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    • Anthropological linguistics

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    • Corpus linguistics

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    • Dialectology

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    • Discourse analysis

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    • Ethnolinguistics

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    • Grammar

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    • Historical linguistics

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    • History of linguistics

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    • Language comparison

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    • Language contact

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    • Language disorders

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    • Linguistic hypotheses

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    • Natural language and computing

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    • Neurolinguistics

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    • Onomastics

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    • Orthography

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    • Phonetics

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    • Quantitative linguistics

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    • Reading (process)

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    • Word games

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    • Interlinguistics

    • Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication between people who cannot make themselves understood by means of their different first languages. It is concerned with investigating how ethnic and auxiliary languages (lingua franca) work in such situations and with the possibilities of optim ... Read »


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    • Linguistics

    • Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of t ... Read »


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    • Outline of linguistics

    • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. Linguistics can be theoretical or applied. Linguistics can be described as all of the following: Sub-fields of structu ... Read »


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    • Semasiography

    • Semasiography (from Greek: σημασία (semasia) "signification, meaning" and Greek: γραφία (graphia) "writing") is "writing with signs", a non-phonetic based technique to "communicate information without the necessary intercession of forms of speech." It predated the advent of the cr ... Read »


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    • Abstraction (linguistics)

    • The term abstraction has a number of uses in the field of linguistics. It can denote a process (also called object abstraction) in the development of language, whereby terms become used for concepts further removed from the objects to which they were originally attached. It can also denote a process applied by linguist ... Read »


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    • Applied linguistics

    • Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, psychology, communication research, anthropology, and sociology. Applied linguistics ... Read »


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    • Apposition

    • Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in apposition. One of the elements is called the appositive, although its identification requires considerati ... Read »


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    • Articulatory gestures

    • Articulatory gestures are the actions necessary to enunciate language. Examples of articulatory gestures are the hand movements necessary to enunciate sign language and the mouth movements of speech. In semiotic terms, they are the physical embodiment (signifiers) of speech signs, which are gestural by nature (see belo ... Read »


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    • Astrolinguistics

    • Astrolinguistics is a field of linguistics that is closely connected with the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). An integral part of the SETI project in general is research in the field of the construction of messages for extraterrestrial intelligence, possibly to be transmitted into space from Earth. As ... Read »


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    • Backchannel (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, backchannels are listener responses in a primarily one-way communication. These can be both verbal and non-verbal in nature, and are frequently phatic expressions, primarily serving a social or meta-conversational purpose, rather than involving substantial two-way communication. The term "backchannel" ... Read »


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    • Binomial pair

    • In linguistics, a binomial pair or binomial is a sequence of two or more words or phrases belonging to the same grammatical category, having some semantic relationship and joined by some syntactic device such as and or or. Examples in English include through and through, (without) let or hindrance, and chalk and cheese ... Read »


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    • Biolinguistics

    • Biolinguistics is the study of the biology and evolution of language. It is a highly interdisciplinary field, including linguists, biologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, mathematicians, and others. By shifting the focus of investigation in linguistics to a comprehensive scheme that embraces natural sciences, it se ... Read »


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    • Cartesian linguistics

    • The term Cartesian linguistics was coined with the publication of Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought (1966), a book on linguistics by Noam Chomsky. The word "Cartesian" is the adjective pertaining to René Descartes, a prominent 17th-century philosopher. However, rather than confin ... Read »


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    • Catena (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, the catena (/kəˈtiːnə/, Latin for "chain"; plural catenae) is a unit of syntax and morphology, closely associated with dependency grammars. It is a more flexible and inclusive unit than the constituent and may therefore be better suited than the constituent to serve as the fundamental unit o ... Read »


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    • Code-talker paradox

    • A code-talker paradox is a situation in which a language prevents communication. As an issue in linguistics, the paradox raises questions about the fundamental nature of languages. As such, the paradox is a problem in philosophy of language. The term code-talker paradox was coined in 2001 by Mark Baker to describe the ... Read »


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    • Cognitive hearing science

    • Cognitive hearing science is an interdisciplinary science field concerned with the physiological and cognitive basis of hearing and its interplay with signal processing in hearing aids. The field includes genetics, physiology, medical and technical audiology, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive psychology, linguistics an ... Read »


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    • Collostructional analysis

    • Collostructional analysis is a family of methods developed by (in alphabetical order) Stefan Th. Gries (University of California, Santa Barbara) and Anatol Stefanowitsch (Free University of Berlin). Collostructional analysis aims at measuring the degree of attraction or repulsion that words exhibit to constructions, wh ... Read »


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    • Combinatorial method (linguistics)

    • The combinatorial method is a method of linguistic analysis that is used to study texts which are written in an unknown language, and to study the language itself, where the unknown language has no obvious or proven well-understood close relatives, and where there are few bilingual texts which might otherwise have been ... Read »


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    • Communication theory

    • Communication theory is a field of information theory and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the process of human communication. The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point."Claude Sh ... Read »


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    • Concept-driven strategy

    • A concept-driven strategy is a process for formulating strategy that draws on the explanation of how humans inquire provided by linguistic pragmatic philosophy. This argues that thinking starts by selecting (explicitly or implicitly) a set of concepts (frames, patterns, lens, principles, etc.) gained from our past expe ... Read »


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    • Constraint-based grammar

    • Constraint-based grammars can perhaps be best understood in contrast to generative grammars. A generative grammar lists all the transformations, merges, movements, and deletions that can result in all well-formed sentences, while constraint-based grammars, take the opposite approach, allowing anything that is not other ... Read »


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    • Constructed language

    • A planned or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally. It is also referred to as an artificial or invented language. There are many possible reasons ... Read »


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    • Context (language use)

    • In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind. Context is "a frame that surrounds the event and provides resources for its appropriate interpretation." It is thus a relat ... Read »


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    • Context-free language

    • In formal language theory, a context-free language (CFL) is a language generated by a context-free grammar (CFG). Context-free languages have many applications in programming languages, in partiular, most arithmetic expressions are generated by context-free grammars. Different CF grammars can generate the same CF ... Read »


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    • Contrast set

    • A contrast set is a bounded collection of items, each of which could fill the same slot in a given schema, syntactic structure, or other linguistic environment. The seven days of the week, the fifty United States, the eight Hawaiian islands, the letters in the alphabet, the categories "male" and "female," the students ... Read »


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    • Contrastive linguistics

    • Contrastive linguistics is a practice-oriented linguistic approach that seeks to describe the differences and similarities between a pair of languages (hence it is occasionally called "differential linguistics"). While traditional linguistic studies had developed comparative methods (comparative linguistics), chie ... Read »


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    • Creolistics

    • Creolistics, or Creology, is the scientific study of creole languages and, as such, is a subfield of linguistics. Someone who engages in this study is called a creolist. Creolistics investigates the relative creoleness of languages suspected to be creoles, what Schneider (1990) calls "the cline of creoleness." No ... Read »


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    • Critical applied linguistics

    • Critical applied linguistics (CALx) is an interdisciplinary critical approach to English applied linguistics. One of the central concerns in this approach is exposing the political dimensions and power relations involved in mainstream applied linguistics, in areas like language teaching, language policy and planning, l ... Read »


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    • Critical language awareness

    • In linguistics, critical language awareness (CLA) refers to an understanding of social, political, and ideological aspects of language, linguistic variation, and discourse. It functions as a pedagogical application of a critical discourse analysis (CDA), which is a research approach that regards language as a social pr ... Read »


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    • De-categorialization

    • De-categorialization (or de-categorialisation) in linguistics, refers to one of the five principles by which grammaticalization can be detected while it is taking place (according to Paul Hopper). The other four are layering, divergence, specialization, and persistence. De-categorialization can be described as the los ... Read »


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    • Linguistic demography

    • Linguistic demography is the statistical study of languages among all populations. Estimating the number of speakers of a given language is not straightforward, and various estimates may diverge considerably. This is first of all due to the question of defining "language" vs. "dialect". Identification of varieties as a ... Read »


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    • Dichotomy

    • A dichotomy /daɪˈkɒtəmi/ is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets). In other words, this couple of parts must be Such a partition is also frequently called a bipartition. The two parts thus formed are complements. In logic, the partitions are opposites if there exists a proposition suc ... Read »


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    • Digital infinity

    • Digital infinity is a technical term in theoretical linguistics. Alternative formulations are "discrete infinity" and "the infinite use of finite means". The idea is that all human languages follow a simple logical principle, according to which a limited set of digits—irreducible atomic sound elements—are com ... Read »


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    • Discourse-completion task

    • A Discourse-Completion Task (DCT) is a tool used in linguistics and pragmatics to elicit particular speech acts. A DCT consists of a one-sided role play containing a situational prompt which a participant will read to elicit the responses of another participant. The instrument was originally developed by Shoshana ... Read »


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    • Displacement (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, displacement is the capability of language to communicate about things that are not immediately present (spatially or temporally); i.e., things that are either not here or are not here now. In 1960, Charles F. Hockett proposed displacement as one of 13 design features of language that distinguish human ... Read »


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    • Distancing language

    • Distancing language is phrasing used by people to "distance" themselves from a statement, either to avoid thinking about the subject or to distance themselves from its content. Distancing language is often a means of self-deception, but distancing language used orally may indicate that a person is lying. People use ma ... Read »


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    • Distributed language

    • Distributed language represents an externalist perspective on human cognition. Instead of tracing communication to individual knowledge of a symbolic system, language-activity is taken to sustain the human world. Extending work by Humberto Maturana, priority is given to how face-to-face interaction draws on multimodal ... Read »


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    • Dual-coding theory

    • Dual-coding theory, a theory of cognition, was hypothesized by Allan Paivio of the University of Western Ontario in 1971. In developing this theory, Paivio used the idea that the formation of mental images aids in learning (Reed, 2010). According to Paivio, there are two ways a person could expand on learned material: ... Read »


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    • Ecolinguistics

    • Ecolinguistics, or Ecological Linguistics, emerged in the 1990s as a new paradigm of linguistic research, one which took into account not only the social context in which language is embedded, but also the ecological contexts in which societies are embedded. Michael Halliday's 1990 paper New ways of Meaning: the challe ... Read »


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    • Ethnolinguistics

    • Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world. It is the combination between ethnology and linguistics. The former refers to the way of life of an entire community, i. ... Read »


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    • Evolutionary phonology

    • Evolutionary Phonology is an approach to phonology and historical linguistics, based on the idea that recurrent synchronic sound patterns, if not inherited from the mother tongue, are the result of recurrent sound changes, while rare patterns are the product of rare changes or a combination of independent changes. ... Read »


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    • Experimental language

    • An experimental language is a constructed language designed for linguistics research, often on the relationship between language and thought. One particular assumption having received much attention in fiction is popularly known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. The claim is that the structure of a language somehow ... Read »


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    • Folk etymology

    • Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyz ... Read »


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    • Feature (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, a feature is the assignment of or unary conditions which act as constraints. In phonology, segments are categorized into natural classes on the basis of their distinctive features. Each feature is a quality or characteristic of the natural class, such as voice or manner. A unique combination of fe ... Read »


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    • Feature geometry

    • Feature geometry is a phonological theory which represents distinctive features as a structured hierarchy rather than a matrix or a set. Feature geometry grew out of autosegmental phonology, which emphasizes the autonomous nature of distinctive features and the non-uniform relationships among them. Feature geometry rec ... Read »


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    • Filler (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, a filler is a sound or word that is spoken in conversation by one participant to signal to others a pause to think without giving the impression of having finished speaking. These are not to be confused with placeholder names, such as thingamajig, whatsamacallit, whosawhatsa and whats'isface, which refe ... Read »


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    • Folk linguistics

    • Folk linguistics is the amateur study of linguistics. The term is often used as a pejorative. The linguist Ray Jackendoff points out that applying folk linguistics to education can be potentially damaging to the attainment of students who speak less standard dialects. Characterising different speech as good or bad can ... Read »


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    • Foregrounding

    • Foregrounding is the practice of making something stand out from the surrounding words or images. It is "the 'throwing into relief' of the linguistic sign against the background of the norms of ordinary language." The term was first associated with Paul Garvin in the 1960s, who used it as a translation of the Czech akt ... Read »


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    • Formal grammar

    • In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language. The rules describe how to form strings from the language's alphabet that are valid according to the language's syntax. A grammar does not describ ... Read »


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    • Formulaic language

    • Formulaic language (previously known as automatic speech or embolalia) is a linguistic term for verbal expressions that are fixed in form, often non-literal in meaning with attitudinal nuances, and closely related to communicative-pragmatic context. Along with idioms, expletives and proverbs, formulaic language include ... Read »


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    • Functional sentence perspective

    • In linguistics, Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP) is a theory describing the information structure of the sentence and language communication in general. It has been developed in the tradition of the Prague School of Functional and Structural Linguistics together with its sister theory, Topic-Focus Articulation. T ... Read »


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    • Gloss (annotation)

    • A gloss (from Latin glossa; from Greek γλῶσσα (glóssa), meaning 'language') is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text. It may be in the language of the text, or in the reader's language if that is different. A collection o ... Read »


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    • GOLD (ontology)

    • GOLD ("General Ontology for Linguistic Description") is an ontology for descriptive linguistics. It gives a formalized account of the most basic categories and relations used in the scientific description of human language. GOLD was first introduced by Farrar and Langendoen (2003). Originally, it was envisioned as a s ... Read »


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    • Hockett's design features


    • Idea networking

    • Idea networking is a qualitative method of doing a cluster analysis of any collection of statements, developed by Mike Metcalfe at the University of South Australia. Networking lists of statements acts to reduce them into a handful of clusters or categories. The statements might be source from interviews, text, web sit ... Read »


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    • Idiom (language structure)

    • Idiom is "the syntactical, grammatical, or structural form peculiar to a language". Idiom is the realized structure of a language, as opposed to possible but unrealized structures that could have developed to serve the same semantic functions but did not. Language structure (grammar and syntax) is often inherently an ... Read »


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    • Inalienable possession

    • In linguistics, inalienable possession (abbreviated INAL) is a type of possession in which a noun is obligatorily possessed by its possessor. Nouns or nominal affixes in an inalienable possession relationship cannot exist independently or be "alienated" from their possessor. For example, a hand implies "(someone's) han ... Read »


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    • Information structure

    • In linguistics, information structure describes the way in which information is formally packaged within a sentence. This generally includes only those aspects of information that “respond to the temporary state of the addressee’s mind”, and excludes other aspects of linguistic information such as refere ... Read »


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    • Innateness hypothesis

    • The innateness hypothesis is an expression coined by Hilary Putnam to refer to a linguistic theory of language acquisition which holds that at least some knowledge about language exists in humans at birth. This hypothesis supports linguistic nativism and was first proposed by Noam Chomsky. Facts about the complexity of ... Read »


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    • Integrational linguistics

    • Integrational Linguistics (or IL for short) is a general approach to linguistics that has been developed by the German linguist Hans-Heinrich Lieb and others since the late 1960s. The term "Integrational Linguistics" as a name for this approach has been used in publications since 1977 and antedates the use of the same ... Read »


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    • Integrational Theory of Grammars

    • The integrational theory of grammars is the theory of linguistic descriptions that has been developed within the general linguistic approach of Integrational Linguistics. Differently from most other approaches in linguistics, Integrational Linguistics emphasizes a distinction between theories of language and theories ... Read »


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    • Integrational Theory of Language

    • The Integrational Theory of Language is the general theory of language that has been developed within the general linguistic approach of Integrational Linguistics. Differently from most other approaches in linguistics, Integrational Linguistics emphasizes a distinction between theories of language and theories of lang ... Read »


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    • Integrationism

    • Integrationism (also known as integrational linguistics) is an approach in the theory of communication that emphasizes the importance of context and rejects rule-based models of language. It was developed by a group of linguists at the University of Oxford during the 1980s, notably Roy Harris. The International Associ ... Read »


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    • Intercomprehension

    • Intercomprehension is when people try to communicate with each other using their own different languages. Intercomprehension can be explained as a dialogue between people from two different languages. Each one expresses in their own language, making efforts to understand each other. Here we find some European methods ... Read »


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    • Intercultural communication

    • Intercultural communication is a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals fr ... Read »


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    • Interlinear gloss

    • In linguistics and pedagogy, an interlinear gloss is a gloss (series of brief explanations, such as definitions or pronunciations) placed between lines ( + ), such as between a line of original text and its translation into another language. When glossed, each line of the original text acquires one or more lines of tra ... Read »


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    • Interlocutor (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, discourse analysis, and related fields, an interlocutor is a person involved in a conversation or dialogue. Two or more people speaking to one another are each other's interlocutors. The terms conversation partner,hearer, or addressee are sometimes used interchangeably with interlocutor. ... Read »


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    • Kinesics

    • Kinesics is the interpretation of body motion communication such as facial expressions and gestures, nonverbal behavior related to movement of any part of the body or the body as a whole. The equivalent popular culture term is body language, a term Ray Birdwhistell, considered the founder of this area of study, neither ... Read »


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    • Koiné language


    • Language

    • Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent expe ... Read »


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    • Language acquisition

    • Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language. Language acquisition us ... Read »


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    • Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew

    • Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan. The book consists of 304 pages, including an index. It was the first monograph published within the series Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Chan ... Read »


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    • Language disorder

    • Language disorders or language impairments are disorders that involve the processing of linguistic information. Problems that may be experienced can involve grammar (syntax and/or morphology), semantics (meaning), or other aspects of language. These problems may be receptive (involving impaired language comprehension), ... Read »


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    • Language Grid

    • Language Grid is a multilingual service platform on the Internet, developed by Language Grid Project, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. It enables easy registration and sharing of language resources such as online dictionaries, bilingual corpora, and machine translations. The development ... Read »


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    • Language Log

    • Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania. Most of the posts focus on language use in the media and in popular culture. Text available through Google Search frequently serves as a corpus to test hypotheses about language. Other popular to ... Read »


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    • Language migration

    • Language migration may refer to various types of language change, including change associated with human migration and language contact. Particular language migrations may have names (for example Bantu expansion) and particular languages may have notable migration histories (for example Indo-Aryan). Language contact ... Read »


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    • Language observatory

    • A "language observatory" is something which is built or implemented to observe language activities in society. The need for creating such an instrument is becoming more and more evident in view of the fact that a growing number of languages are endangered. According to the UNESCO report "Atlas of the World Languages i ... Read »


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    • Language survey

    • A language survey is conducted around the world for a variety of reasons. Methods used in language surveys depend on the questions that the survey is trying to answer. Methods used include collecting word lists (Bender 1971), playing recorded texts to assess comprehension (Casad 1974), sentence repetition tests (R ... Read »


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    • Langue and parole

    • Langue (French, meaning "language") and parole (meaning "speaking") are linguistic terms distinguished by Ferdinand de Saussure in his Course in General Linguistics. Langue encompasses the abstract, systematic rules and conventions of a signifying system; it is independent of, and pre-exists, individual users. Langue i ... Read »


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    • Lexical Integrity Hypothesis

    • The Lexical Integrity Hypothesis or Lexicalist Hypothesis is a disputed hypothesis in linguistics. It is based on transformational grammar, and says that syntactic transformations do not apply to subparts of words. This hypothesis is incompatible with endoclitics, claimed to exist e.g. in the Udi language. ... Read »


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    • Lexicology

    • Lexicology is the part of linguistics which studies words. This may include their nature and function as symbols, their meaning, the relationship of their meaning to epistemology in general, and the rules of their composition from smaller elements (morphemes such as the English -ed marker for past or un- for negation; ... Read »


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    • Lexicon

    • A lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for w ... Read »


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    • Linear Unit Grammar

    • In linguistics, Linear Unit Grammar (LUG) is an approach that describes language in chunks that unfold in real time, based on the notion that language is a sequential stream of spoken or written words. It therefore eschews a hierarchical description of language and its labels are based on discourse functions rather tha ... Read »


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    • Linguistic description

    • In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community. All scholarly research in linguistics is descriptive; like all other sciences, its aim is to ob ... Read »


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    • Linguistic empathy

    • Linguistic empathy in theoretical linguistics is the "point of view" in an anaphoric utterance by which a participant is bound with or in the event or state that he/she describes in that sentence. An example is found with the Japanese verbs yaru and kureru. These both share the same essential meaning and case frame. B ... Read »


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    • Linguistic insecurity

    • Linguistic insecurity refers to feelings of anxiety, self-consciousness, or lack of confidence in the mind of a speaker surrounding the use of their own language. Often, this anxiety comes from speakers' belief that their use of language does not conform to the perceived standard and/or the style of language expected b ... Read »


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    • Linguistic intelligence

    • Linguistic Intelligence is a part of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory that deals with individuals' ability to understand both spoken and written language, as well as their ability to speak and write themselves. In a practical sense, linguistic intelligence is the extent to which an individual can use langu ... Read »


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    • Linguistic Linked Open Data

    • In natural language processing, linguistics and neighboring fields, Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) describes a method and an interdisciplinary community concerned with creating, sharing and (re-)using language resources in accordance with Linked Data principles. The Linguistic Linked Open Data cloud was conceived a ... Read »


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    • Linguistic system

    • The idea of language as a 'system' appears in the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure, J.R. Firth, Benjamin Lee Whorf, Louis Hjelmslev and Michael Halliday. The paradigmatic principle - the idea that the process of using language involves choosing from a specifiable set of options - was established in semiotics ... Read »


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    • List of dictionaries by number of words

    • This is a list of dictionaries considered authoritative or complete by approximate number of total words, or headwords, included. These figures do not take account of entries with senses for different word classes (such as noun and adjective) and homographs. Although it is possible to count the number of entries in a d ... Read »


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    • List of ideophones by language

    • This article is about ideophones in languages other than English. Romanizations given in Jyutping) The Japanese language has hundreds if not thousands of such constructions. The constructions are quite metrical 2-2, or 3-3, where mora plays a role in the symmetry. The second item of the reduplication may become v ... Read »


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    • List of language subsystems

    • In linguistics, languages are often studied in terms of six major subsystems, which relate to major subfields within linguistics. In addition, particular subfields of linguistic inquiry may divide their subject matter into more specific subsystems. This list contains links to commonly studied language subsystems. Ling ... Read »


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    • Logical Form (linguistics)

    • In some theories of syntax and grammar, in particular in the Chomskyan schools of government and binding theory and the minimalist program, the Logical Form (abbreviated LF and conventionally spelled with capital initial letters) of a linguistic expression is a mental representation of it, derived solely from surface s ... Read »


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    • Logophonetic

    • A logophonetic writing system is one that uses chiefly logographic symbols, but includes symbols or elements representing sounds. ... Read »


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    • Media linguistics

    • Media linguistics is the linguistic study of media speech. It studies the functioning of language in the media sphere, or the modern mass communication presented by print, audiovisual and networked media. Media linguistics is being formed in the process of differentiation of linguistics as a general theory of language ... Read »


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    • Media stylistics

    • Media stylistics is a branch of functional stylistics (which is stylistics in its functional treatment) that studies the regularities of human language functioning in the speech of the communication media. Being multidisciplinary and involving many scientific fields, media stylistics can be as well considered a branch ... Read »


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    • The medium is the message

    • "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in any message it would transmit or convey, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived. The phrase was introduced in McLuhan's book , published in 196 ... Read »


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    • Mental lexicon

    • The mental lexicon is defined as a mental dictionary that contains information regarding a word's meaning, pronunciation, syntactic characteristics, and so on. The mental lexicon is a construct used in linguistics and psycholinguistics to refer to individual speakers' lexical, or word, representations. However, not al ... Read »


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    • Metafunction

    • The term metafunction originates in systemic functional linguistics and is considered to be a property of all languages. Systemic functional linguistics is functional and semantic rather than formal and syntactic in its orientation. As a functional linguistic theory, it claims that both the emergence of grammar and the ... Read »


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    • Metalanguage

    • Broadly, any metalanguage is language or symbols used when language itself is being discussed or examined. In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about statements in another language (the object language). Expressions in a metalanguage are often distinguished from those in an obj ... Read »


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    • Metalinguistics

    • Metalinguistics is the branch of linguistics that studies language and its relationship to other cultural behaviors. It is the study of dialogue relationships between units of speech communication as manifestations and enactments of co-existence.Jacob L. Mey in his book, Trends in Linguistics, describes Mikhail Bakhtin ... Read »


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    • Minimalist program

    • In linguistics, the minimalist program (MP) is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside generative grammar since the early 1990s, starting with a 1993 paper by Noam Chomsky. Chomsky presents MP as a program, not as a theory, following Imre Lakatos's distinction. The MP seeks to be a mode of inquiry char ... Read »


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    • Mirror theory

    • In theoretical linguistics, mirror theory refers to a particular approach to the architecture of the language organ developed by Michael Brody, who claims his theory to be purely representational (unlike most of the current generative theories that are either derivational or combining derivation and representation). ... Read »


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    • Mitigated speech

    • Mitigated speech is a linguistic term describing deferential or indirect speech inherent in communication between individuals of perceived High Power Distance which has been in use for at least two decades with many published references. The term was recently popularized by Malcolm Gladwell in his book, Outliers, wher ... Read »


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    • Models of communication

    • Models of communication are conceptual models used to explain the human communication . The first major model for communication came in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon and published with an introduction by Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories. Following the basic concept, communication is the process of sending and receiv ... Read »


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    • MOGUL framework

    • The MOGUL framework is a research framework aiming to provide a theoretical perspective on the nature of language. MOGUL (Modular On-line Growth and Use of Language) draws on the common ground underlying various related areas of cognitive science including psycholinguistics, theoretical linguistics, first- and second-l ... Read »


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    • Morphome (linguistics)

    • The term morphome refers to a function in linguistics which is purely morphological or has an irreducibly morphological component. The term was introduced by Martin Maiden following Mark Aronoff's identification of morphomic functions and the morphomic level--a level of linguistic structure intermediate between and ind ... Read »


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    • Nominal identity

    • Nominal identity is the in name only as opposed to the individual experience of that identity. The concept is often used in sociology, psychology and linguistics. Nominal identity is the name to which one identifies, or calls oneself (i.e. general "African American," "Irish," "Straight," "Gay," "Female," "Male"). ... Read »


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    • Non-lexical vocables in music

    • Non-lexical vocables, which may be mixed with meaningful text, are a form of nonsense syllable used in a wide variety of music. A common English example would be "la la la". Non-lexical vocables are used in yodeling, Blackfoot music and other Native American music, Pygmy music, the music of the Maldives, Irish mus ... Read »


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    • Noun particle

    • A noun particle is any morpheme that denotes or marks the presence of a noun. Noun particles do not exist in English, but can be found in other languages such as Korean and Japanese. Korean particles are postpositions, which differ from English prepositions in that they come after the word they mark. The particle "ì ... Read »


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    • Object language

    • An object language is a language which is the "object" of study in various fields including logic, linguistics, mathematics, and theoretical computer science. The language being used to talk about an object language is called a metalanguage. An object language may be a formal or natural language. Mathematical logi ... Read »


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    • Open-ended question

    • An open-ended question cannot be answered with a "yes" or "no" response, or with a static response. Open-ended questions are phrased as a statement which requires a response. The response can be compared to information that is already known to the questioner. Examples of open-ended questions: ... Read »


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    • Optimality theory

    • Optimality theory (frequently abbreviated OT; second word normally capitalized by convention) is a linguistic model proposing that the observed forms of language arise from the interaction between conflicting constraints. OT differs from other approaches to phonological analysis, such as autosegmental phonology and lin ... Read »


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    • Orality

    • Orality is thought and verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy (especially writing and print) are unfamiliar to most of the population. The study of orality is closely allied to the study of oral tradition. However, it has broader implications, implicitly touching every aspect of the economics ... Read »


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    • Pattern language

    • A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language. A pattern language can also be an attempt to express the deeper wisdom of what b ... Read »


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    • Phonological history of French

    • French exhibits perhaps the most extensive phonetic changes (from Latin) of any of the Romance languages. Similar changes are seen in some of the northern Italian regional languages, such as Lombard or Ligurian. Most other Romance languages are significantly more conservative phonetically, with Spanish and especially I ... Read »


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    • The Postmodern Condition

    • Cover of the French edition
      Author Jean-François Lyotard Original title La condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir Translator Geoffrey Bennington and Brian Massumi Country France Language French Subject Postmodern culture, technology, epistemology
    • The Postmodern Condition

      The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (French: La condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir) is a 1979 book by Jean-François Lyotard, in which Lyotard analyzes the notion of knowledge in postmodern society as the end of 'grand narratives' or metanarratives, which he considers a quintessential feature of ... Read »


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    • Procatalepsis

    • Procatalepsis, also called prolepsis or prebuttal, is a figure of speech in which the speaker raises an objection to their own argument and then immediately answers it. By doing so, they hope to strengthen their argument by dealing with possible counter-arguments before their audience can raise them. In rhetoric antic ... Read »


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    • Protoscholastic writing

    • Protoscholastic writing re-introduced space between words into the punctuation of western languages. It replaced liturgical models starting in the 7th century and by the 14th century it was the standard. The protoscholastic mode of writing was primarily introduced for faster decoding of written texts for scholars, rath ... Read »


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    • Pseudoword

    • A pseudoword or non-word is a unit of speech or text that appears to be an actual word in a certain language, while in fact it has no meaning in the lexicon. It is a kind of non-lexical vocable. Such words without a meaning in a certain language or no occurrence in any text corpus or dictionary can be the result of (t ... Read »


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    • R-expression

    • In certain theories of syntax, an R-expression (short for referring expression) is a category in the three-way classification of noun phrases in binding theory, the other two being anaphors and pronominals. According to principle C of binding theory, R-expressions must be free. R-expressions include names (e.g. Mary, J ... Read »


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    • Referential indeterminacy

    • In linguistics, referential indeterminacy is a situation in which different people vary in naming objects. For example, William Labov studied this effect using illustrations of different drinking vessels to see what people would label as "cups" and what people would label as "mugs". ... Read »


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    • Reflexiveness

    • Reflexiveness is one of Charles Hockett's 16 Design features of language which states that in a language the speaker can use his/her language to talk about language. Speakers of a language are able to have knowledge about their language and be able to reflect upon it. ... Read »


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    • Register complex

    • In linguistics, a register complex is a combination of phonation type, pitch, length, vowel quality and/or other variants that function dependently as distinguishing features within a single phonological system. In languages employing register systems, differences in a distinguishing feature correlate relative to the q ... Read »


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    • Relativizer

    • In linguistics, a relativizer (abbreviated REL) is a type of conjunction that introduces a relative clause. For example, in English, the conjunction that may be considered a relativizer in a sentence such as "I have one that you can use." Relativizers do not appear, at least overtly, in all languages; even in languages ... Read »


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    • Respective case

    • The respective case' (also called the dedative or relative) is a grammatical case invented by J. R. R. Tolkien in his constructed language Quenya (the elven language of the book The Lord of the Rings). It is not clear if this case is used with prepositions, transitive or intransitive verbs, or has a more general use. B ... Read »


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    • Rhetorical Structure Theory

    • Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) was originally formulated by William Mann and Sandra Thompson of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute (ISI) in 1988. This theory was developed as part of studies of computer based text generation. Natural language researchers later began using RST in t ... Read »


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    • Schneider's dynamic model


    • Secondary orality

    • Secondary orality is a concept in the work of scholar Walter J. Ong, as first described in his book Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word, published in 1982 (2nd ed. 2002), Walter J. Ong and discussing the differences between oral and literate cultures. In this book, Ong used the phrase ‘secondary ... Read »


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    • Semantic analysis (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, semantic analysis is the process of relating syntactic structures, from the levels of phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs to the level of the writing as a whole, to their language-independent meanings. It also involves removing features specific to particular linguistic and cultural contexts, to ... Read »


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    • Semantic overload

    • In linguistics, semantic overload occurs when a word or phrase has more than one meaning, and is used in ways that convey meaning based on its divergent constituent concepts. Semantic overload is related to the linguistic concept of polysemy. Overloading is related to the psychological concept of information overload, ... Read »


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    • Semiotics of culture

    • Semiotics of culture is a research field within semiotics that attempts to define culture from semiotic perspective and as a type of human symbolic activity, creation of signs and a way of giving meaning to everything around. Therefore, here culture is understood as a system of symbols or meaningful signs. Because the ... Read »


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    • Shifting (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, shifting occurs when two or more constituents appearing on the same side of their common head exchange positions in a sense to obtain non-canonical order. The most widely acknowledged type of shifting is heavy NP shift, but shifting involving a heavy NP is just one manifestation of the shifting mechanis ... Read »


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    • Sign (linguistics)

    • There are many models of the linguistic sign. A classic model is the one by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. According to him, language is made up of signs and every sign has two sides (like a coin or a sheet of paper, both sides of which are inseparable): the signifier (French signifiant), the "shape" of a w ... Read »


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    • Signified and signifier

    • The terms signified and signifier are most commonly related to semiotics, which is defined by Oxford Dictionaries Online as "the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation".Ferdinand de Saussure, a Swiss linguist, was one of the two founders of semiotics. His book, Course in General Linguistics "is cons ... Read »


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    • Social network (sociolinguistics)

    • In the field of sociolinguistics, social network describes the structure of a particular speech community. Social networks are composed of a "web of ties" (Lesley Milroy) between individuals, and the structure of a network will vary depending on the types of connections it is composed of. Social network theory (as used ... Read »


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    • Speaker types

    • Within the linguistic study of endangered languages, sociolinguists distinguish between different speaker types based on the type of competence they have acquired of the endangered language. Often in situations where a community is gradually shifting away from an endangered language to a majority language, not all spea ... Read »


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    • Sprachraum

    • In linguistics, a sprachraum (/ˈsprɑːkraʊm/; German: [ˈʃpʁaːxʁaʊm], "language space") is a geographical region where a common first language (mother tongue), with dialect varieties, or group of languages is spoken. Most sprachraums do not follow national borders. For example, half of ... Read »


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    • Squib (writing)

    • A squib is a brief satirical or witty piece of writing or speech, like a lampoon, or a short, sometimes humorous piece in a newspaper or magazine, used as a filler. It can be intended to ignite thinking and discourse by others on topics of theoretical importance—e.g., see MIT Press's journal, Linguistic Inquiry, b ... Read »


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    • Standard language

    • A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a language variety used by a group of people as a lingua franca and in their public discourse. Alternatively, varieties become standard by undergoing a process of standardization, during which it is organized for description in grammars and dictiona ... Read »


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    • Structural linguistics

    • Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism. De Saussure's Course in General Linguistics, published posthumously in 1916, stressed examining language as a static system of interconnected units ... Read »


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    • Structuralism

    • In sociology, anthropology and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel. Alternati ... Read »


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    • Style (sociolinguistics)

    • In sociolinguistics, a style is a set of linguistic variants with specific social meanings. In this context, social meanings can include group membership, personal attributes, or beliefs. Linguistic variation is at the heart of the concept of linguistic style—without variation there is no basis for distinguishing ... Read »


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    • Synchrony and diachrony

    • Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis: The concepts were theorized by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, professor of general linguistics in Geneva from 1896 to 1911, and appeared in writing in his posthumous Course in General Linguistics published in 1916 ... Read »


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    • Syntagma (linguistics)

    • In linguistics, a syntagma is an elementary constituent segment within a text. Such a segment can be a phoneme, a word, a grammatical phrase, a sentence, or an event within a larger narrative structure, depending on the level of analysis. Syntagmatic analysis involves the study of relationships (rules of combination) a ... Read »


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    • Systemic functional linguistics

    • Systemic functional linguistics (SFL) is an approach to linguistics that considers language as a social semiotic system. It was developed by Michael Halliday, who took the notion of a system from his teacher, J. R. Firth. Whereas Firth thought systems referred to possibilities subordinated to structure, Halliday, in a ... Read »


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    • Tadoma

    • Tadoma is a method of communication used by deafblind individuals, in which the deafblind person places their thumb on the speaker's lips and their fingers along the jawline. The middle three fingers often fall along the speaker's cheeks with the little finger picking up the vibrations of the speaker's throat. It is so ... Read »


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    • Text, Speech and Dialogue

    • Text, Speech and Dialogue (TSD) is an annual conference involving topics on natural language processing and computational linguistics. The meeting is held every September alternating in Brno and Pilsen, Czech Republic. The first Text, Speech and Dialogue conference took place in Brno in 1998. TSD series evolved a ... Read »


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    • Thematic structure

    • Thematic structure is a term in linguistics. When people talk, there are purposes in three separable parts of utterances, the act of speech, the propositional content and the thematic structure. Because speaking is cooperative, in order that the speaking can be effective in the conversation, speakers have to pay attent ... Read »


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    • Theoretical linguistics

    • Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics which inquires into the nature of language itself and seeks to answer fundamental questions as to what language is; how does it work; how does universal grammar (UG) as a domain-specific mental organ operate; what are its unique properties; how does language relate t ... Read »


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    • Theta criterion

    • The theta-criterion (also named θ-criterion) is a constraint on x-bar theory that was first proposed by Noam Chomsky (1981) as a rule within the system of principles of the government and binding theory, called theta-theory (θ-theory). As theta-theory is concerned with the distribution and assignment of theta- ... Read »


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    • Topic and comment

    • In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic. That the information structure of a clause is divided in this way is generally agreed on, but the boundary between topic/theme and comment/rheme/focus depends on gram ... Read »


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    • Traditional transmission

    • Traditional transmission (also called cultural transmission) is a design feature of language that the anthropologist Charles F. Hockett developed to distinguish the features of human language from those of animal communication. He discovered thirteen features that all human languages have. Animals might communicate wit ... Read »


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    • Transformational syntax

    • In linguistics, transformational syntax is a derivational approach to syntax that developed from the extended standard theory of generative grammar originally proposed by Noam Chomsky in his books Syntactic Structures and Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. It emerged from a need to improve on approaches to grammar in str ... Read »


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    • Turn construction unit

    • A turn construction unit (TCU) is the fundamental segment of speech in a conversation, as analyzed in conversation analysis. The idea was introduced in (Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson 1974) and is meant to describe pieces of conversation which may comprise an entire turn. The end of a TCU, called a transition relevance ... Read »


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    • Type–token distinction


    • Universal grammar

    • Universal grammar (UG) in linguistics, is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The basic postulate of UG is that language is hard-wired into the brain. It is sometimes known as "mental grammar", and stands opposed to other "grammars", e.g. prescriptive, descript ... Read »


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    • Usus

    • Usus (from Latin: usus — usage; long-established rule, practice, custom) — widely accepted usage of linguistic units (words, idioms, forms). On one hand, it is set off occasional usage and, from the other hand, also language norm. Sometimes the term usus implies particular norms differing from literary norm ... Read »


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    • Value (semiotics)

    • In semiotics, the value of a sign depends on its position and relations in the system of signification and upon the particular codes being used. Value is the sign as it is determined by the other signs in a semiotic system. For linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, for example, the content of a sign in linguistics is ul ... Read »


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    • Variation (linguistics)

    • Variation is a characteristic of language: there is more than one way of saying the same thing. Speakers may vary pronunciation (accent), word choice (lexicon), or morphology and syntax (sometimes called "grammar"). But while the diversity of variation is great, there seem to be boundaries on variation – speakers ... Read »


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    • Velleity

    • Velleity is the lowest degree of volition, a slight wish or tendency. The marketer Matt Bailey described it as "a desire to see something done, but not enough desire to make it happen". Matt Bailey expressed an attempt "to bring it back, as it has more relevance now than ever." He writes that: Velleity is what k ... Read »


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    • Verbosity

    • Verbosity or verboseness is speech or writing which uses more words than needed. A common example is "Despite the fact that" as a common replacement for "Although". Antonyms of verbosity include succinctness, concision, laconism, and plain language. Some teachers, including the author of The Elements of Style, warn wri ... Read »


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    • Verse (poetry)

    • In the countable sense, a verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition. However, verse has come to represent any division or grouping of words in a poetic composition, with groupings traditionally having been referred to as stanzas. In the uncountable (mass noun) sense verse refers to "poetry" as c ... Read »


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    • Viseme

    • A viseme is any of several speech sounds that look the same, for example when lip reading (Fisher 1968). Visemes and phonemes do not share a one-to-one correspondence. Often several phonemes correspond to a single viseme, as several phonemes look the same on the face when produced, such as /k, É¡, ŋ/, (viseme: /k ... Read »


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    • Wickelphone

    • A Wickelphone is a sequence of three letters or symbols, which occur together in a word. For example, the word strip may be decomposed into a set of trigrams such as rip and str — these are Wickelphones. The term was devised by James McClelland and David Rumelhart in reference to the work of Wayne Wickelgren in 19 ... Read »


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    • William Riley Parker Prize

    • The William Riley Parker Prize is the oldest award given by the Modern Language Association, the principal professional organization in the United States for scholars of language and literature. The Parker Prize is awarded each year for an “outstanding article” published in PMLA—the association’s pr ... Read »


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    • World Englishes

    • World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States. The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally ... Read »


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    • Xenoglossy

    • Xenoglossy (/ˌziːnəˈɡlɒsi, ˌzɛ-, -noʊ-/), also written xenoglossia (/ˌziːnəˈɡlɒsiə, ˌzɛ-, -noʊ-/), sometimes also known as xenolalia, is the putative paranormal phenomenon in which a person is able to speak or write a language he or she could not have acquired by ... Read »


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    • Xenography

    • Xenography is knowledge of a foreign language. In Spiritualism, writing in a language which is unknown to the writer. It is similar, but not the same as, xenoglossy and xenolalia. ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Linguistics

Extras