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    Philosophy of life

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    • Ethics

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    • Existentialism

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    • Free will

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    • Humanism

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    • Idealism

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    • Individualism

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    • Irreligion

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    • Lifestyle

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    • Missional Christianity

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    • Nihilism

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    • Personal life

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    • Philosophy of love

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    • Quality of life

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    • Spirituality

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    • Philosophy of life

    • There are at least two senses in which the term philosophy is used: a formal and an informal sense. In the formal sense, philosophy is an academic study of the fields of aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, as well as social and political philosophy. One's "philosophy of life" is philosophy in the info ... Read »


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    • Absurdism

    • In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any. In this context absurd does not mean "logically impossible", but rather "humanly impossible". The universe and the human mind do not each separately cause the Abs ... Read »


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    • Acting under a description

    • Acting under a description is a conception of the intentionality of human action introduced by philosopher G. E. M. Anscombe. Anscombe wrote that a human action is intentional if the question "Why?", taken in a certain sense (and evidently conceived as addressed to him), has application (Intention, par. 5-8). An a ... Read »


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    • Alternative lifestyle

    • An alternative lifestyle is a lifestyle diverse in respect to mainstream ones, or generally perceived to be outside the cultural norm. Lifestyle is a media culture term derived from the concept of style in art. Usually, but not always, it implies an affinity or identification within some matching subculture (examples i ... Read »


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    • Ambivalence

    • Ambivalence is a state of having simultaneous conflicting reactions, beliefs, or feelings towards some object. Stated another way, ambivalence is the experience of having an attitude towards someone or something that contains both positively and negatively valenced components. The term also refers to situations where " ... Read »


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    • Amor fati

    • Amor fati (lit. "love of fate") is a Latin phrase that may be translated as "love of fate" or "love of one's fate". It is used to describe an attitude in which one sees everything that happens in one's life, including suffering and loss, as good or, at the very least, necessary, in that they are among the facts of one' ... Read »


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    • Being

    • Being is an extremely broad concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence. Anything that partakes in being is also called a "being", though often this use is limited to entities that have subjectivity (as in the expression "human being"). So broad a notion has, inevitably, been elusive ... Read »


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    • Being in the World

    • Being in the World

      Being in the World is a 2010 documentary film directed by Tao Ruspoli. The film is based on Martin Heidegger's philosophy and is inspired by Hubert Dreyfus. It features a number of prominent philosophers. Philosophers such as Hubert Dreyfus, Mark Wrathall, Sean Dorrance Kelly, Taylor Carman, John Haugeland, Iain Thoms ... Read »


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    • Choice

    • Choice involves decision making. It can include judging the merits of multiple and one or more of them. One can make a choice between imagined options ("What would I do if...?") or between real options followed by the corresponding action. For example, a traveller might choose a route for a journey based on the prefe ... Read »


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    • Cosmology episode

    • A cosmology episode is a sudden loss of meaning, followed eventually by a transformative pivot, which creates the conditions for revised meaning. In the wake of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, the 1977 Tenerife airport disaster, the 1984 Bhopal chemical disaster, and the relatively sudden insertion of ... Read »


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    • Cult of Reason

    • The Cult of Reason (French: Culte de la Raison) was an atheistic religion established in France and intended as a replacement for Roman Catholicism during the French Revolution. It was one of history's first examples of state-sponsored atheism. Opposition to the Roman Catholic Church was integral among the causes ... Read »


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    • Cult of the Supreme Being

    • The Cult of the Supreme Being (French: Culte de l'Être suprême) was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution. It was intended to become the state religion of the new French Republic and a replacement for Roman Catholicism and its rival, the Cult of Reason. ... Read »


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    • Death anxiety (psychology)

    • Death anxiety is the morbid, abnormal, or persistent fear of one's own death. One source defines death anxiety as a "feeling of dread, apprehension or solicitude (anxiety) when one thinks of the process of dying, or ceasing to ‘be’". It is also referred to as thanatophobia (fear of death), and is distinguishe ... Read »


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    • Dum vivimus vivamus

    • Dum vivimus vivamus is a Latin phrase that means "While we live, let us live." It is often taken to be an declaration. This Latin phrase was the motto of Philip Doddridge's coat of arms. It serves as the motto for Porcellian Club at Harvard. Emily Dickinson used the line in a whimsical valentine written to William H ... Read »


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    • Egotism

    • Egotism is the drive to maintain and enhance favorable views of oneself, and generally features an inflated opinion of one's personal features and importance. It often includes intellectual, physical, social and other overestimations.  The egotist has an overwhelming sense of the centrality of the 'Me', that is to ... Read »


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    • Emptiness

    • Emptiness as a human condition is a sense of generalized boredom, social alienation and apathy. Feelings of emptiness often accompany dysthymia,depression, loneliness, anhedonia, , or other mental/emotional disorders, including schizoid personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizotypal persona ... Read »


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    • Essence

    • In philosophy, essence is the attribute or set of attributes that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity. Essence is contrasted with accident: a property that the entity or substance has contingently, without which the substance can s ... Read »


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    • Essentialism

    • Essentialism is the view that for any specific entity there is a set of attributes which are necessary to its identity and function. In Western thought the concept is found in the work of Plato and Aristotle. Platonic idealism is the earliest known theory of how all things and concepts have an essential reality behind ... Read »


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    • Ethical egoism

    • Ethical egoism is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest. It differs from psychological egoism, which claims that people can only act in their self-interest. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds that it is rational to act in one's self-in ... Read »


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    • Ethics

    • Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term ethics derives from the Ancient Greek word ἠθικός ethikos, which is derived from the word ἦθος ethos (habit, "custom"). The branch ... Read »


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    • Everyday life

    • The phrases everyday life, daily life and routine life reference the ways in which people typically act, think, and feel on a daily basis. Everyday life may be described as mundane, routine, natural or habitual. Sometimes it is callednormality. Human diurnality means most people sleep at least part of the night and ar ... Read »


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    • Existence

    • Existence is commonly held to be that which objectively persists independent of one's presence. Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, as well as of the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy ... Read »


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    • Existential crisis

    • An existential crisis is a moment at which an individual questions the very foundations of their life: whether this life has any meaning, purpose, or value. This issue of the meaning and purpose of existence is the topic of the philosophical school of existentialism. An existential crisis may result from, be a mis ... Read »


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    • Existential nihilism

    • Existential nihilism is the philosophical theory that life has no intrinsic meaning or value. With respect to the universe, existential nihilism posits that a single human or even the entire human species is insignificant, without purpose and unlikely to change in the totality of existence. According to the theory, eac ... Read »


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    • Existentialism

    • Existentialism (/ɛɡzɪˈstɛnʃəlɪzəm/) is a term applied to the work of certain late-19th- and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the ... Read »


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    • Extropianism

    • Extropianism, also referred to as the philosophy of Extropy, is an "evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition". Extropians believe that advances in science and technology will some day let people live indefinitely. An extropian may wish to contribute to this goal, e.g. by ... Read »


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    • Femininism

    • The term femininism (also capitalized as Femininism) is related to the adjective feminine. The concept originates as far back as the 19th century. It is a philosophy of elevating and attempting to live by traits or virtues that accentuate the femininity of women, while still supporting intellectual equality between the ... Read »


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    • Free will

    • Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action. It is closely linked to the concepts of responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgments which apply only to actions that are freely chosen. It is also connected with the concepts of advice, persuasion, deliberation, and prohibition ... Read »


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    • The good life

    • The good life is a term for the life that one would like to live, or for happiness, associated (as eudaimonia) with the work of Aristotle and his teaching on ethics. Eudaimonia is a term that means happiness and is a central aim of stoic philosophy. A contemporary book by William B. Irvine entitled sums up what 'the ... Read »


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    • Guilt (emotion)

    • Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own standards of conduct or has violated a moral standard and bears significant responsibility for that violation. It is closely related to the concept of ... Read »


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    • How Much Is Enough? (book)


    • Human condition

    • The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality." This is a very broad topic which has been and continues to be pondered and analyzed from many perspectives, including those ... Read »


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    • Human spirit

    • The human spirit is a component of human philosophy, psychology, art, and knowledge - the spiritual or mental part of humanity. While the term can be used with the same meaning as "human soul", human spirit is sometimes used to refer to the impersonal, universal or higher component of human nature in contrast to soul o ... Read »


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    • Humanism

    • Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and affirms their ability to improve their lives through the use of reason and ingenuity as opposed to submitting blindly to tradition and authority or sinking into cruelty and brutality. ... Read »


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    • Ideal (ethics)

    • An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal, usually in the context of ethics. Ideals are particularly important in ethics, as the order in which one places them tends to determine the degree to which one reveals them as real and sincere. It is the application, in ethics, of a universal. It is ... Read »


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    • Individualism

    • Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over ... Read »


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    • Intellectualism

    • Intellectualism denotes the use, development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an intellectual; and the Life of the Mind. In the field of philosophy, “intellectualism” occasionally is synonymous with “rationalism”, that is, knowledge mostly derived from reason and ratiocination. ... Read »


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    • Jeitinho

    • Jeitinho (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒejˈtʃĩɲu], literally "little way") is more than finding a way to accomplish something by circumventing or bending the rules or social conventions. Most times it is harmless, made for basic ordinary opportunistic advantages, as gatecrashing a party just to get free foo ... Read »


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    • Lebensphilosophie

    • Lebensphilosophie ("philosophy of life" or life-philosophy in German) is a philosophical school of thought which emphasises the meaning, value and purpose of life as the foremost focus of philosophy. Inspired by the critique of rationalism in the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Ni ... Read »


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    • Lifestyle (sociology)

    • The term lifestyle can denote the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture. The term was originally used by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler (1870-1937). The term was introduced in the 1950s as a derivative of that of style in modernist art. The term refers to ... Read »


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    • Meaning and Purpose

    • Meaning and Purpose, written by Kenneth Walker, was first published in September 1944 by Jonathan Cape, London, and republished by Pelican books in 1950. The purpose of the book, as stated in the preface, was "... to examine critically those scientific theories of the last hundred years which have exerted a strong inf ... Read »


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    • Meaning of life

    • The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general. Many other related questions include "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", or "What is the purpose of existence?" There have been a large number of proposed answers ... Read »


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    • Metanoia (psychology)

    • Metanoia (from the Greek μετάνοια, metanoia, "changing one's mind") has been used in psychology since at least the time of American thinker William James to describe a process of fundamental change in the human personality. The term derives from the Ancient Greek words μετά (metá ... Read »


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    • Misanthropy

    • Misanthropy is the general hatred, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature. A misanthrope or misanthropist is someone who holds such views or feelings. The word's origin is from the Greek words (misos, "hatred") and (anthrōpos, "man, human"). The condition is often confused with asociality. ... Read »


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    • Missional living

    • In Christianity, missional living is the adoption of the posture, thinking, behaviors, and practices of a missionary in order to engage others with the gospel message. The missional church movement, a church renewal movement predicated on the necessity of missional living by Christians, gained popularity at the end of ... Read »


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    • Moral conversion

    • In philosophy, moral conversion is an existential change in the person, who is perceived as the moral agent adopting new moral standards (or mores) in a process of internal transformation. Moral conversion is a relatively rare event in a person's normal development. It involves a decision that is both conscious and exi ... Read »


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    • Moral responsibility

    • In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations. Deciding what (if anything) counts as "morally obligatory" is a principal concern of ethics. Philosophers refer to people who have moral respon ... Read »


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    • The Myth of Male Power

    • The Myth of Male Power

      The Myth of Male Power: Why Men are the Disposable Sex is a 1993 book by Warren Farrell, in which Farrell argues that the widespread perception of men having inordinate social and economic power is false, and that men are systematically disadvantaged in many ways. Like Herb Goldberg's The Hazards of Being Male, Farrel ... Read »


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    • Neohumanism

    • Neohumanism is a holistic philosophical theory elaborated by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in his 1982 book, The Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism (ISBN ). With neohumanism, Sarkar redefines both humanity and humanism, as well as various commonly associated concepts. In addition, Sarkar introduces many new concepts intended ... Read »


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    • Friedrich Nietzsche and free will

    • The 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche is known as a critic of Judeo-Christian morality and religions in general. One of the arguments he raised against the truthfulness of these doctrines is that they are based upon the concept of free will, and the latter in his opinion does not exist. In The Gay Scien ... Read »


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    • Nihilism

    • Nihilism (/ˈnaɪ.áµ»lɪzəm/ or /ˈniː.áµ»lɪzəm/; from the Latin nihil, nothing) is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the lack of belief in one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism, which argues that life is ... Read »


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    • Normative ethics

    • Normative ethics is the study of ethical action. It is the branch of philosophical ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because it examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, whi ... Read »


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    • Obligation

    • An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral. There are also obligations in other normative contexts, such as obligations of etiquette, social obligations, and possibly in terms of politics, where obligations are requirements which must be fulfilled. These are generally l ... Read »


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    • Optimism

    • Optimism is a mental attitude. A common idiom used to illustrate optimism versus pessimism is a glass with water at the halfway point, where the optimist is said to see the glass as half full and the pessimist sees the glass as half empty. The term is originally derived from the Latin optimum, meaning "best". Being op ... Read »


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    • Personal life

    • Personal life is the course of an individual's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity. In ancient past, most people's time was limited by the need to meet necessities such as food and shelter and there was not much leisure time. People identified with their ... Read »


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    • Pessimism

    • Pessimism is a state of mind in which one anticipates undesirable outcomes or believes that the evil or hardships in life outweigh the good or luxuries. Value judgments may vary dramatically between individuals, even when judgments of fact are undisputed. The most common example of this phenomenon is the "Is the glass ... Read »


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    • Phenomenological life

    • Phenomenological life (French: vie phénoménologique) is life considered from a philosophical and rigorously phenomenological point of view. The relevant philosophical project is called "radical phenomenology of life" (phénoménologie radicale de la vie) or "material phenomenology of life" (phénoménolog ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of happiness

    • The philosophy of happiness is the philosophical concern with the existence, nature, and attainment of happiness. Philosophically, happiness can be understood as the moral goal of life or as an aspect of chance; indeed, in most European languages the term happiness is synonymous with luck. Thus, philosophers usually ex ... Read »


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    • Political idealism

    • An ideal is a principle or value that one actively pursues as a goal, usually in the context of ethics. Ideals are particularly important in ethics, as the order in which one places them tends to determine the degree to which one reveals them as real and sincere. It is the application, in ethics, of a universal. It is ... Read »


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    • Quality of life

    • Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life. It observes life satisfaction, including everything from physical health, family, education, employment, wealth, religious beliefs, finance and the environment. QOL has a wide range of context ... Read »


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    • Rational egoism

    • Rational egoism (also called rational selfishness) is the principle that an action is rational if and only if it maximizes one's self-interest. The view is a normative form of . It is distinct from psychological egoism (according to which people are motivated only to act in their own self-interest) and ethical egoism ( ... Read »


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    • Religion of Humanity

    • Religion of Humanity (from French Religion de l'Humanité or ) is a secular religion created by Auguste Comte, the founder of positivist philosophy. Adherents of this religion have built chapels of Humanity in France and Brazil. Comte developed the religion of humanity for positivist societies in order to fulfil ... Read »


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    • Emma Rush

    • Emma Rush, PhD is a lecturer in philosophy and ethics at Charles Sturt University Faculty of Arts, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, notable for her work on sexualisation of children. In 2006, Rush worked on a series of reports for The Australia Institute. Two of the reports which she co-authored led to a sena ... Read »


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    • The Secret (book)

    • The Secret

      The Secret is a best-selling 2006 self-help book written by Rhonda Byrne, based on the earlier film of the same name. It is based on the law of attraction and claims that positive thinking can create life-changing results such as increased happiness, health, and wealth. The book has sold more than 19 million copies wor ... Read »


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    • Self-fulfillment

    • In philosophy and psychology, self-fulfillment is the realizing of one's deepest desires and capacities. The history of this concept can be traced to Ancient Greek philosophers, and although it has been criticized since, it still remains a notable concept in modern philosophy. Philosopher Alan Gewirth in his book Self ... Read »


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    • Self-interest

    • Self-interest generally refers to a focus on the needs or desires (interests) of the self. A number of philosophical, psychological, and economic theories examine the role of self-interest in motivating human action. Philosophical concepts concerned with self-interest include: Psychological concepts concerned with se ... Read »


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    • Self-reflection

    • Human self-reflection is the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and the willingness to learn more about their fundamental nature, purpose and essence. The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest which humanity has had in itself. Human self-reflection is related to the philosophy of conscio ... Read »


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    • Selfishness

    • Selfishness is being concerned excessively or exclusively, for oneself or one's own advantage, pleasure, or welfare, regardless of others. Selfishness is the opposite of altruism or selflessness; and has also been contrasted (as by C. S. Lewis) with self-centeredness. The implications of selfishness have inspired ... Read »


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    • Selfism

    • Selfism refers to any philosophy, theory, doctrine, or tendency that upholds explicitly selfish principles as being desirable. It is usually used pejoratively. The term "selfism" was used by Paul Vitz in his 1977 book Psychology as Religion: The Cult of Self-Worship. Vitz deconstructs the selfist movement(s) and t ... Read »


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    • Selling out

    • "Selling out" is a common idiomatic pejorative expression for the compromising of a person's integrity, morality, , or principles in exchange for personal gain, such as money. In terms of music or art, selling out is associated with attempts to tailor material to a mainstream or commercial audience; for example, a musi ... Read »


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    • Seriousness

    • Seriousness (noun; adjective: serious) is an attitude of gravity, solemnity, persistence, and toward something considered to be of importance. Some notable philosophers and commentators have criticised excessive seriousness, while others have praised it. Seriousness is often contrasted with comedy, as in the seriocome ... Read »


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    • Social alienation

    • Social alienation, a sociological concept developed by several classical and contemporary theorists, is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a commu ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of suicide

    • In ethics and other branches of philosophy, suicide poses difficult questions, answered differently by various philosophers. The French essayist, novelist, and playwright Albert Camus (1913-1960) began his philosophical essay The Myth of Sisyphus with the famous line "There is but one truly serious philosophical proble ... Read »


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    • Thrownness

    • Thrownness (German: Geworfenheit) is a concept introduced by German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889–1976) to describe humans' individual existences as "being thrown" (geworfen) into the world. Geworfen denotes the arbitrary or inscrutable nature of Dasein that connects the past with the present. The past, throu ... Read »


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    • Tri Hita Karana

    • Tri Hita Karana is a traditional philosophy for life on the island of Bali, Indonesia. The literal translation is roughly the "three causes of well-being" or "three reasons for prosperity." The three causes referred to in the principle are: It is derived from the Balinese spiritualism and beliefs, which promotes harm ... Read »


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    • Viveza criolla

    • Viveza criolla is a Spanish language phrase literally meaning "creole' cleverness" and may be translated as "creoles' cunning", describing a way of life in Argentina, Uruguay, Colombia and Venezuela, among other Latin American countries. It is a philosophy of progress along the line of least resistance and ignoring rul ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of life

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