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  • Medical aspects of death

    Medical aspects of death

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    • Forensics

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    • Necrosis

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Necrosis


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    • Programmed cell death

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Programmed cell death


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    • Signs of death

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Signs of death


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    • Apoptosis

    • Apoptosis

      Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes (morphology) and death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin ... Read »


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    • Asystole

    • Asystole

      Asystole, also known as flatline, is a state of no electrical activity from the heart and therefore no blood flow. It results in cardiac arrest. Asystole is found initially in about 28% of people in cardiac arrest. 1860, from Modern Latin, from Greek α "not, without" + systole "contraction." Asystole is treated by ... Read »


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    • Autopsy

    • Autopsy

      An autopsy—also known as a post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum —is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It ... Read »


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    • Beating heart cadaver

    • A beating heart cadaver is a body that is pronounced dead in all medical and legal definitions, connected to a medical ventilator, and retains cardio-pulmonary functions. This keeps the organs of the body, including the heart, functioning and alive. As a result, the period of time in which the organs may be used for tr ... Read »


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    • Biodemography of human longevity

    • Biodemography is a multidisciplinary approach, integrating biological knowledge (studies on human biology and animal models) with demographic research on human longevity and survival. Biodemographic studies are important for understanding the driving forces of the current longevity revolution (dramatic increase in huma ... Read »


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    • Biostratinomy

    • Biostratinomy is the study of the processes that take place after an organism dies but before its final burial. It is considered to be a subsection of the science of taphonomy, along with necrology (the study of the death of an organism) and diagenesis (the changes that take place after final burial). These processes a ... Read »


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    • Brain death

    • Brain death is the complete and irreversible loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life). Brain death is one of the two ways of determination of death, according to the Uniform Determination of Death Act of the United States (the other way of determining death being "irreversible c ... Read »


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    • Brain stem death

    • Brainstem death is a clinical syndrome defined by the absence of reflexes with pathways through the brainstem—the “stalk” of the brain, which connects the spinal cord to the mid-brain, cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres—in a deeply comatose, ventilator-dependent patient. Identification of this stat ... Read »


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    • Cadaver

    • A cadaver, also called corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body. The obsolete British term lich for corpse, sometimes spelled lych, is no longer even listed in major British dictionaries such as Longman, Macmillan, Cambridge, or Oxford Online Dictionar ... Read »


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    • Cadaveric spasm

    • Cadaveric spasm, also known as postmortem spasm, instantaneous rigor, cataleptic rigidity, or instantaneous rigidity, is a rare form of muscular stiffening that occurs at the moment of death and persists into the period of rigor mortis. Cadaveric spasm can be distinguished from rigor mortis being stronger stiffening of ... Read »


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    • Carphologia

    • Carphologia (or carphology) is a lint-picking behavior that is often a symptom of a delirious state. Often seen in delirious or semiconscious patients, carphologia describes the actions of picking or grasping at imaginary objects, as well as the patient's own clothes or bed linens. This can be a grave symptom in cases ... Read »


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    • Carrion insects

    • Carrion insects are those insects associated with decomposing remains. The processes of decomposition begin within a few minutes of death. Decomposing remains offer a temporary, changing site of concentrated resources which are exploited by a wide range of organisms, of which arthropods are often the first to arrive an ... Read »


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    • Catabiosis

    • Catabiosis is the process of growing older, aging and physical degradation. The word comes from Greek "kata"—down, against, reverse and "biosis"—way of life and is generally used to describe senescence and degeneration in living organisms and biophysics of aging in general. One of the popular catabiotic the ... Read »


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    • Cell death

    • Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions. This may be the result of the natural process of old cells dying and being replaced by new ones, or may result from such factors as disease, localized injury, or the death of the organism of which the cells are part. Kinds of cell death in ... Read »


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    • Clinical death

    • Clinical death is the medical term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing, the two necessary criteria to sustain human and many other organisms' lives. It occurs when the heart stops beating in a regular rhythm, a condition called cardiac arrest. The term is also sometimes used in resuscitation research. Sto ... Read »


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    • Coffin birth

    • Coffin birth, known in academia by the term postmortem fetal extrusion, is the expulsion of a nonviable fetus through the vaginal opening of the decomposing body of a deceased pregnant woman as a result of the increasing pressure of intra-abdominal gases. This kind of postmortem delivery occurs very rarely during the d ... Read »


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    • Combined drug intoxication

    • Combined drug intoxication (CDI), also known as multiple drug intake (MDI) or lethal polydrug/polypharmacy intoxication, is an unnatural cause of human death. CDI is often confused with drug overdose, but it is a completely different phenomenon. It is distinct in that it is due to the simultaneous use of multiple drugs ... Read »


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    • Compression of morbidity

    • The compression of morbidity in public health is a hypothesis put forth by James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. The hypothesis was confirmed by a 1998 study of 1700 University of Pennsylvania alumni over a period of 20 years. Fries' hypothesis is that the burden of lifetime ill ... Read »


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    • Death Risk Rankings

    • Death Risk Rankings was a website that approximated the likelihood of a European or American person dying within a twelve-month span. Using public data to do its calculations, the website also listed the possible causes of death, including illnesses or accidents. Created by Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pe ... Read »


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    • Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    • Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a surgical technique that involves cooling the body to temperatures below 20°C (68°F), and stopping blood circulation and brain function for up to one hour. It is used when blood circulation to the brain must be stopped because of delicate surgery within the brain, or ... Read »


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    • Disposal of human corpses

    • Disposal of human corpses is the practice and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased human being. Human corpses present both sanitation and public health risk. Like most animals, when humans die, their bodies start to decompose, emitting a foul odor and attracting scavengers and decomposers. For these reason ... Read »


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    • Dysthanasia

    • In medicine, dysthanasia means "bad death" and is considered a common fault of modern medicine: Dysthanasia occurs when a person who is dying has their biological life extended through technological means without regard to the person's quality of life. Technologies such as an implantable cardioverter defibrillator,art ... Read »


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    • End-of-life care

    • In medicine, nursing and the allied health professions, end-of-life care (or EoLC) refers to health care, not only of patients in the final hours or days of their lives, but more broadly care of all those with a terminal illness or terminal disease condition that has become advanced, progressive and incurable. End-of- ... Read »


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    • Forensic entomological decomposition

    • Medicolegal entomology is a branch of forensic entomology that applies the study of insects to criminal investigations, and is commonly used in death investigations for estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI). One method of obtaining this estimate uses the time and pattern of arthropod colonization. This method will ... Read »


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    • Forensic science

    • Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of a ... Read »


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    • Fulminant

    • Fulminant \ˈfu̇l-mə-nənt, ˈfəl-\ is any event or process that occurs suddenly and quickly, and is intense and severe to the point of lethality, i.e., it has an explosive character. The word comes from Latin fulmināre, to strike with lightning. It is most frequently used in medicine, and there are s ... Read »


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    • Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality


    • Health risks from dead bodies

    • The health risks of dead bodies are dangers related to the improper preparation and disposal of cadavers. While normal circumstances allow cadavers to be quickly embalmed, cremated, or buried, natural and man-made disasters can quickly overwhelm and/or interrupt the established protocols for dealing with the dead. Unde ... Read »


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    • Hot nose sign

    • The hot nose sign refers to increased perfusion in the nasal region on nuclear medicine cerebral perfusion studies in the setting of brain death. The absent or reduced flow in the internal carotid arteries is thought to lead to increased flow within the external carotid arteries and subsequent increased perfusion in th ... Read »


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    • Interventionism (medicine)

    • Interventionism, when discussing the practice of medicine, is generally a derogatory term used by critics of a medical model in which patients are viewed as passive recipients receiving external treatments provided by the physician that have the effect of prolonging life, or at least of providing a subjective sense of ... Read »


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    • Lazarus syndrome

    • Lazarus syndrome, also known as autoresuscitation after failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is the spontaneous return of circulation after failed attempts at resuscitation. Its occurrence has been noted in medical literature at least 38 times since 1982. It takes its name from Lazarus who, as described in the New Tes ... Read »


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    • Livor mortis

    • 1. Pallor mortis 2. Algor mortis 3. Rigor mortis 4. Livor mortis 5. Putrefaction 6. Decomposition 7. Skeletonization Livor mortis (Latin: livor—"bluish color," mortis—"of death"), postmortem lividity (Latin: postmortem—"after death", lividity—"black and blue"), hypostasis (Greek: hypo, meaning "und ... Read »


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    • Lung float test

    • The lung float test, also called the hydrostatic test or docimasia, is a controversial autopsy procedure used in determining whether lungs have undergone respiration. It has historically been employed in cases of suspected infanticide to help determine whether or not an infant was stillborn. In the test, lungs that flo ... Read »


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    • Maternal death

    • Maternal death is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental ... Read »


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    • Maternal somatic support after brain death

    • Maternal somatic support after brain death occurs when a brain dead patient is pregnant and her body is kept alive to deliver a fetus. It occurs very rarely internationally. Even among brain dead patients, in a U.S. study of 252 brain dead patients from 1990–96, only 5 (2.8%) cases involved pregnant women between ... Read »


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    • Medical aid in dying

    • Medical aid in dying is an end-of-life medical practice in which a mentally capable, terminally ill adult with less than six months to live may request medication from her or his doctor for self-administration to bring about a peaceful death if her or his suffering becomes unbearable. According to data from the Oregon ... Read »


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    • Micromort

    • A micromort (from micro- and ) is a unit of risk defined as one-in-a-million chance of death. Micromorts can be used to measure riskiness of various day-to-day activities. A microprobability is a one-in-a million chance of some event; thus a micromort is the microprobability of death. The micromort concept was introduc ... Read »


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    • Morgue

    • A morgue or mortuary (in a hospital or elsewhere) is used for the storage of human corpses awaiting identification or removal for autopsy or disposal by burial, cremation or other method. In modern times corpses have customarily been refrigerated to delay decomposition. The facilities contain 20-40 feet long containers ... Read »


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    • Mortality rate

    • Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of ... Read »


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    • Near-death studies

    • Near-death studies is a field of psychology and psychiatry that studies the physiology, phenomenology and after-effects of the near-death experience (NDE). The field was originally associated with a distinct group of North American researchers that followed up on the initial work of Raymond Moody, and who later establi ... Read »


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    • Necrobiology

    • Necrobiology comprises the life processes associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes which predispose, precede, and accompany cell death, as well as the consequences and tissue response to cell death. The word is derived from the Greek νεκρό meaning "death", βìο meaning "l ... Read »


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    • Necroptosis

    • Necroptosis is a programmed form of necrosis, or inflammatory cell death. Conventionally, necrosis is associated with unprogrammed cell death resulting from cellular damage or infiltration by pathogens, in contrast to orderly, programmed cell death via apoptosis. The discovery of necroptosis showed that cells can execu ... Read »


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    • Parthanatos

    • Parthanatos (derived from the Greek Θάνατος, “Death”) is a form of programmed cell death that is distinct from other cell death processes such as necrosis and apoptosis. While necrosis is caused by acute cell injury resulting in traumatic cell death and apoptosis is a highly controlled pr ... Read »


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    • Perinatal mortality

    • Perinatal mortality

      Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. Variations in the precise definition of the perinatal mortality exist specifically concerning the issue of inclusion or exclusion of early fetal and late neonatal fatali ... Read »


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    • Post-mortem chemistry

    • Post-mortem chemistry, also called necrochemistry or death chemistry, is a subdiscipline of chemistry in which the chemical structures, reactions, processes and parameters of a dead organism is investigated. Post-mortem chemistry plays a significant role in forensic pathology. Biochemical analyses of vitreous humor, ce ... Read »


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    • Post-mortem interval

    • 1. Pallor mortis 2. Algor mortis 3. Rigor mortis 4. Livor mortis 5. Putrefaction 6. Decomposition 7. Skeletonization Post-mortem interval (PMI) is the time that has elapsed since a person has died. If the time in question is not known, a number of medical/scientific techniques are used to determine it. This also can r ... Read »


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    • Posthumous sperm retrieval

    • Posthumous sperm retrieval (PSR) is a procedure in which spermatozoa are extracted from a man after he has been pronounced legally brain dead. There has been significant debate over the ethicality and legality of the procedure, and on the legal rights of the child and surviving parent if the gametes are used for impreg ... Read »


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    • Postmortem Caloricity

    • It is a condition where there is rise of body temperature after death instead of cooling of body. Although the process of postmortem glycogenolysis, which occurs in all bodies soon after death, can produce up to 140 calories which can rise the body temperature by about 2 degrees, yet the temperature shows further rise ... Read »


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    • Pulseless electrical activity

    • Pulseless electrical activity

      Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known by as electromechanical dissociation, refers to cardiac arrest in which a heart rhythm is observed on the electrocardiogram that should be producing a pulse, but is not. Pulseless electrical activity is found initially in about 55% of people in cardiac arrest. Under norm ... Read »


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    • Putrefaction

    • 1. Pallor mortis 2. Algor mortis 3. Rigor mortis 4. Livor mortis 5. Putrefaction 6. Decomposition 7. Skeletonization Putrefaction is the fifth stage of death, following pallor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis, and livor mortis. This process references the breaking down of a body of a human or animal post mortem (mea ... Read »


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    • Rigor mortis

    • 1. Pallor mortis 2. Algor mortis 3. Rigor mortis 4. Livor mortis 5. Putrefaction 6. Decomposition 7. Skeletonization Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor "stiffness", mortis "of death"), the third stage of death, is one of the recognizable signs of death, caused by chemical changes in the muscles post mortem, which cause the li ... Read »


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    • Risk adjusted mortality rate

    • The risk adjusted mortality rate (RAMR) is a mortality rate that is adjusted for predicted risk of death. It is usually utilized to observe and/or compare the performance of certain institution(s) or person(s), e.g., hospitals or surgeons. It can be found as: RAMR = (Observed Mortality Rate/Predicted Mortality Rate)* ... Read »


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    • Stillbirth

    • Stillbirth

      Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. It results in a baby born without signs of life. A stillbirth can result in the feeling of guilt in the mother. The term is in contrast to miscarriage which is an early pregnancy loss and live birth where the baby is born alive, eve ... Read »


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    • Terminal illness

    • Terminal illness is a disease that cannot be cured or adequately treated and that is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient within a short period of time. This term is more commonly used for progressive diseases such as cancer or advanced heart disease than for trauma. In popular use, it indicates a ... Read »


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    • Terminal lucidity

    • Terminal lucidity refers to an unexpected return of mental clarity that occurs in the time preceding a patient's death. This phenomenon has been noted in patients with schizophrenia, tumors, strokes, meningitis, and Alzheimer's disease. ... Read »


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    • Thanatology

    • Thanatology is the scientific study of death. It investigates the mechanisms and forensic aspects of death, such as bodily changes that accompany death and the post-mortem period, as well as wider psychological and social aspects related to death. It is primarily an interdisciplinary study offered as a course of study ... Read »


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    • Time of occurrence

    • In forensic investigation, the time of occurrence of an event (such as time of death, time of incident) is one of the most important things to determine accurately as soon as possible. Sometimes this can only be estimated. Some indicators that investigators use are rigor mortis, livor mortis, algor mortis, clouding of ... Read »


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    • Tissue gas

    • Tissue gas is the name given to the action of the bacteria Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) in dead bodies. Its effect on the deceased is that of an extremely accelerated decomposition. It is only halted by embalming the body using special additive chemicals. It most commonly occurs in the bodies ... Read »


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    • Medical aspects of death

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