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  • Non-timber forest products

    Non-timber forest products

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Non-timber forest products

    • Edible fungi

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Edible fungi


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    • Edible nuts and seeds

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Edible nuts and seeds


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    • Palm oil

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Palm oil


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    • Resins

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Resins


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    • Tree tapping

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Tree tapping


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    • Varnishes

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Varnishes


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    • Vegetable oils

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Vegetable oils


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    • Non-timber forest product

    • Non-timber forest products (NTFPs), (also known as Minor Forest Produce )special, non-wood, minor, alternative and secondary forest products, are useful substances, materials and/or commodities obtained from forests which do not require harvesting (logging) trees. They include game animals, fur-bearers, nuts, seeds, be ... Read »


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    • Akpeteshie

    • Akpeteshie is an alcoholic spirit produced in Ghana by distilling palm wine or sugar cane juice. Other names for this drink include apio, VC10 as well as numerous other less than flattering names.It is technically a brandy and a member of the aguardente family. Before the advent of European colonization of what is ... Read »


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    • Allspice

    • Allspice

      Allspice, also called Jamaica pepper, pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta,Turkish yenibahar, or newspice, is the dried unripe fruit (berries, used as a spice) of Pimenta dioica, a midcanopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world. The name "al ... Read »


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    • Bay leaf

    • Bay leaf (plural bay leaves) refers to the aromatic leaves of several plants used in cooking. These include: The leaves contain about 1.3% essential oils (ol. lauri folii), consisting of 45% eucalyptol, 12% other terpenes, 8-12% terpinyl acetate, 3–4% sesquiterpenes, 3% methyleugenol, and other α- and β ... Read »


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    • Benzoin resin

    • Benzoin /ˈbɛnzoʊ.áµ»n/ or benjamin is a balsamic resin obtained from the bark of several species of trees in the genus Styrax. It is used in perfumes, some kinds of incense, as a flavoring, and medicine (see tincture of benzoin). It is distinct from the chemical compound benzoin, which is ultimately derived ... Read »


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    • Berry

    • Japanese barberries Bilberry Red currants Honeysuckle Gooseberries Cloudberry Highbush blueberries Blackberries Various berries In everyday language, a berry is a small, pulpy and often edible fruit. Berries are usually juicy, rounded, brightly colored, sweet or sour, and do not have a stone or pit, although m ... Read »


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    • Birch bark

    • Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula. The strong and water-resistant cardboard-like bark can be easily cut, bent, and sewn, which made it a valuable building, crafting, and writing material, since pre-historic times. Even today birch bark remains a ... Read »


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    • Birch beer

    • Birch beer in its most common form is a carbonated soft drink made from herbal extracts, usually from birch bark, although in the colonial era birch beer was made with herbal extracts of oak bark. It has a taste similar to root beer. There are dozens of brands of birch beer available. Various types of birch beer made ... Read »


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    • Birch syrup

    • Birch syrup is a savory mineral tasting syrup made from the sap of birch trees, and produced in much the same way as maple syrup. It is seldom used for pancake or waffle syrup, more often it is used as an ingredient paired with pork or salmon dishes in sauces, glazes, and dressings, and as a flavoring in ice cream, bee ... Read »


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    • Birch tar

    • Birch tar or birch pitch is a substance (liquid when heated) derived from the dry distillation of the bark of the birch tree. It is compounded of phenols such as guaiacol, cresol, xylenol and creosol. Birch tar was used widely as an adhesive as early as the late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic era. It has also be ... Read »


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    • Black pepper

    • Black pepper

      Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When dried, the fruit is known as a peppercorn. When fresh and fully mature, it is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red, and, like all d ... Read »


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    • Boscia senegalensis

    • Boscia senegalensis

      Boscia senegalensis, or hanza, is a member of the family Capparaceae. The plant originated from West Africa. Still a traditional food plant in Africa, this little-known fruit has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare. B. senegalensis is a perenn ... Read »


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    • Camphor

    • Camphor

      Camphor (/ˈkæmfər/) is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma. It is a terpenoid with the chemical formula C10H16O. It is found in the wood of the camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), a large evergreen tree found in Asia (particularly in Sumatra, Indonesia and Borneo) and also of th ... Read »


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    • Carnauba wax

    • Carnauba (/kɑːrˈnɔːbə/ or /kɑːrˈnaʊbə/, carnaúba, Portuguese pronunciation: [kaʁnɐˈubɐ]), also called Brazil wax and palm wax, is a wax of the leaves of the palm Copernicia prunifera (Synonym: Copernicia cerifera), a plant native to and grown only in the northeastern B ... Read »


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    • Chicle

    • Chicle (/ˈtʃɪkəl/) is a natural gum traditionally used in making chewing gum and other products. It is collected from several species of Mesoamerican trees in the Manilkara genus, including M. zapota, M. chicle, M. staminodella, and M. bidentata. The tapping of the gum is similar to the tapping of latex fr ... Read »


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    • Cinnamon

    • Cinnamon (/ˈsɪnəmən/ SIN-ə-mən) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon is used in both sweet and savoury foods. The term "cinnamon" also refers to its mid-brown colour. Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", but mos ... Read »


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    • Clove

    • Clove

      Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia, and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Bangladesh, Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania. Cloves a ... Read »


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    • Cocoa bean

    • Cocoa bean

      The cocoa bean, also cacao bean or simply cocoa (/ˈkoʊ.koʊ/) or cacao (/kəˈkaʊ/), is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter can be extracted. The "beans" are the basis of chocolate, as well as Mesoamerican foods, such as mole and tejate. ... Read »


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    • Coconut

    • Coconut meat, raw

      The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word. The term is derive ... Read »


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    • Cooking oil

    • Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dips, and in this sense might be more accurately termed edible oil. Cooking oil is typically a liquid at room tempe ... Read »


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    • Cork (material)

    • Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the Cork Oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. Cork is composed of suberin, a hydrophobic substance and, because of its impermeable, buoyant, elastic, a ... Read »


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    • Cratoxylum formosum

    • Cratoxylum formosum

      Cratoxylum formosum or pink mempat is a species of flowering plant in the Hypericaceae family. Its commercial name in timber production is "mampat". It is a tropical plant found in Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The trees flower when there ... Read »


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    • Creosote

    • Creosotes are a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and by pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel. They are typically used as preservatives or antiseptics. Some creosote types were used historically as a treatment for components of seagoing and outdoor ... Read »


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    • Cycas circinalis

    • Cycas circinalis

      Cycas circinalis, also known as the queen sago, is a species of cycad known in the wild only from southern India. Cycas circinalis is the only gymnosperm species found among native Sri Lankan flora. The plant is widely cultivated in Hawaii, both for its appearance in landscape and interiors, and for cut foliage. ... Read »


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    • Dehesa

    • Dehesa is a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system (a type of agroforestry) and cultural landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal, where it is known as montado. Dehesas may be private or communal property (usually belonging to the municipality). Used primarily for grazing, they produce a variet ... Read »


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    • Diospyros melanoxylon

    • Diospyros melanoxylon

      Diospyros melanoxylon, the Coromandel ebony or East Indian ebony, is a species of flowering tree in the family Ebenaceae that is native to India and Sri Lanka and that has a hard, dry bark. Its common name derives from Coromandel, the coast of southeastern India. Locally it is known as temburini or by its Hindi name te ... Read »


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    • Durian

    • Raw or fresh frozen durian
      (Durio zibethinus)

      There are currently 30 recognised species (see the List of Durio species) Lahia Hassk. The durian (/ˈdjʊriən/) is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio. The name "durian" is derived from the Malay-Indonesian languages word for duri or "spike", a reference to the numerous spike protub ... Read »


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    • Durio zibethinus

    • Durian (Durio zibethinus)

      Durio zibethinus is the most common tree species in the genus Durio that are known as durian and have edible fruit also known as durian. As with other durian species, the edible flesh emits a distinctive odour that is strong and penetrating even when the husk is intact. Some people regard the durian as having a pleasa ... Read »


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    • Eucalyptus oil

    • Eucalyptus oil is the generic name for distilled oil from the leaf of Eucalyptus, a genus of the plant family Myrtaceae native to Australia and cultivated worldwide. Eucalyptus oil has a history of wide application, as a pharmaceutical, antiseptic, repellent, flavouring, fragrance and industrial uses. The leaves of sel ... Read »


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    • Fern

    • Fern

      A fern is a member of a group of about 10,560 known extant species of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. They differ from mosses by being vascular, i.e., having certain tissue that conducts water and nutrients. They have branched stems and leaves like other vascular plants. Th ... Read »


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    • Forage

    • Forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing . Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especial ... Read »


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    • Forest farming

    • Forest farming is the cultivation of high-value specialty crops under a forest canopy that is intentionally modified or maintained to provide shade levels and habitat that favor growth and enhance production levels. Forest farming encompasses a range of cultivated systems from introducing plants into the understory of ... Read »


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    • Forest produce (India)

    • Forest produce is defined under section 2(4) of the Indian Forest Act, 1927. Its legal definition includes timber, charcoal, caoutchouc, catechu, wood-oil, resin, natural varnish, bark, lac, myrobalans, mahua flowers (whether found inside or brought from a forest or not), trees and leaves, flowers and fruit, plants (in ... Read »


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    • Fur

    • Fur is used in reference to the hair of non-human mammals, particularly those with extensive body hair coverage that is generally soft and thick, as opposed to the stiffer bristles on most pigs. The term pelage – first known use in English c. 1828 – (French, from Middle French, from poil hair, from Old ... Read »


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    • Game (hunting)

    • Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food. The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licences required, as either "small game" or "large game". Game or quarry is any animal ... Read »


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    • Ginseng

    • Ginseng

      Subgenus Panax Subgenus Trifolius Ginseng (/ˈdʒɪnsɛŋ/) is any one of the 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae. Ginseng is found in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly northeast China, Korea, Bhutan, eastern Siberia), ... Read »


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    • Henna

    • Henna

      Henna (Lawsonia inermis, also known as hina, the henna tree, the mignonette tree, and the Egyptian privet) is a flowering plant and the sole species of the Lawsonia genus. The English name "henna" comes from the Arabic حِنَّاء‎ (ALA-LC: ḥinnāʾ; pronounced [ħɪnˈnÃ¦ËÊ ... Read »


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    • Honey

    • Honey /ˈhʌni/ is a sugary food substance produced and stored by certain social hymenopteran insects. It is produced from the sugary secretions of plants or insects, such as floral nectar or aphid honeydew, through regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation. The variety of honey produced by honey bee ... Read »


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    • Honey hunting

    • Honey hunting or honey harvesting is the gathering of honey from wild bee colonies and is one of the most ancient human activities and is still practiced by aboriginal societies in parts of Africa, Asia, Australia and South America. Some of the earliest evidence of gathering honey from wild colonies is from rock painti ... Read »


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    • Huckleberry

    • Huckleberry is a name used in North America for several plants in the family Ericaceae, in two closely related genera: Vaccinium and Gaylussacia. The huckleberry is the state fruit of Idaho. The name 'huckleberry' is a North American variation of the English dialectal name variously called 'hurtleberry' or 'whort ... Read »


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    • Illicium verum

    • Illicium verum

      Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China. A spice commonly called star anise, star anise seed, Chinese star anise or badiam that closely resembles anise in flavor is obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of the fruit of Illicium verum which are harvested just befo ... Read »


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    • Jackfruit

    • Jackfruit, raw

      The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry and breadfruit family (Moraceae). It is native to parts of South and Southeast Asia and is believed to have originated in the southwestern rain forests of the Western ... Read »


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    • Japan wax

    • Japan wax, also known as sumac wax (alternatively spelled sumach wax), vegetable wax, China green tallow, and Japan tallow, is a pale-yellow, waxy, water-insoluble solid with a gummy feel, obtained from the berries of certain sumacs native to Japan and China, such as Toxicodendron vernicifluum (lacquer tree) and Toxico ... Read »


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    • Juniper berry

    • A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. It is not a true berry but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which give it a berry-like appearance. The cones from a handful of species, especially Juniperus communis, are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine ... Read »


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    • Kino (gum)

    • Kino is the name of the plant gum produced by various plants and trees, particularly Eucalyptus, in reaction to mechanical damage, and which can be tapped by incisions made in the trunk or stalk. Its red colour, together with the tendency of some species to ooze large amounts of it from wounds, is the source of the com ... Read »


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    • Lacquer

    • The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of very different groups. The term lacquer originates from the Sanskrit word lākshā (लाक्षा) representing the number 100,000, which was used for b ... Read »


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    • Lingzhi mushroom

    • Lingzhi mushroom

      The lingzhi mushroom or reishi mushroom (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: língzhÄ«; Japanese: 霊芝; rōmaji: reishi; Vietnamese: linh chi; literally: "soul/spirit mushroom") is a species complex that encompasses several fungal species of the genus Ganoderma, most commonly the closely related species Ganode ... Read »


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    • Madhuca longifolia


    • Maple syrup

    • Maple syrup

      Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before the winter; the starch is then converted to sugar that rises in the sap in late winte ... Read »


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    • Matsutake

    • Matsutake

      Matsutake (Chinese & Japanese:, pine mushroom, Tricholoma matsutake = syn. T. nauseosum) is the common name for a highly sought-after mycorrhizal mushroom that grows in Asia, Europe, and North America. It is prized in Japanese, Korean, and Chinese cuisine for its distinct spicy-aromatic odor. Matsutake grow under ... Read »


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    • Metroxylon sagu

    • Metroxylon sagu

      Metroxylon sagu (true sago palm) is a species of palm in the genus Metroxylon, native to tropical southeastern Asia, namely Indonesia (western New Guinea, and the Moluccas), Papua New Guinea, Malaysia (both Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak) and possibly also the Philippines (though may have been introduced there). It is ... Read »


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    • Mushroom

    • A mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota ... Read »


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    • Mushroom hunting

    • Mushroom hunting, Houby hunting, mushrooming, mushroom picking, mushroom foraging, and similar terms describe the activity of gathering mushrooms in the wild, typically for eating. This is popular in most of Europe, including the Nordic, Baltic, and Slavic countries and the Mediterranean Basin, as well as in Australia, ... Read »


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    • Myrobalans

    • The common name myrobalan can refer to several unrelated fruit-bearing plant species: Myrobalan extracts (at least from Terminalia chebula) are used for tanning. ... Read »


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    • Natural dye

    • Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources—roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood—and other biological sources such as fungi and lichens. Archaeologists have found evidence of textile dyeing dating bac ... Read »


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    • Natural rubber

    • Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Malaysia and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are c ... Read »


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    • Naval stores

    • Naval stores are all products derived from pine sap, which are used to manufacture soap, paint, varnish, shoe polish, lubricants, linoleum, and roofing materials. The term naval stores originally applied to the resin-based components used in building and maintaining wooden sailing ships, a category which includes cord ... Read »


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    • Nutmeg

    • Nutmeg (also known as pala in Indonesia) is one of the two spices – the other being mace – derived from several species of tree in the genus Myristica. The most important commercial species is Myristica fragrans, an evergreen tree indigenous to the Banda Islands in the Moluccas (or Spice Islands) of Indonesia ... Read »


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    • Oak

    • Oak

      See List of Quercus species An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (/ˈkwɜːrkəs/;Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks), as wel ... Read »


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    • Palm wine

    • Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms. It is known by various names in different regions and is common in various parts of Asia, Africa the Caribbean and South America. Palm wine production by small holders and individ ... Read »


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    • Peat

    • Peat (/piːt/), also called turf (/tɜːrf/), is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, or mires. The peatland ecosystem is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet because peatland plants capture the CO2 which is naturally rel ... Read »


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    • Pine tar

    • Pine tar

      Pine tar is a sticky material produced by the high temperature carbonization of pine wood in anoxic conditions (dry distillation or destructive distillation). The wood is rapidly decomposed by applying heat and pressure in a closed container; the primary resulting products are charcoal and pine tar. Pine tar consists ... Read »


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    • Pinyon pine

    • Pinyon pine

      See text. The pinyon or piñon pine group grows in the southwestern United States and in Mexico. The trees yield edible pinyon nuts, which were a staple of the Native Americans, and are still widely eaten as a snack in New Mexican cuisine. Harvesting techniques of the prehistoric Indians are still being used to toda ... Read »


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    • Pitch (resin)

    • Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers. Pitch can be natural or manufactured, derived from petroleum, coal tar or plants. Various forms of pitch may also be called tar, bitumen or asphalt. Pitch produced from plants is also known as resin. Some products made from plant resin are also known as rosi ... Read »


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    • Quercus suber

    • Quercus suber

      Quercus suber, commonly called the cork oak, is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section Quercus sect. Cerris. It is the primary source of cork for wine bottle stoppers and other uses, such as cork flooring. It is native to southwest Europe and northwest Africa. It grows to up to 20 m (66 ft), although ... Read »


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    • Rattan

    • Rattan (from the Malay rotan) is the name for roughly 600 species of old world climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae (from the Greek 'kálamos' = reed). Rattan is also known as manila, or malacca, named after the ports of shipment Manila and Malacca City, and as manau (from the Malay rotan manau, the trad ... Read »


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    • Resin

    • In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers. They are often mixtures of organic compounds, principally terpenes. Many plants, particularly woody plants, produce resin in response to injury. The resin ... Read »


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    • Root beer

    • Root beer is a sweet soda traditionally made using the sassafras tree Sassafras albidum (sassafras) or the vine Smilax ornata (sarsaparilla) as the primary flavor. Root beer may be alcoholic or non-alcoholic, come naturally decaffeinated or have caffeine added, and carbonated or non-carbonated. It usually has a thick, ... Read »


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    • Rubia

    • Rubia

      Rubia is a genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family. It contains around 80 species of perennial scrambling or climbing herbs and subshrubs native to the Old World. The genus and its best-known species are commonly known as madder, e.g. Rubia tinctorum (common madder), Rubia peregrina (wild madder), and Rubia c ... Read »


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    • Sassafras

    • Sassafras

      S. albidum †S. hesperiaS. randaienseS. tzumu †S. yabei Pseudosassafras Lecomte Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia. The genus is distinguished by its aromatic properties, which have made the ... Read »


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    • Serenoa

    • Serenoa

      Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. It is a small palm, growing to a maximum height around 7–10 ft (2–3 m). It is endemic to the subtropical Southeastern United States, most commonly along the south Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plai ... Read »


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    • Shellac

    • Shellac is a resin secreted by the female lac bug, on trees in the forests of India and Thailand. It is processed and sold as dry flakes (pictured) and dissolved in ethanol to make liquid shellac, which is used as a brush-on colorant, food glaze and wood finish. Shellac functions as a tough natural primer, sanding seal ... Read »


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    • Tamarind

    • Tamarinds, raw

      Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa. The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic taxon, having only a single species. The tamarind tree produces edible, pod-like fruit which is used extensively in cuisines around the world. Other uses include traditional medic ... Read »


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    • Tanbark

    • Tanbark is the bark of certain species of tree. It is traditionally used for tanning hides into leather. The words "tannin", "tanning", "tan," and "tawny" are derived from the Medieval Latin tannare, "to convert into leather." Bark mills are horse- or oxen-driven or water powered edge mills and were used in earlier t ... Read »


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    • Tea tree oil

    • Tea tree oil (TTO), or melaleuca oil, is an essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor and a colour that ranges from pale yellow to nearly colourless and clear. It is taken from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia, which is native to Southeast Queensland and the Northeast coast of New South Wales, Australia. T ... Read »


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    • Toddy palm

    • Toddy palm is a common name for several species of palms used to produce palm wine. Species so used and named include: ... Read »


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    • Turpentine

    • Turpentine

      Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines. It is mainly used as a solvent and as a source of materials for organic synthesis. Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly ... Read »


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    • Urushiol lacquer

    • The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood. These fall into a number of very different groups. The term lacquer originates from the Sanskrit word lākshā (लाक्षा) representing the number 100,000, which was used for b ... Read »


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    • Vanilla

    • Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia). The word vanilla, derived from the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina (vaina itself meaning sheath or pod), is translated simply as "little pod".Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people ... Read »


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    • Wildcrafting

    • Wildcrafting is the practice of harvesting plants from their natural, or "wild" habitat, for food or medicinal purposes. It applies to uncultivated plants wherever they may be found, and is not necessarily limited to wilderness areas. Ethical considerations are often involved, such as protecting endangered species, pot ... Read »


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    • Willow

    • Willow

      About 400. See List of Salix species Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are call ... Read »


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