeit is a method in which a match automatically ends and the forfeiting team loses. There are two distinct forms of forfeiture. One occurs when a team is unable to meet the basic standards for playing the game, either before the game begins or as a result of actions that happen during the match ... Read »


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    • Foul (sports)

    • In sports, a foul is an inappropriate or unfair act by a player as deemed by a referee, usually violating the rules of a sport or game. A foul may be intentional or accidental, and often results in a . Even though it may not be intentional fouling can still cause serious harm or injury to opposing players, or even thei ... Read »


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    • Franchise player

    • In professional sports, a franchise player is an athlete who is not simply the best player on their team, but a player that the team can build their "franchise" (team) around for the foreseeable future. The misunderstanding that a franchise player is only "the best player on a team" disregards the fact that an inordina ... Read »


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    • Free substitution

    • Free substitution is a rule in some sports that allows players to enter and leave the game for other players many times during the course of the game; and for coaches to bring in and take out players an unlimited number of times. ... Read »


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    • Games behind

    • In sports in Canada and the United States, the phrase games behind or games back (often abbreviated GB), is a common way to reflect the gap between a leading team and another team in a sports league, conference, or division. It is calculated using the following formula, in which TeamA is a leading team, and TeamB is a ... Read »


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    • Give-and-go

    • A give-and-go, or one-two, is a fundamental maneuver in many team sports which involves two players passing the ball or puck back and forth. The player who has the ball or puck passes to a teammate and then repositions in order to receive a return pass and a scoring opportunity. ... Read »


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    • Glossary of archery terms

    • This is a list of archery terms, including both the equipment and the practice. A brief description for each word or phrase is also included. ... Read »


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    • Glossary of North American horse racing

    • Glossary of North American horse racing: Additional glossaries at: ... Read »


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    • Goalkeeper

    • In many team sports which involve scoring goals, the goalkeeper (termed goaltender, netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports) is a designated player charged with directly preventing the opposing team from scoring by intercepting shots at goal. Such positions exist in hurling, association football, Gaelic football, i ... Read »


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    • Gold medal

    • A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture. Since the eighteenth century, gold medals have been awarded in the arts, for example, by the Royal Danish Academy, usually as ... Read »


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    • Grandfather rule

    • The grandfather rule, in sports which usually only permit participants to play for the team of their native country, is an exception which gives participants the option to play for the country of any of their ancestors up to the grandparents. Despite common name for the rule, grandparents of either sex can be invoked e ... Read »


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    • Grind (sport)

    • Grinding is a sliding stunt performed in many extreme sports. Stances in which slides are performed are known as grinds. Grinding is performed by sliding across the top of an obstacle, and can be accomplished in a number of ways. A range of equipment can be used to grind an object or obstacle and each sport lends the ... Read »


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    • Handicapping

    • Handicapping, in sport and games, is the practice of assigning advantage through scoring compensation or other advantage given to different contestants to equalize the chances of winning. The word also applies to the various methods by which the advantage is calculated. In principle, a more experienced player is disadv ... Read »


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    • Hearties

    • Hearties was a term used for athletic students (particularly rowers) at the University of Oxford and elsewhere, especially in the 19th and early 20th century. The term is often used in contrast to the less athletic "aesthetes". At Christ Church in Oxford there is an ornamental pond with a statue of Mercury in the cent ... Read »


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    • Hitting the wall

    • In endurance sports such as cycling and running, hitting the wall or the bonk is a condition of sudden fatigue and loss of energy which is caused by the depletion of glycogen stores in the liver and muscles. Milder instances can be remedied by brief rest and the ingestion of food or drinks containing carbohydrates. The ... Read »


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    • Hospital pass

    • "Hospital pass" is a term originally used in football codes to describe a pass that subjects the recipient to heavy contact, usually unavoidable, from an opposing player — the expression implying that the recipient of the pass could end up in hospital. The term may be applied to passes between team-mates in severa ... Read »


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    • Huddle

    • In sport, a huddle is an action of a team gathering together, usually in a tight circle, to strategize, motivate or celebrate. It is a popular strategy for keeping opponents insulated from sensitive information, and acts as a form of insulation when the level of noise in the venue is such that normal on-field communica ... Read »


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    • Hungarian system

    • The Hungarian System, or Brodlowsky System, is a type sporting tournaments setting. During the winter of 1979, Ivan Brodlowsky, the creator of 2x Hunter Ball, defined what he called the Hungarian System of Classification, or simply the 'Brodlowsky System'. This kind of tournament organization made was a revolution in ... Read »


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    • Injured reserve list

    • The injured reserve list (abbr. IR list) is an official designation used by the National Football League (NFL) and National Hockey League (NHL) for athletes who become injured and temporarily unable to play. It is analogous to the injured list in the Canadian Football League (CFL) or the disabled list in Major League B ... Read »


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    • Iron man (sports streak)

    • An Iron man is an athlete of unusual physical endurance. This durability is generally measured by an athlete's ability to play without missing a game and/or start for an extended period of time, sometimes, even for an entire career. Some of the more notable athletes with significant streaks in sports history includes b ... Read »


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    • Line call

    • In sports, a line call occurs when there is doubt as to whether a specific and significant event took place, for example, whether the ball in tennis touched the line rather than landing outside the court. The phrase line call is more generally used to indicate any decision in which the correct course is uncertain. Th ... Read »


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    • List of karate terms

    • Karate terms come almost entirely from Japanese. The following terms are not exclusive to karate. They appear during its study and practice, varying depending on style and school. Karate terms include: Chito-ryu Dan – Dojo Gi – Goju-ryu - Hajime – Heian Karate – Kata – Kihon – Kohai ... Read »


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    • List of sports terms named after people

    • This is a list of eponyms in sports, i.e. sports terms named after people. Henman Hill AKA Aorangi Terrace – after Tim Henman (Great Britain) ... Read »


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    • List of world cups and world championships for juniors and youth

    • The following is a list of world cups and world championships for juniors and youth, sporting events which use one of these two names, or one with a similar meaning. Tournaments which are formally defunct or where a further event is not currently planned are marked with a gray background.     R.  ^R - One ... Read »


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    • List of world sports championships

    • The following is a list of world sports championships, including some sporting events which use a different name with a similar meaning. In some sports, there is a , but that term usually has a somewhat different meaning. Tournaments which are formally defunct or where a further event is not currently planned are mark ... Read »


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    • Lucky loser

    • Lucky loser

      Lucky Loser (Thai: หมากเตะ..โลกตะลึง or Mak Tae Loke Talueng) is a 2006 Thai sports-comedy about a small, fictional Southeast Asian country's bid to play in the World Cup. Initially, the country depicted in the film was Laos, but because of conc ... Read »


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    • Man of the match

    • In sport, a man of the match, player of the game or man of the series award is given to the outstanding player, almost always the one who makes the most impact, in a particular match. The term was originally used more often in cricket before being adopted by other sports. This can be a player from either team, usually ... Read »


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    • Match penalty

    • Match penalty is a term used in some sports for a player having committed such a serious offence that he or she is being sent off for the rest of the game. The term is used in bandy,floorball and ice hockey. In bandy, it is indicated with a red penalty card. ... Read »


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    • Mental toughness

    • Mental toughness is a measure of individual resilience and confidence that may predict success in sport, education and the workplace. As a broad concept, it emerged in the context of sports training, in the context of a set of attributes that allow a person to become a better athlete and able to cope difficult training ... Read »


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    • Mercy rule

    • A mercy rule, slaughter rule, knockout rule, or skunk rule ends a two-competitor sports contest earlier than the scheduled endpoint if one competitor has a very large and presumably insurmountable lead over the other. It is called the mercy rule because it spares further humiliation for the loser. It is common in youth ... Read »


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    • Minor premiership

    • A minor premiership is the name of the title given to the team which finishes a sporting competition first in the league standings after the regular season but prior to commencement of the playoffs in several Australian sports leagues. The etymology of the term was based on terminology in Australia from the end of the ... Read »


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    • Moral victory

    • A moral victory occurs when a person, team, army or other group loses a confrontation, and yet achieves some other moral gain. This gain might be unrelated to the confrontation in question, and the gain is often considerably less than what would have been accomplished if an actual victory had been achieved. For exampl ... Read »


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    • Multi-sport event

    • A multi-sport event is an organized sports event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games. Many regional multi-spor ... Read »


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    • Nap hand

    • Nap hand refers to a series of five winning points or five victories in a game or sport. Possibly derived from the card game Nap or Napoleon. ... Read »


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    • National championship

    • A national championship(s) is the top achievement for any sport or contest within a league of a particular nation or nation state. The title is usually awarded by contests, ranking systems, stature, ability, etc. This determines the best team, individual (or other entity) in a particular nation and in a particular fiel ... Read »


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    • National Letter of Intent

    • The National Letter of Intent (NLI) is a document used to indicate a student athlete's commitment to participating National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) colleges and universities in the United States. The NCAA Eligibility Center manages the daily operations of the NLI program while the Collegiate Commissioner ... Read »


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    • National sport

    • A national sport or national pastime is a sport or game that is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation. Some sports are de facto (not established by law) national sports, as baseball is in the United States and cricket is in England, while others are de jure (established by law) national sports, ... Read »


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    • No goal

    • No goal is a call made by referees in various goal-scoring sports (football "soccer", hockey, lacrosse, etc.) to indicate that a goal has not been scored. It is commonly used to disallow an apparent goal, such as when the ball or puck has entered the net but should not count as a score due to some foul or infraction. ... Read »


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    • Offense (sports)

    • In sports, offense (US) or offence (Can.) (see spelling differences; pronounced with first-syllable stress; from Latin ), also known as attack, is the action of attacking or engaging an opposing team with the objective of scoring points or goals. The term may refer to the tactics involved in offense, or a sub-team whos ... Read »


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    • Offer sheet

    • In US professional sports an offer sheet is a contract offered to a restricted free agent by a team other than the one for which he played during the prior season. Different leagues have different ways to handle offer sheets. In the National Hockey League, an offer sheet is a contract offered to a restricted free ... Read »


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    • On the Bubble

    • To be considered "on the bubble", you must be waiting to find out if a player or team has made the final spots in a tournament or on any given sports team roster. On the bubble is most commonly associated with the Men's college basketball or Women's college basketball for the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championsh ... Read »


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    • One-game playoff

    • A one-game playoff, sometimes known as a pennant playoff, tiebreaker game or knockout game, is a tiebreaker in certain sports—usually but not always professional—to determine which of two teams, tied in the final standings, will qualify for a post-season tournament. Such a playoff is either a single game or a ... Read »


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    • Open (sport)

    • An Open in sports terminology refers to a sporting event or game tournament that is open to contestants regardless of their professional or amateur status, age, ability, gender, sex, or other categorization. In many sports, preliminary qualifying events, open to all entrants, are held to successively reduce the field t ... Read »


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    • Page playoff system

    • The Page playoff system is a playoff format used primarily in softball and curling at the championship level. Teams are seeded using a round-robin tournament and the top four play a mix of a single-elimination and double-elimination tournament to determine the winner. It is identical to a four-team McIntyre System play ... Read »


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    • Parity (sports)

    • In sports, parity is when participating teams have roughly equivalent levels of talent. In such a league, the "best" team is not significantly better than the "worst" team. This leads to more competitive contests where the winner cannot be easily predicted in advance. The opposite condition, which could be considered " ... Read »


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    • Peak power output

    • Peak power output (PPO), also known as "peak work rate" is a common measure of exercise intensity. For example, researchers may ask subjects to complete an incremental exercise test where VO2max is measured while the person cycles at increasingly difficult power generation levels as measured by a cycle ergometer. ... Read »


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    • Perfect season

    • A perfect season is a sports season including any requisite playoff portion, in which a team remains undefeated and untied. The feat is extremely rare at the professional level of any team sport, and has occurred more commonly at the collegiate and scholastic levels in the United States. A perfect regular season (known ... Read »


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    • Personal record (sport)

    • A personal record or personal best (frequently abbreviated to PR or PB) is an individual's best performance in a given sporting discipline. It is most commonly found in athletic sports, such as track and field, other forms of running, swimming and weightlifting. The term "PR" came from the world of running, referring ... Read »


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    • Personal seat license

    • A personal seat license, or PSL, is a paid license that entitles the holder to the right to buy season tickets for a certain seat in a stadium. This holder can sell the seat license to someone else if they no longer wish to purchase season tickets. However, if the seat license holder chooses not to sell the seat licens ... Read »


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    • Pick-up game

    • In sports, a pick-up game is a game that has been spontaneously started by a group of players. Players are generally invited to show up beforehand, but unlike exhibition games there is no sense of obligation or commitment to play. Pick-up games usually lack officials and referees, which makes them more disorganized and ... Read »


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    • Pitch (sports field)

    • A pitch or a sports ground is an outdoor playing area for various sports. The term pitch is most commonly used in British English, while the comparable term in American and Canadian English is playing field or sports field. In most sports the official term is field of play, although this is not regularly used by those ... Read »


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    • Play-in game

    • A play-in game is a game at the beginning of a tournament that forces the lowest qualifiers for the tournament to play each other before the main portion of the tournament begins. This gives an added advantage to the higher qualifiers, allowing them to rest, while the lower teams extend themselves by playing. Further, ... Read »


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    • Playoff format

    • There are a number of formats used in various levels of competition in sports and games to determine an overall champion. Some of the most common are the single elimination, the best-of- series, the total points series, and the round-robin tournament. A Single elimination ("knockout") playoff pits the participants ... Read »


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    • Pocket schedule

    • A pocket schedule or fixtures card is a small card or foldable paper guide which typically fits in a wallet or pocket. It is most often used by sports clubs or their sponsors for marketing purposes, in addition to displaying the team's scheduled matches. A typical pocket schedule may contain a full season match schedu ... Read »


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    • Podiuming

    • Podiuming is a slang term for the action of finishing a contest within the first three places. It is often used during sporting event television broadcasting, especially Olympic Games coverage. The term is commonly heard at Athletics events, bicycling races, marathons and other large-entrant number events. It is also c ... Read »


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    • Points percentage

    • In a group tournament, unlike a knockout tournament, there is no scheduled decisive final match. Instead, all the competitors are ranked by examining the results of all the matches played in the tournament. Points are awarded for each match, with competitors ranked based either on total number of points or average poin ... Read »


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    • Powderpuff (sports)

    • In the United States and Canada, powderpuff football games are flag football or touch football games between girls from junior and senior classes or cross-town school rivals. Funds from the ticket and concession sales for the game typically go to charity, the senior class, or to a dance. The games are an annual traditi ... Read »


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    • Press box

    • The press box is a special section of a sports stadium or arena that is set up for the media to report about a given event. It is typically located in the section of the stadium holding the luxury box and can be either enclosed or open to the elements. In general, newspaper writers sit in this box and write about the o ... Read »


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    • Pro–am


    • Professional sports league organization

    • Professional sports leagues are organized in numerous ways. The two most significant types are one that developed in Europe, characterised by a tiered structure using promotion and relegation to determine participation in a hierarchy of leagues or divisions, and a North American originated model characterized by its us ... Read »


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    • Promotion and relegation

    • In sports leagues, promotion and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between two divisions based on their performance for the completed season. The best-ranked team(s) in the lower division are promoted to the higher division for the next season, and the worst-ranked team(s) in the higher division are r ... Read »


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    • Prospect (sports)

    • In sports, a prospect is any player whose rights are owned by a professional team, but who has yet to play a game for the team, or is not established with the team yet. Prospects can sometimes be assigned to farm teams, or loaned to lower ranked teams. Also, they may decide to go back to college to play. Major-league ... Read »


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    • Raw Run

    • Raw Run is recognized colloquially within the longboarding community as a recorded video showcasing the entire descent down the hill, from top to bottom. This is typically done all in one take, to showcase the rider's consistency and skill. Colorado native and longboarder, Zak Maytum made national news when a video of ... Read »


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    • Raza point score system

    • The Raza point score system is a method in Paralympic athletics field competitions for comparing throws or jumps by athletes of differing levels of disability. In events where athletes of multiple different classifications compete, performances are converted to point scores by a formula which accounts for the athletes' ... Read »


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    • Realignment (sports)

    • In North American sports, realignment refers to a major change in the competitive structure of one or more existing leagues. The mechanics differ somewhat between amateur and professional sports. In professional sports, this occurs when a league decides to change which teams are in which divisions, usually by creating ... Read »


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    • Rebound (sports)

    • 'Rebound' is a term used in sports to describe the ball (or puck or other object of play) becoming available for possession by either opponent after an attempt to put the ball or puck into the goal has been unsuccessful. Rebounds are generally considered to be a major part of the game, as they often lead either to a po ... Read »


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    • Redshirt (college sports)

    • Redshirt, in United States college athletics, is a delay or suspension of an athlete's participation in order to lengthen his or her period of eligibility. Typically, a student's athletic eligibility in a given sport is four seasons, a number derived from the four years of academic classes that are normally required to ... Read »


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    • Replay (sports)

    • In association football, replays were often used to decide the winner in a knock-out tournament when the previous match ended in a tie, especially in finals. In 1970, FIFA (the worldwide governing body of the sport) and IFAB (the international rules committee for the sport) allowed penalty shoot-outs to be held if ... Read »


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    • Representative side

    • In sports a national representative side or team is one that plays under the national name. The phrase is often used to indicate that the team is not the official main national team. Such unofficial or subsidiary teams are usually legitimate but rarely exist for longer than a single game or competition. ... Read »


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    • Restricted free agent

    • A restricted free agent is a type of free agent in the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL), National Football League (NFL), National Hockey League (NHL), or National Basketball Association (NBA). Such players have special restrictions on the terms under which they can retain or change employment status with their athletic ... Read »


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    • Ring announcer

    • A ring announcer is an in-ring (and sometimes on-camera) employee or contractor for a boxing, professional wrestling, or mixed martial arts event or promotion, who introduces the competitors to the audience. In boxing and mixed martial arts bouts, introductions occur after both fighters have entered the ring or cage. ... Read »


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    • Riseball

    • A riseball or dimple is a pitch thrown by a pitcher in fastpitch softball. Upon release by the pitcher, the ball has backspin. The backspin on the ball combined with arm angle and leg lift causes the ball to appear to rise as it moves towards the batter, though in reality it simply falls slower than a similar speed fas ... Read »


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    • Running economy

    • Running economy consists of many physiological and biomechanical factors that contribute to running performance, and is measured to quantify energy utilization while running at an aerobic intensity.Oxygen consumption (VO2) is the most direct method for measuring running economy, as the exchange of gases in the body, sp ... Read »


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    • Safeword (sports)

    • A safeword, as used in sports, is a code word used by a player to avoid impending injury. In certain contact sports such as rugby and professional wrestling, when a player feels an opposing players actions will lead to him or herself being seriously injured, he may utter a safeword which tells the opponent to stop the ... Read »


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    • Scratch team

    • A scratch team is a team, usually in sport, brought together on a temporary basis, composed of players who normally play for different sides. A game played between two scratch teams may be called a scratch match. The earliest instance of the term "scratch team" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is a restaurant ... Read »


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    • Selector (sport)

    • In many team sports, a selection panel consist of selectors who choose teams or individuals to represent a country or club in sporting competitions. Selectors tend to be past players, but can also be current coaches, current captains may also have an influence. ... Read »


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    • Semi-professional

    • A semi-professional athlete is one for whom sport is not a full-time occupation. They are not amateur because they receive regular payment from their team, but at a much lower rate than a full-time professional athlete. As a result, players may have (or seek) a second full-time job. A semipro player/team could also be ... Read »


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    • Serpentine system

    • The serpentine system is a method employed in the organization of a competition to define the seeded teams and arrange them in pools. The n ranked teams that will be involved in the tournament are distributed in m pools according to the following algorithm: For instance, 12 teams would be organized in four-team pools, ... Read »


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    • Free agent

    • In professional sports, a free agent is a player who is eligible to sign with any club or franchise; i.e., not under contract to any specific team. The term is also used in reference to a player who is under contract at present but who is allowed to solicit offers from other teams. In some circumstances, the free agent ... Read »


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    • Shaughnessy playoff system

    • The Shaughnessy playoff system is a method of determining the champion of a sports league that is not in a divisional alignment. This format is also known as the Argus finals system. It involves the participation of the top four teams in the league standings in a single elimination tournament. While the first round of ... Read »


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    • Shirts versus skins

    • Shirts versus skins (or shirts and skins) is a common form of denoting team affiliations in a pick-up game (an informal sports game); typically when played by males on a public court or field, such as in a city park or schoolyard. The practice involves the members of one team wearing shirts while the ones of the other ... Read »


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    • Silver medal

    • A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives a gold medal and the third place a bronze med ... Read »


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    • Sinclair Coefficients

    • The Sinclair Coefficients are a means to compare different weight classes in olympic weightlifting. The answer to the question "What would be the total of an athlete weighing x kg if he/she were an athlete in the heaviest class of the same level of ability?" is given by the formula: ACTUAL TOTAL × SINCLAIR COEFFICI ... Read »


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    • Singapi

    • Singapi is a term used in Chinni Daandu game, which is popular in southern Parts of India, Karnataka in particular. Players yell out Singapi as a term used for cancellation. When the Chinni is struck with the Daandu, and if the player who hits it is not really sure that the chinni goes to the intended place, or if he m ... Read »


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    • Sociedad Anónima Deportiva


    • Sociedade Anónima Desportiva


    • Sporting colours

    • Sporting colors, more often known merely as colors or house-colors, are awarded to members of a university or school who have excelled in a sport. Colors are traditionally worn in or on scarves, ties, blazers, gowns, cuff-links, and other items of apparel. The award system gives rise to phrases such as an Oxford Blue, ... Read »


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    • Sports card

    • A trading card (or collectible card) is a small card, usually made out of paperboard or thick paper, which usually contains an image of a certain person, place or thing (fictional or real) and a short description of the picture, along with other text (attacks, statistics, or trivia). There is a wide variation of differ ... Read »


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    • Sports club

    • A sports club or sport club, sometimes athletics club or sports society or sports association, is a group of people formed for the purpose of playing sports. A club is solely created by its members, players and supporters, hence a separate entity from its owning (usually Limited) Company. Sports clubs range from organ ... Read »


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    • Sports commentator

    • In sports broadcasting, a sports commentator (also known as sports announcer, sportscaster or play-by-play announcer; often called shoutcaster in eSports specifically) gives a running commentary of a game or event in real time, usually during a live broadcast, traditionally delivered in the historical present tense. Th ... Read »


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    • Sports fan

    • A fan, or fanatic, sometimes also called aficionado or supporter, is a person who is enthusiastically devoted to something or somebody, such as a band, a sports team, a genre, a book, a movie or an entertainer. Collectively, the fans of a particular object or person constitute its fanbase or fandom. They may show their ... Read »


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    • Sports festival

    • A multi-sport event is an organized sports event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance is the modern Olympic Games. Many regional multi-spor ... Read »


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    • Sports league

    • A sports league is a group of sports teams or individual athletes that compete against each other in a specific sport. At its simplest, it may be a local group of amateur athletes who form teams among themselves and compete on weekends; at its most complex, it can be an international professional league making large am ... Read »


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    • Sports rating system

    • A sports rating system is a system that analyzes the results of sports competitions to provide ratings for each team or player. Common systems include polls of expert voters, crowdsourcing non-expert voters, betting markets, and computer systems. Ratings, or power ratings, are numerical representations of competitive s ... Read »


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    • Sports ticket derivative

    • A sports ticket derivative is a type of futures contract specifically for sports tickets. Typical terms of a ticket future contract stipulate that a ticket to a specific game (typically a championship game, such as Super Bowl or World Series) is delivered to the holder of the contract contingent on a specific team maki ... Read »


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    • Stadium anthem

    • Stadium anthems or sports anthems or arena anthems are a musical genre identifying songs that are played over the public address systems at stadiums and arenas during breaks in the action to rally the fans. Unlike college fight songs, most stadium anthems were not written primarily for use at sports events, though comp ... Read »


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    • Standings

    • Standings or rankings are listings which compare sports teams or individuals, institutions, nations, companies, or other entities by ranking them in order of ability or achievement. A table or chart (such as a league table, a ladder or a leaderboard) may be employed to display such listings. A league table may list sev ... Read »


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    • Stat padding

    • In sports, stat padding is an action that improves a player's statistics despite being of little benefit to his or her team or its chance of winning. An example would be a gridiron football player throwing long passes with an empty backfield on first down in the fourth quarter of a game in which his team was already le ... Read »


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    • Status lists of players in professional sports

    • Some team sports put players on different official lists according to circumstances for that player, for example if they are injured. There can be different rules for players on different lists, and the details vary between sports. ... Read »


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    • Submaximal performance testing

    • Submaximal performance testing is a way of estimating either VO2 max or "aerobic fitness" in sports medicine. The test protocols do not reach the maximum of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Submaximal tests are used because maximal tests can be dangerous in individuals who are not considered normal healthy s ... Read »


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    • Substitution (sport)

    • In team sports, substitution (or interchange) is replacing one player with another during a match. Substitute players that are not in the starting lineup (also known as bench players, backups or reserves) reside on the bench and are available to substitute for a starter. Later in the match, that substitute may be subst ... Read »


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    • Sucker tracks


    • Sweet spot (sports)

    • The sweet spot is a place where a combination of factors results in a maximum response for a given amount of effort. In tennis, squash, racquetball, baseball, cricket or golf a given swing will result in a more powerful hit if the ball strikes the racket, bat or club on the latter's sweet spot. The sweet spot is the l ... Read »


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    • Team sport

    • A team sport includes any sport which involves two or more players working together towards a shared objective. A team sport is an activity in which individuals are organized into opposing teams which compete to win. Examples are basketball, volleyball, water polo, handball, lacrosse, cricket, baseball, and the various ... Read »


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    • Technical time-out (volleyball)

    • A technical time-out in volleyball and beach volleyball is a time-out stipulated by the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) in each non-tie-breaking set. It is the formalized equivalent of a television timeout in other sports: ... Read »


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    • Telegraphing (sports)

    • In sporting terminology, to telegraph is to unintentionally alert an opponent to one's immediate situation or intentions. The sporting use of the term telegraph draws a direct comparison with the communication device of the same name. "Telegraphing" always refers to a reflexive physical action rather than a protracted ... Read »


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    • Third jersey

    • A third jersey, alternate jersey, third kit or alternate uniform is a jersey or uniform that a sports team wear in games instead of its home outfit or its away outfit, often when the colors of two competing teams' other uniforms are too similar to play easily. Alternate jerseys are also a means for professional sports ... Read »


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    • Third place playoff

    • The third place playoff, bronze medal game or consolation game is a single match that is included in many sporting knockout tournaments to decide which competitor or team will be credited with finishing third and fourth. The teams that compete in the third place playoff game are usually the two losing semi-finalists in ... Read »


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    • Three-peat

    • Three-peat is a term used primarily in American sports to refer to winning three consecutive championships. The term, a portmanteau of the words three and repeat, originated with the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association, during their unsuccessful campaign for a third consecutive championship during ... Read »


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    • Throwback uniform

    • Throwback uniforms, throwback jerseys (AmE) or retro kits (BrE) or heritage guernseys (AuE) are sports uniforms styled to resemble the uniforms that a team wore in the past. One-time or limited-time retro uniforms are sometimes produced to be worn by teams in games, on special occasions such as anniversaries of signifi ... Read »


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    • Tiebreaker

    • In games and sports, a tiebreaker or tiebreak is used to determine a winner from among players or teams that are tied at the end of a contest, or a set of contests. In some situations, the tiebreaker may consist of another round of play. For example, if contestants are tied at the end of a quiz game, they each mig ... Read »


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    • Trade (sports)

    • In North American professional sports, a trade is a sports league transaction involving an exchange of players' contracts or draft picks between sports clubs. Cash is another commodity that may be packaged together with contracts or draft picks to complete a trade. Typically, trades are completed between two clubs, but ... Read »


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    • Training effect

    • Training effect refers to specific changes in muscular, cardiovascular, and neurohumoral systems that lead to improvement in functional capacity and strength due to regular endurance or resistance training. It has also been defined as a reaction to the adaptive responses of the body created by a training program or as ... Read »


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    • Trampolining terms

    • Trampolining terms are used to describe various positions and types of skill performed in the sport of trampolining. ... Read »


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    • Traveling team

    • In professional team sports, a traveling team (also called a road team) is a member of a professional league that never or rarely competes in its home arena or stadium. This differs from a barnstorming team in that the latter does not compete within a league or association framework. While leagues may designate a trave ... Read »


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    • Underdog (term)

    • An "underdog" is a person or group in a competition, usually in sports and creative works, who is popularly expected to lose. The party, team, or individual expected to win is called the favorite or top dog. In the case where an underdog wins, the outcome is an upset. An "underdog bet" is a bet on the underdog or outsi ... Read »


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    • Varsity letter

    • A varsity letter (or monogram) is an award earned in the United States for excellence in school activities. A varsity letter signifies that its winner was a qualified varsity team member, awarded after a certain standard was met. The award letter is usually made in the colors and initials representing the school t ... Read »


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    • Varsity team

    • Varsity is an alteration and shortening of the term university; the meaning differs depending on the region, but is usually related to sporting activity. In the United Kingdom, varsity team refers to groups participating in varsity matches in sport or other competitions between rival universities, most famously Ox ... Read »


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    • Vert (sport)

    • Vert is a term used in extreme sports especially vert skating, vert skateboarding, snowboarding and BMX to denote a competition held on a vert ramp which allows the competitors to fly into the air and land back on the ramp. This time in the air allows the competitor to perform moves which would otherwise be extremely d ... Read »


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    • VO2 max

    • VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption as measured during incremental exercise, most typically on a motorized treadmill. Maximal oxygen consumption reflects the aerobic physical fitness of the individual, ... Read »


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    • Walkover

    • A walkover or W.O. (originally two words: "walk over") is the awarding of a victory to a contestant because there are no other contestants, or because the other contestants have been disqualified or have forfeited. The term can apply in sport but can also apply to elections, also referred to as winning "by default". Th ... Read »


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    • Whitewash (sport)

    • A whitewash is an informal term in sport describing a game or series in which the losing person or team fails to score. A whitewash may be in a single game where the loser fails to score any points or goals, or in a series where the loser fails to win a game. In North America the two are differentiated, with the forme ... Read »


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    • Wild card (sports)

    • A wild card (or wildcard, or wild-card) is, in general, a tournament or playoff berth awarded to an individual or team that has not qualified through normal play. In international sports, the term is perhaps best known in reference to big international sporting events such as the Olympic Games and Wimbledon. Count ... Read »


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    • Wilks Coefficient

    • The Wilks Coefficient or Wilks Formula is a coefficient that can be used to measure the strength of a powerlifter against other powerlifters despite the different weights of the lifters. Robert Wilks, CEO of Powerlifting Australia, is the author of the formula. The following equation is used to calculate the Wilks ... Read »


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    • Winger (sports)

    • In certain sports, such as football, field hockey, ice hockey, handball, rugby union, lacrosse and rugby league, winger is a position. It refers to positions on the extreme left and right sides of the pitch (the "wings"). In American football and Canadian football, the analogous position is the wide receiver. Wingers o ... Read »


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    • Winning percentage

    • In sports, a winning percentage is the fraction of games or matches a team or individual has won. It is defined as wins divided by the total number of matches played (i.e. wins plus losses). A draw counts as a ½ loss and a ½ win. Winning percentage is one way to compare the record of two teams; however, another s ... Read »


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    • Winning streak (sports)

    • In sports, a winning streak is winning at least one game. A winning streak can be held by a team, as in baseball, football, basketball, hockey, or by an individual, as in tennis. A winning streak that extends through a single season, i.e. every game in the season is won, is known as a perfect season. The longest recor ... Read »


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    • Wire-to-wire

    • Wire-to-wire is a term used in competitive events and sports for a champion who maintained the lead during an entire competition. The term is most commonly associated with golf referencing a player who wins a title while holding the lowest score at the close of each round. ... Read »


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    • World championship

    • A world championship is generally an international sports competition open to elite competitors from across the world, representing their nations, and winning such an event will be considered the highest or near highest achievement in the sport or contest. The title is usually awarded through a combination of specific ... Read »


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    • World cup competition

    • A world cup is a global sporting competition in which the participant entities – usually international teams or individuals representing their countries - compete for the title of world champion. A world cup is generally considered the premier competition in its sport, with the victor attaining the highest honour ... Read »


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    • Youth ice hockey coach

    • The role of a youth ice hockey coach is a combination of teacher, motivator, organizer, listener, and disciplinarian. In addition, there are many responsibilities that a youth hockey coach will fulfill. Some responsibilities include: facilitator, demonstrator, evaluator, supporter, and planner. In sport, the role of a ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Sports terminology

Extras