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    Law stubs

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    • Scots law

    • Scots law is the legal system of Scotland. It is a hybrid or mixed legal system containing civil law and common law elements, that traces its roots to a number of different historical sources. Together with English law and Northern Ireland law, it is one of the three legal systems of the United Kingdom. It shares some ... Read »


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    • Scots law

    • Scots law is the legal system of Scotland. It is a hybrid or mixed legal system containing civil law and common law elements, that traces its roots to a number of different historical sources. Together with English law and Northern Ireland law, it is one of the three legal systems of the United Kingdom. It shares some ... Read »


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    • Scots law

    • Scots law is the legal system of Scotland. It is a hybrid or mixed legal system containing civil law and common law elements, that traces its roots to a number of different historical sources. Together with English law and Northern Ireland law, it is one of the three legal systems of the United Kingdom. It shares some ... Read »


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    • Scots law

    • Scots law is the legal system of Scotland. It is a hybrid or mixed legal system containing civil law and common law elements, that traces its roots to a number of different historical sources. Together with English law and Northern Ireland law, it is one of the three legal systems of the United Kingdom. It shares some ... Read »


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    • Law book stubs

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    • Abortion stubs

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    • Animal rights stubs

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    • Case law stubs

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    • Crime stubs

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    • Criminal law stubs

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    • Law enforcement stubs

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    • Law firm stubs

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    • Human rights stubs

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    • International law stubs

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    • Law journal stubs

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    • Law biography stubs

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    • LGBT law stubs

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    • Legal magazine stubs

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    • Prison stubs

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    • Law school stubs

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    • Statute stubs

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    • Legal terminology stubs

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    • African law stubs

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    • Ancient Roman law stubs

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    • Asian law stubs

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    • Australian law stubs

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    • Canadian law stubs

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    • European law stubs

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    • Latin American law stubs

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    • New Zealand law stubs

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    • Punjabi law stubs


    • United States law stubs

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    • Clarence Aaron

    • Clarence Aaron is an American recipient of a presidential commutation, after having been originally given a triple life sentence for helping to coordinate a drug deal. He was released from prison the third week of April 2014. The mishandling of his petition was among the reasons United States Pardon Attorney Ronald Rod ... Read »


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    • Abstractor of title

    • An abstractor of title is a person who prepares and certifies the condensed history (known as an abstract of title) of the ownership of a particular parcel of real estate, consisting of a summary of the original grant and all subsequent conveyances and encumbrances affecting the property. ... Read »


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    • Abuse of rights

    • In civil law jurisdictions, abuse of rights is the exercise of a legal right only to cause annoyance, harm, or injury to another. The abuser is liable for the harm caused by their actions. Some examples of this are abuse of power, barratry or vexatious litigation, forum shopping, abuse of process, tax avoidance (vs. an ... Read »


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    • Accardi v. Shaughnessy

    • United States ex rel. Accardi v. Shaughnessy, 347 U.S. 260 (1954), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case, in administrative law, in which the Court held that administrative agencies are obliged to follow their own regulations. Under the Accardi Doctrine, agencies which do not follow their own regulations or pr ... Read »


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    • Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual

    • The Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual is a directory maintained by the United States Patent and Trademark Office outlining the different categories of goods and services recognized by that office with respect to trademark registrations, and setting forth the forty-two international classes into whi ... Read »


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    • Acknowledgment (law)

    • In law, an acknowledgment is a declaration or avowal of one's own act, used to authenticate legal instruments, which may give the instrument legal validity, and works to prevent the recording of false instruments or fraudulent executions. Acknowledgement involves a public official, frequently a notary public. The party ... Read »


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    • Acta Curiae

    • Acta Curiae (Latin meaning "acts of court"), are records of the proceedings in ecclesiastical courts and in quasi-ecclesiastical courts, particularly of universities. They are sometimes also known as Registers of the Chancellor's (or Vice-Chancellor's) Court. This type of court was often used by local people who were c ... Read »


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    • Adhesion procedure

    • Adhesion procedure, adhesive procedure or ancillary proceedings is a procedure through which a court of law can rule on compensation for the victim of a criminal offense. Rather than pursuing damages in a separate civil action, the victim files a civil claim against the offender as a part of a criminal trial. This sys ... Read »


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    • ADI 3510

    • ADI 3510

      Chief Justice Gilmar Ferreira Mendes Rapporteur Justice Carlos Ayres Britto Associate Justices ADI 3510 (April 29, 2008), is a landmark Brazil Supreme Court case. The minister relator Carlos Ayres Britto voted in favor of embryonic stem cell research (Biosecurity Law). ... Read »


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    • Adult adoption

    • Adult adoption is a form of adoption between 2 or more adults in order to transfer inheritance rights and/or filiation. Adult adoption may be done for various reasons including: to establish intestate inheritance rights; to formalize a step-parent/step-child relationship or a foster parent/foster child relationship; or ... Read »


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    • Adverse abandonment

    • A petition for adverse abandonment is filed by a party other than the owner of a railroad asking a court or a state board to declare the land abandoned by the railroad. Most railroad rights of way are held in easement, so that the land must revert to the original owners if the tracks are removed. ... Read »


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    • Advisory jury

    • An advisory jury is a group installed by a judge to give him or her an opinion during a trial. Unlike the normal jury, the advisory jury opinion is non-binding, and the judge remains the "final arbitrator of fact and law". In United States Federal Court, a case may be tried by advisory jury in the case of "an action no ... Read »


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    • Advocacy and incitement

    • Advocacy and incitement are two categories of speech, the latter of which is a more specific type of the former directed to producing imminent lawless action and which is likely to incite or produce such action. In the 1957 case Yates v. United States, Justice John Marshall Harlan II ruled that only advocacy that const ... Read »


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    • Against DRM license

    • Against DRM 2.0 is a free copyleft license for artworks. It is the first free content license that contains a clause about related rights and a clause against DRM. The first clause authorizes licensee to exercise related rights; the second clause prevents the use of DRM: if licensor uses DRM, the license is not applica ... Read »


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    • Agricultural law

    • Agricultural law, sometimes referred to as Ag Law, deals with law on Agricultural infrastructure, seed, water, fertilizer, pesticide, etc.; Law on agricultural finance, Law on agricultural labour; agricultural marketing; Agricultural insurance, Farming rights, Land tenure and tenancy system and law on Agricultural proc ... Read »


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    • Akciová společnost


    • Alcoholic Beverage Labeling Act

    • The Alcoholic Beverage Labeling Act (ABLA) of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, Pub.L. 100–690, 102 Stat. 4181, enacted November 18, 1988, H.R. 5210, is a United States federal law requiring that (among other provisions) the labels of alcoholic beverages carry a government warning. The warning reads: (1) ... Read »


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    • Ambulance chasing

    • Ambulance chasing, sometimes known as barratry, is a professional slur which refers to a lawyer soliciting for clients at a disaster site. The term "ambulance chasing" comes from the stereotype of lawyers that follow ambulances to the emergency room to find clients. Ambulance chasing is prohibited in the United States ... Read »


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    • AMNOG

    • The Arzneimittelmarkt-Neuordnungsgesetz (AMNOG, English translation: "Pharmaceuticals Market Reorganisation Act") is a German law relating to the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Germany. It requires drug manufacturers to submit evidence to the Federal Joint Committee (Germany) to show that their new products ar ... Read »


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    • Analytical jurisprudence

    • Analytical jurisprudence is a legal theory that draws on the resources of modern analytical philosophy to try to understand the nature of law. Since the boundaries of analytical philosophy are somewhat vague, it is difficult to say how far it extends. H. L. A. Hart was probably the most influential writer in the modern ... Read »


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    • Animo

    • Animo is a Latin term used in the law that means with intention or with purpose. ... Read »


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    • Antedated

    • An antedated contract is a contract whose date is in the past; formally, a contract where the effective date on the contract is prior to the date on which the contract is executed (written, signed, made effective). The term is from Latin ante meaning "before", and its antonym is postdate. Another example, in simpler te ... Read »


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    • Aotearoa International Ltd v Scancarriers A/S


    • Appearance (law)

    • In law, appearance (from Latin apparere, to appear) is the coming into court of either of the parties to a lawsuit, and/or the formal act by which a defendant submits himself to the jurisdiction of the court. The defendant in an action in the High Court of England enters his appearance to the writ of summons by delive ... Read »


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    • Appearance of corruption

    • The Appearance of Corruption is a principle of law mentioned in or relevant to several SCOTUS decisions related to campaign finance in the United States. For example: ... Read »


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    • Arbitration Act 1950

    • Arbitration Act 1950

      The Arbitration Act 1950 (c.27, 14 Geo. 6) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that consolidated and amended arbitration law in England and Wales. Although the Act has now largely been superseded by the Arbitration Act 1996, Part II of the Act (dealing with the enforcement of non-New York Convention awa ... Read »


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    • Arkansas Medical Cannabis Act

    • The Arkansas Medical Cannabis Act (AMCA) is a proposed legislative act to appear on the 2016 general election ballot as an initiative in the U.S. state of Arkansas. According to a 2015 survey, 84% of Arkansas voters favored medical cannabis legalization, leading some to conclude passage of the 2016 act is likely. The a ... Read »


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    • Art and culture law

    • Art and culture law is the body of law, including domestic and foreign law, and multilateral treaties and conventions, that regulates and is applied to artists, fine art and cultural property. ... Read »


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    • Articled clerk

    • An articled clerk is someone who is studying to either be an accountant or lawyer. In doing so they are put under the supervision of someone already in the profession, usually for two years. This can be compared as being an intern for a company, the only difference is once the two years is over the trainee becomes the ... Read »


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    • Articles of Agreement

    • In nautical terms, a contract between the captain of a ship and a crew member regarding stipulations of a voyage, signed prior to and upon termination of a voyage. ... Read »


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    • Associate Justice

    • Associate Justice or Associate Judge is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice in some jurisdictions. The title "Associate Justice" is used for members of the Supreme Court of the United States and some state supreme courts, and for some other courts in Commonwealth countries, as well a ... Read »


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    • Aviation regulations

    • Most country's administrations have regulatory authorities devoted to producing and publishing regulations for aeronautical operations. In Canada, the publication is called Canadian Aviation Regulations, and is produced by Transport Canada. For a number of European States, the regulations are produced by the European ... Read »


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    • Avowry

    • In law, avowry is where one takes a distress for rent or other thing, and the other sues replevin. In which case the taker shall justify, in his plea, for what cause he took it, and if he took it in his own right, is to show it, and so avow the taking—which is called his avowry. If he took it in the right of anoth ... Read »


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    • Baidu Patents

    • Baidu Patents, or Baidu Zhuanli (Chinese: 百度专利) is a Chinese free online patent search service, launched on 1 January 2008. The Baidu Patents search engine is the result of a collaboration between the China Patent Information Center (CPIC), the Chinese Patent Office (SIPO) and Baidu. Baidu Patent Se ... Read »


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    • Bailiwick

    • A bailiwick /ˈbeɪláµ»wɪk/ is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ. The word is now more generally used in a metaphorical sense, to indicate a sphere of autho ... Read »


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    • Ballot measure

    • A ballot measure is a piece of proposed legislation to be approved or rejected by eligible voters. Ballot measures are also known as "propositions" or simply "questions". Ballot measures differ from most legislation passed by representative democracies; ordinarily, an elected legislature develops and passes laws. Ball ... Read »


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    • Barbados Bar Association

    • The Barbados Bar Association is a voluntary association of attorneys in Barbados who practise at the independent bar as barristers and Queen's Counsel. It was created by the Barbados Bar Association Act of 1940. ... Read »


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    • Bellwether trial

    • In the law of torts bellwether trial is a test case intended to try a widely contested issue. Bellwether trials are an increasingly common phenomenon in U.S. legal practice. Bellwether trials are especially common in Multidistrict Litigation (MDL) practice, where many cases have been consolidated for purposes of disco ... Read »


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    • Bench memorandum

    • A bench memorandum (pl. bench memoranda) (also known as a bench memo) is a short and neutral memo which summarizes the facts, issues, and arguments of a court case. Bench memos are used by the judge as a reference when preparing for trial, when hearing lawyers' arguments, when drafting a decision, and to give the judge ... Read »


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    • Bermuda Bar Association

    • The Bermuda Bar Association is a bar association of lawyers and responsible for the governing and discipline of the Bermuda legal profession. ... Read »


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    • Betterman v. Montana

    • Betterman v. Montana

      Betterman v. Montana, 578 U.S. ___ (2016), was a United States Supreme Court case which held that the right to a speedy trial does not guarantee the right to speedy sentencing. It was decided on May 19, 2016. Brandon T. Betterman was charged with an assault on a family member in 2011, but failed to show up at a Mo ... Read »


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    • Beware of the dog

    • Beware of the dog (also rendered as Beware of dog) is a warning sign indicating that a dangerous dog is within. Warning signs of this sort have been found in ancient Roman buildings such as the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, which contains a mosaic with the caption cave canem. Some suppose that these warning ... Read »


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    • Bicycle Accident Reconstruction and Litigation

    • Bicycle Accident Reconstruction and Litigation is a bicycle law treatise on the engineering and legal aspects of bicycle accidents, directed at engineers and attorneys handling bicycle accident cases. Thus, its scope is confined to the highly technical engineering and legal issues specific to bicycle accidents. However ... Read »


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    • Bicycle hearing laws by country

    • This article covers not just earphones but also bone conductive headsets. Illegal to wear earphones while bicycling. No laws specific against bone conductive headsets. Illegal to wear earphones while bicycling. No laws specific against bone conductive headsets. Illegal to wear earphones while bicycling. No laws ... Read »


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    • BitLicense

    • A BitLicense is the common term used for a business license of virtual currency activities, issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS) under regulations designed for companies. The regulations are limited to activities involving New York or a New York resident. Those that reside, are located ... Read »


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    • Bonus clause

    • A bonus clause is a clause in a contract that rewards the contractor for doing more than the letter of the contract; particularly, to finish the job early. It is in apposition to a penalty clause where the contractor loses by providing less than the letter of the contract, or providing it later than agreed. The aim of ... Read »


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    • Borgarting

    • The Borgarting was one of the major popular assemblies or things (lagting) of medieval Norway. Historically it was the site of the court and assembly for the southern coastal region of Norway from the south-eastern border with Sweden, westwards to the today's Risør in Aust-Agder. Borgarting was named after its sea ... Read »


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    • Break/fix


    • Brehon

    • Brehon (Irish: breitheamh - IPA brʑehəvɤ or brʑejuː) is a term for a historical arbitration, mediative and judicial role in Gaelic culture. Brehons were part of the system of Early Irish law, which was also simply called "Brehon law". Ireland's indigenous system of law dates from the Iron Age. Known ... Read »


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    • Joyce Ann Brown

    • Joyce Ann Brown (died 13 June 2015) was wrongfully convicted of robbery and murder in 1980 and spent almost a decade in prison before her conviction was overturned. Her case was notable because it was one of the first convictions that was overturned after extensive media exposure. Her case was featured on the televisio ... Read »


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    • The Bulletin of International Legal Developments

    • The Bulletin of International Legal Developments (until 2005 titled The Bulletin of Legal Developments) is a fortnightly law journal published by the British Institute of International and Comparative Law. Aiming to provide the reader with a brief overview about recent developments in international law, it features art ... Read »


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    • Burlaw court

    • Burlaw court, Russian: Товарищеский суд (verb. "court of comrades") was a special form of collective justice that existed in the Soviet Union. Burlaw courts were elected for the term of two years by open voting of working collective members, and were entitled to consider min ... Read »


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    • Business necessity

    • A business necessity is a legitimate business purpose that justifies an employment decision as effective and needed to optimally achieve the organization’s goals and ensure that operations run safely and efficiently. This is often presented as a defense of an employment decision that is questioned because it was f ... Read »


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    • Buyout clause

    • A buyout clause or release clause refers, in a contract, a clause that imposes a football club wishing to acquire a player under contract to pay money, often substantial, the original club to acquire a player. The aim of this clause is twofold, firstly it discourages, with its high amount, competing clubs and secondly ... Read »


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    • Cab-rank rule

    • In English law (and other countries which adopt the rule), the cab-rank rule is the obligation of a barrister to accept any work in a field in which they profess themselves competent to practise, at a court at which they normally appear, and at their usual rates. The rule derives its name from the tradition by which a ... Read »


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    • Call of duty (law)

    • Call of duty is a legal term describing the necessity to carry out a job or duty, such as a police case, military assault/wartime actions, or other military or highly important jobs. The phrase "Duty calls" has been used in media such as movies, stories, and video games, usually when someone is pulled from a conversat ... Read »


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    • CanLII

    • The Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII) is a non-profit organization created and funded by the Federation of Law Societies of Canada on behalf of its 14 member societies. CanLII is a member of the Free Access to Law Movement, which includes the primary stakeholders involved in free, open publication of law th ... Read »


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    • Canon law of the Anglican Communion

    • The Anglican Communion as a whole, unlike the Roman Catholic Church, does not have a centralised canon law of its own. Each of the autonomous member churches of the communion, however, does have a canonical system. Some, such as the Church of England have an ancient, highly developed canon law while others, such as the ... Read »


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    • Canon law of the Episcopal Church in the United States

    • Like the other autonomous member churches of the Anglican Communion, the Episcopal Church in the United States has its own system of canon law. Unlike the system of canon law in the Church of England, which continues to be drawn from the canon law of the Western church, English ecclesiastical law did not remain in forc ... Read »


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    • CaseMap

    • CaseMap was introduced 1998 as relational database software for law offices to store and retrieve evidence and sources of evidence in litigation. It includes database tables (the program's documentation refers to them as spreadsheets) for facts, issues, documents, physical evidence, depositions, pleadings, persons, org ... Read »


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    • Cause lawyer

    • A cause lawyer, also known as a public interest lawyer or social lawyer, is a lawyer dedicated to the usage of law for the promotion of social change. Cause lawyering is commonly described as a practice of "lawyering for the good" or using law to empower members of the weaker layers of society. It may or may not be per ... Read »


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    • Cease and desist

    • A cease and desist letter is a document sent to an individual or business to halt purportedly illegal activity ("cease") and not take it up again later ("desist"). The letter may warn that if the recipient does not discontinue specified conduct, or take certain actions, by deadlines set in the letter, that party may be ... Read »


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    • Center for Policing Equity

    • The Center for Policing Equity is a research center founded at University of California-Los Angeles and now based at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice.Phillip Atiba Goff, Franklin A. Thomas Professor of policing equity at John Jay, is co-founder and president. ... Read »


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    • Ceremonial marriage

    • Ceremonial marriage is a common form of marriage in which a couple follows laws and procedures specified by the state in order to gain recognition of their marriage (ex. buying a marriage license, participating in a ceremony led by an authorized official, having witnesses at a ceremony). They are often accompanied by w ... Read »


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    • Cert-money

    • Cert-money, or head-money, was a common fine, paid annually by the residents of several manors to the lords thereof; and sometimes to the hundred; pro certo letae, for the certain keeping of the leet. This in ancient records, was called certum letae.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the pub ... Read »


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    • Certificate of appealability

    • In the most common types of habeas corpus proceedings in the United States federal courts, a certificate of appealability is a legal document that must be issued before a petitioner may appeal from a denial of the writ. The certificate may only be issued when the petitioner has made a "substantial showing of the denial ... Read »


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    • Certificate of public convenience and necessity

    • A certificate of public convenience and necessity or certificate of public convenience is a type of regulatory compliance certification for public service industries. Private companies wishing to provide essential public services in certain countries must be granted a CPCN before constructing facilities and offering se ... Read »


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    • Citizenship test

    • A citizenship test is an examination, written or oral, required to achieve citizenship in a country. The requirements of a citizenship test is a method to control immigration. ... Read »


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    • City court

    • City court or municipal court is a court of law with jurisdiction limited to its locale. It typically addresses "violations of city ordinances and may also have jurisdiction over minor criminal cases...and over certain civil cases." Examples include Moscow City Court in Russia, Municipal Court of Chicago and New York C ... Read »


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    • Civil conscription

    • Civil conscription is conscription used for forcing people to work in non-military projects. Civil conscription is used by various governments around the world, among them Greece, where it has been used numerous times and it is called πολιτική επιστράτευση (p ... Read »


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    • Civil death

    • Civil death (Latin: civiliter mortuus) is the loss of all or almost all civil rights by a person due to a conviction for a felony or due to an act by the government of a country that results in the loss of civil rights. It is usually inflicted on persons convicted of crimes against the state or adults determined by a c ... Read »


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    • Civil Defence Act 1948

    • The Civil Defence Act 1948 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom setting out legislation for civil defence procedures in the United Kingdom. It was repealed and replaced by the Civil Contingencies Act 2004. ... Read »


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    • Clerical error

    • A clerical error is an error on the part of an office worker, often a secretary or personal assistant. It is a phrase which can also be used as an excuse to deflect blame away from specific individuals, such as high-powered executives, and instead redirect it to the more anonymous clerical staff. A clerical error in a ... Read »


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    • Collateral warranty

    • The term “collateral warranty” originates in property law. In 1839 Francis Hilliard wrote: “A collateral warranty is where the heir neither does nor could derive his title to the land from the warrantor; and yet is both de-barred from claiming title and bound to recompense in case of eviction.”. The ... Read »


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    • Collegatary

    • In civil law, a collegatary is a person to whom is left a legacy, as imparted by a will, in common with one or more other individuals; so called as being a joint legatary, or co-legatee. ... Read »


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    • Commercial law

    • Commercial law, also known as business law or corporate law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales. It is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals with issues of both private law and public law. ... Read »


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    • Committee of adjustment

    • A Committee of Adjustment, similar to a Zoning Board of Adjustment, is a quasi-judicial body in each Ontario municipality that adjudicates matters related to minor variances to Zoning by-laws and consents to severances of land. ... Read »


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    • Commonwealth v Verwayen

    • Commonwealth v Verwayen

      Commonwealth v Verwayen [1990] HCA 39; (1990) 170 CLR 394 is a leading case about Estoppel in Australia. Verwayen was a leading electrical mechanic in the RAN serving on HMAS Voyager, and was injured in the collision with HMAS Melbourne on 10 February 1964. He later sued the government for damages for his injuries. I ... Read »


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    • Communal ownership

    • Communal ownership is an ownership of a territorial commune and its bodies of self-administration. Communal ownership is similar to municipal or public ownership. Communal ownership is not part of state or private property. ... Read »


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    • Community Legal Advice

    • Community Legal Advice is a government-funded advice service set up by the Legal Services Commission as part of the Community Legal Service. It aims to help people in England and Wales deal with civil legal problems, and is part of the legal aid programme in those nations. It comprises a telephone helpline, advice cen ... Read »


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    • Competing harms

    • Competing harms is a legal doctrine in certain U.S. states, particularly in New England. For example, the Maine Criminal Code holds that "Conduct that the person believes to be necessary to avoid imminent physical harm to that person or another is justifiable if the desirability and urgency of avoiding such harm outwei ... Read »


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    • Compulsory prosecution

    • Compulsory prosecution is an aspect of certain justice systems in which the prosecutor is required to press charges when he has sufficient evidence to support a conviction. This system is used in Germany. It has also been required by the Constitution of Italy since 1948. The lack of such a requirement in the United Sta ... Read »


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    • Concluding observations on the second periodic report of the Holy See

    • Concluding observations on the second periodic report of the Holy See was a 2014 report issued by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, regarding the handling by the Catholic Church and Holy See of cases of sexual abuse against minors. ... Read »


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    • Conditional release

    • Conditional release is a method of release from incarceration that is contingent upon obeying conditions of release under threat of revocation (return to prison) under reduced due process protections." It is sometimes viewed as a less restrictive alternative of hospitalization of psychiatric patients. ... Read »


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    • Connivance

    • Connivance is the act of conniving or conspiring, especially with the knowledge of and active or passive consent to wrongdoing or a twist in truth, to make something appear as something that it is not. A legal finding of connivance may be made when an accuser has assisted in the act about which they are complaining. I ... Read »


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    • Constance Slaughter-Harvey

    • Constance Slaughter-Harvey is a Forest, Mississippi native that became the first black judge in the state of Mississippi. Contance Slaughter-Harvey received her bachelor's degree in political science and economics from Tougaloo College with cum laude honors. After graduation, she enrolled at the University of Mississi ... Read »


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    • Constant visual observation

    • Constant visual observation, often abbreviated to "constant visual", is a term used in various Mental Health Services, Prisons and Special Schools to describe the status of a prisoner or patient who poses a threat to himself or a third party, and must therefore be kept under constant observation. There are essentially ... Read »


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    • Constitution of Jamaica

    • The Constitution of Jamaica is the constitution and highest law of Jamaica. As a constituent province of the West Indies Federation, Jamaica became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962 under the Jamaica Independence Act 1962. Under the West Indies Act 1962, the monarchy of the United Kingdom was allowed ... Read »


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    • Constitutional review

    • Constitutional review, or constitutionality review or constitutional control, is the evaluation, in some countries, of the constitutionality of the laws. It's supposed to be a system of preventing violation of the rights granted by the constitution, assuring its efficacy, their stability and preservation. There ar ... Read »


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    • Consumer Court

    • Consumer Court is the special purpose court, in India, that deals with cases regarding consumer disputes and grievances. These are judiciary set ups by the government to protect the consumer rights. Its main function is to maintain the fair practices by the sellers towards consumers. Consumers can file a case against a ... Read »


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    • Continuing trespass

    • A continuing trespass is: ... Read »


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    • Contractual Remedies Act 1979

    • The Contractual Remedies Act 1979 is a statute of the New Zealand Parliament. It provides remedies in respect of misrepresentation, repudiation or breach of contract in New Zealand ... Read »


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    • Conveyancer

    • In most Commonwealth countries, a conveyancer is a specialist lawyer who specialises in the legal aspects of buying and selling real property, or conveyancing. A conveyancer can also be (but need not be) a solicitor, licensed conveyancer, or a fellow of the Institute of Legal Executives. In the United Kingdom, conveya ... Read »


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    • Cooling-off period (consumer rights)

    • In consumer rights legislation and practice, a cooling-off period is a period of time following a purchase when the purchaser may choose to cancel a purchase, and return goods which have been supplied, for any reason, and obtain a full refund. Many retailers will voluntarily allow a purchaser a cooling-off period, whi ... Read »


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    • Copyright abolition

    • The term "copyright abolition movements" refers to movements to abolish copyright, specifically those that espouse the repeal of the Statute of Anne and all subsequent law made in its support. Michele Boldrin and David K. Levine, economists at Washington University, have suggested that copyrights and patents are a net ... Read »


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    • Copyright law of North Korea

    • Copyright law of North Korea is regulated by the Copyright Act of 2001. It introduced a 50 years pma protection, and has been amended several times. North Korea had no copyright law before that date. North Korea is party to the Berne Convention. ... Read »


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    • Corporation counsel

    • The corporation counsel is the title given to the chief legal officer in some US municipal and county jurisdictions, who handles civil claims against the city, including negotiating settlements and defending the city when it is sued. Most corporation counsel do not prosecute criminal cases, though some prosecute traffi ... Read »


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    • Countersign (legal)

    • Countersigning means writing a second signature onto a document. For example, a contract or other official document signed by the representative of a company may be countersigned by his supervisor to verify the authority of the representative. Also, a money order or other financial instrument may be signed once upon re ... Read »


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    • Courage Foundation

    • The Courage Foundation is a trust for fundraising the legal defence of individuals such as whistleblowers and journalists. Founded on August 9, 2013, as the 'Journalistic Source Protection Defence Fund' by , the site later rebranded in June 2014. The trust accepts donations by Bitcoin and maintain a Tor hidden service ... Read »


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    • Court clerk

    • A court clerk (English English clerk to the court; American English clerk of the court or clerk of court) is an officer of the court whose responsibilities include maintaining records of a court. Another duty is to administer oaths to witnesses, jurors, and grand jurors. In the magistrates' courts of England and Wales ... Read »


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    • Court usher

    • A court usher is a position in a law court. Tasks generally performed by court ushers involve escorting participants to the courtroom, and seeing that they are suitably hydrated, as well as ensuring the secure transaction of legal documents within the courtroom and deciding the order of cases. The roles of an usher may ... Read »


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    • Credit card kiting

    • Credit card kiting refers to the use of one or more credit cards to obtain cash and purchasing power they do not have, or pay credit card balances with the proceeds of other cards. Unlike check kiting, which is illegal under nearly all circumstances, laws against credit card kiting are not completely prohibitive of the ... Read »


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    • Credit Support Annex

    • A Credit Support Annex, or CSA, is a legal document which regulates credit support (collateral) for derivative transactions. It is one of the four parts that make up an ISDA Master Agreement but is not mandatory. It is possible to have an ISDA agreement without a CSA but normally not a CSA without an ISDA. Essentially ... Read »


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    • Crime insurance

    • Crime insurance is insurance to manage the loss exposures resulting from criminal acts such as robbery, burglary and other forms of theft. It is also called "fidelity insurance". Many businesses purchase crime insurance that allows them to file claims for employee theft or other offenses with the potential to cause fin ... Read »


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    • Criminal appeal

    • A criminal appeal was a procedure in English law to bring about the prosecution of an individual accused of some crime. A private individual (the "appellor") would accuse another (the "appellee") of a crime, without the need for proceedings to be brought by the crown. It possibly descended from the system of weregild. ... Read »


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    • Criminal costs

    • Criminal costs are financial penalties awarded against convicted criminals, in addition to the sentence they receive, in recognition of the costs of the court in bringing the prosecution. A Magistrates' Court or Crown Court may award such costs as are "just and reasonable" against an offender. Usually, these are m ... Read »


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    • Criminal Justice Act 1953

    • The Criminal Justice Act 1953 (Malay: Akta Keadilan Jenayah 1953) is a Malaysian law which enacted relating to penal servitude, methods of imprisonment and whipping; and for purposes connected therewith. The Criminal Justice Act 1953, in its current form (1 June 2013), consists of 6 sections and no schedule (inclu ... Read »


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    • Crown Prosecutor

    • The Crown Prosecutor is the title given in a number of jurisdictions to the state prosecutor, the legal party responsible for presenting the case against an individual in a criminal trial. The title is commonly used in Commonwealth realms. ... Read »


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    • Crumbling skull rule

    • The crumbling skull rule is a well-established legal doctrine used in some tort law systems. It holds that where a plaintiff had a condition or injury that predates the tort and would have naturally deteriorated or worsened over time (e.g. a crumbling skull), the defendant is not responsible to the degree that the cond ... Read »


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    • Cryptography law

    • Cryptography is the practice and study of encrypting information, or in other words, securing information from unauthorized access. There are many different cryptography laws in different nations. Some countries prohibit export of cryptography software and/or encryption algorithms or cryptoanalysis methods. In some cou ... Read »


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    • Cure or quit

    • In landlord–tenant law, a notice to cure or quit is issued by a landlord when a tenant performs actions in violation of a lease. The notice gives a tenant the option of either fixing the offending problem or vacating the rental property. If the tenant continues performing the action(s) and does not move out, he or ... Read »


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    • De facto corporation and corporation by estoppel

    • De facto corporation and corporation by estoppel are both terms that are used by courts in most common law jurisdictions to describe circumstances in which a business organization that has failed to become a de jure corporation (a corporation by law) will nonetheless be treated as a corporation, thereby shielding share ... Read »


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    • De jure

    • De jure (adjective, adverb) (/dáµ» ˈdʒʊəriː/, /deɪ-/;Classical Latin: de iure [deː ˈjuːrɛ]; (lit. 'concerning law') means 'a state of affairs that is in accordance with law', i.e. that is officially designated. In contrast, de facto (lit. 'concerning fact'), means 'a state of affairs th ... Read »


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    • De sententia ferenda

    • De sententia ferenda, Latin for "of judgments as they should be," is a legal term used to depict advice to the courts about how they should judge and refine the analysis about what they really decide. The concept is similar but not the same as, lex ferenda, which is denoted how the law should be. ... Read »


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    • Deed of gift


    • Defeasibility

    • Defeasibility is the property of something – such as a contract, a proposition or an understanding – that can be annulled, invalidated, or similarly "defeated". In law, it refers to the possibility of a contract or other legal agreement being terminated by circumstances that arise later, or of legal reasoning ... Read »


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    • Defensive Patent License

    • The Defensive Patent License (DPL) is a patent license proposed by Jason Schultz and Jennifer Urban, directors of the Samuelson Law, Technology & Public Policy Clinic at the University of California, Berkeley as a patent licensing equivalent of the GPL copyright license. It requires entities licensing their patents un ... Read »


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    • Deforce

    • Deforce is a legal term, meaning to unlawfully withhold land from its true owner or from any other person who has a right to the possession of it, after one has lawfully entered and taken possession of it. See e.g. 3 Bl Comm 172. Likewise, deforcement is a broad term for the holding of real property to which another p ... Read »


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    • Del Monte Fresh Produce Co. v. Dole Food Co.

    • Del Monte Fresh Produce Co. v. Dole Food Co., 136 F. Supp. 2d. 1271 (S.D. Fla. 2001) was a trade secret misappropriation case where Del Monte Fresh Produce Company asserted that Dole Food Company obtained their specialty pineapples through non-legal means and were unjustly enriched as a result. Through the expenditure ... Read »


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    • Deliberative process privilege

    • Deliberative process privilege is the common-law principle that the internal processes of the executive branch of a government are immune from normal disclosure or discovery in civil litigations, Freedom of Information Act requests, etc. The theory behind the protection is that by guaranteeing confidentiality, the gov ... Read »


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    • Delphinion

    • In ancient Greece, a Delphinion (ancient Greek: Δελφίνιον) was a temple of Apollo Delphinios ("Apollo of the womb") also known as "Delphic Apollo" or "Pythian Apollo", the principal god of Delphi, who was regarded as the protector of ports and ships. The ruin of the Delphinion in Miletus is ... Read »


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    • Dépeçage


    • Deputy Attorney General

    • The Deputy Attorney General (DAG) is the second-highest-ranking official in a department of justice or of law, in various governments of the world. In those governments, the Deputy Attorney General oversees the day-to-day operation of the department, and may act as Attorney General during the absence of the Attorney Ge ... Read »


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    • Derivatives law

    • Derivatives law is the area of law governing derivatives. It is associated with principles of contract law, and practitioners must also have a good understanding of insolvency, netting and set-off, and conflict of laws. Over-the-counter derivatives are documented under master agreements, the most common of which is th ... Read »


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    • Design science license

    • Design Science License (DSL) is a copyleft license for any type of free content such as text, images, music. Unlike other open source licenses, the DSL was intended to be used on any type of copyrightable work, including documentation and source code. It was the first "generalized copyleft" license. The DSL was written ... Read »


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    • Destructibility of contingent remainders

    • A common law rule "that a freehold contingent remainder which does not vest at or before the termination of the preceding freehold estate is destroyed. Such termination of the preceding estate might result from the natural expiration of that estate, or from forfeiture, or from merger." ... Read »


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    • Development easement

    • A development easement is a legal agreement by which a landowner surrenders the right to develop a designated parcel of property. Some local and state governments have programs to acquire development easements from private landowners to prevent conversion of farmland to other uses. ... Read »


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    • Dhammasattha

    • Dhammasattha "treatise on the law" is the Pali name of a genre of literature found in the Indianized kingdoms of Western mainland Southeast Asia (modern Laos, Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, and Yunnan) principally written in Pali, Burmese, Mon or the Tai languages or in a bilingual nissaya or literal Pali translation (Burm ... Read »


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    • Digest of Laws of the Russian Empire

    • The Digest of Laws of the Russian Empire (Russian: Свод законов Российской империи, pre-1917 Russian: Сводъ законовъ Россiйской имперiи) was the code of ... Read »


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    • Diminishment

    • Diminishment is the legal process by which the United States Congress can reduce the size of an Indian reservation. In 1984, the United States Supreme Court held in Solem v. Bartlett, 465 U.S. 463 (1984), that "only Congress may diminish the boundaries of an Indian reservation, and its intent to do so must be clea ... Read »


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    • Directors register

    • In corporate law, the directors register is a list of the directors elected by the shareholders, generally stored in the company's minute book. By law, companies are required to keep this list up to date to remove those directors who are deceased or resign, and to add those who have been elected by the shareholders. Ho ... Read »


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    • Disciplinary probation

    • Disciplinary probation is a disciplinary status that can apply to students at a higher educational institution or to employees in the workplace. For employees, it can result from both poor performance at work or from misconduct. For students, it results from misconduct alone, with poor academic performance instead resu ... Read »


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    • Dividing territories

    • Dividing territories

      Dividing territories (also market division) is an agreement by two companies to stay out of each other's way and reduce competition in the agreed-upon territories. The process known as geographic market allocation is one of several anti-competitive practices outlawed under United States antitrust laws. The term is gene ... Read »


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    • Divine law

    • Divine law is any law that comes directly from the "will of God", in contrast to man-made law. Unlike natural law, which is independent of human beings, divine laws are totally dependent on human narrators and closely related to different cultures; they may change in human perception in time through new revelation, how ... Read »


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    • Division bench

    • A Division Bench is a term in judicial system in India in which a case is heard and judged by at least 2 judges. However, if the bench during the hearing of any matter feels that the matter needs to be considered by a larger bench, such a matter is referred to a larger bench. ... Read »


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    • Doctrine of exoneration of liens

    • The doctrine of exoneration of liens (sometimes simply referred to as "doctrine of exoneration") refers to a common law rule. The rule says that encumbrances (i.e. a mortgage) of a property conveyed by a will is discharged with funds from the originating estate, not from the property itself. ... Read »


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    • Doctrines of civil procedure

    • Civil procedure doctrines are rules developed by case law as opposed to being set down in codes or legislation, which, together with court rules and codes, define the steps that a person involved in a civil lawsuit can (or can not) take. In the United States federal jurisdiction, these doctrines have developed to comp ... Read »


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    • Domestic relations

    • In the common law tradition, the law of domestic relations is a broad category that encompasses: In some jurisdictions, guardianships, truancy, and matters related to juvenile delinquency are considered part of the law of domestic relations. Many sorts of dispute fall into this broad category; many people who will no ... Read »


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    • Domicilium citandi et executandi

    • Domicilium citandi et executandi is a Latin legal term meaning the address nominated by a party in a legal contract where legal notices may be sent; the onus usually being upon that party to notify the other signatory of any change in address, especially to be ready to receive any notice that is delivered to that addre ... Read »


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    • Double ticketing

    • Double ticketing is a form of deceptive pricing strategy that sells a product at the higher of two prices communicated to the consumer on, accompanying, or promoting the product. ... Read »


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    • Brian Andre Doyle

    • Brian André Doyle was a lawyer who was Attorney General of Fiji and Chief Justice of Zambia. He served in Fiji as Solicitor General from 1948 to 1951, and as Attorney General from 1949 to 1956 (his tenure in these two offices evidently overlapped). Later he was Chief Justice of Zambia from 1969 to 1975. He went on ... Read »


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    • Rule in Dumpor's Case


    • Francis G. Dunn

    • Francis G. Dunn was a Justice of the South Dakota Supreme Court from 1973 to September 7, 1985, serving as Chief Justice from 1974 to 1978. Born in Scenic, South Dakota, Dunn was a lawyer in Madison and Sioux Falls. He served as municipal judge of Sioux Falls until Governor Ralph Herseth appointed him as the state's e ... Read »


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    • Duty to settle


    • Effects of legalized cannabis

    • Cannabis is a legal recreational and medical drug in several countries and US states and there have been several effects of the drug being legalized. A 2017 study found that the introduction of medical marijuana laws caused a reduction in violent crime in Americans states that border Mexico: "The reduction in crim ... Read »


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    • Effects of marriage

    • In family law, effects of marriage is a legal term of art used to describe all of the rights and obligations that individuals may be subject and entitled to if they are in a common-law marriage, an annulled marriage, domestic partnership or a civil union. Thus, even if the underlying marriage is held to be void there ... Read »


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    • Election Offences Act 1954

    • The Election Offences Act 1954 (Malay: Akta Kesalahan Pilihan Raya 1954) is a Malaysian law which enacted to prevent electoral offences and corrupt and illegal practices at elections; to provide for the establishment of enforcement teams and for matters connected therewith; to provide for the appointment of election ag ... Read »


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    • Elections Act 1958

    • The Elections Act 1958 (Malay: Akta Pilihan Raya 1958) is a Malaysian law which enacted to provide for the elections to the Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Undangan Negeri. The Elections Act 1958, in its current form (1 December 2011), consists of 6 Parts containing 17 sections and no schedule (including 19 amendments). ... Read »


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    • Empirical legal studies

    • Empirical legal studies (ELS) is a relatively new approach to the study of law, legal procedure, and legal theory through the use of empirical research. Empirical legal researchers use research techniques that are typical of economics, psychology, and sociology; however, ELS research tends to be more focused on purely ... Read »


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    • Environmental cleanup law

    • Environmental cleanup laws govern the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, sediment, surface water, or ground water. Unlike pollution control laws, cleanup laws are designed to respond after-the-fact to environmental contamination, and consequently must often define not only the n ... Read »


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    • Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide

    • The Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide (ELAW) is a public interest, nonprofit, environmental organization that helps communities protect the environment and public health through law. ELAW helps partners strengthen and enforce laws to protect themselves and their communities from toxic pollution and environmental deg ... Read »


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    • Equipment lease assignment

    • Equipment Lease Agreements typically contain language prohibiting the lessee from assigning the lease to a third party. For example, "You have no right to sell, transfer, assign, sublease, or encumber the equipment or this agreement" protects the Lessor’s collateral and credit underwriting guidelines in the event ... Read »


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    • Ernst v EnCana Corporation

    • Ernst v. EnCana Corporation, 2013 ABQB 537 is a lawsuit by Jessica Ernst against EnCana Corporation, the Energy Resources Conservation Board, and Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Alberta. EnCana is accused of contaminating, by its hydraulic fracturing, the Rosebud aquifer near Rosebud, Alberta, and the Ernst water wel ... Read »


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    • Error (law)

    • Errors of various types may occur in legal proceedings and may or may not constitute grounds for appeal. ... Read »


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    • Etuate Tavai

    • Etuate Tavai (died 1999) served as Attorney General of Fiji from 1996 to 1999. He also served as a Senator. In this capacity he refused to legalize same-sex marriage and other homosexual relationships. ... Read »


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    • Eurodac

    • European Dactyloscopy (EuroDac) is the European Union (EU) fingerprint database for identifying asylum seekers and irregular border-crossers. Asylum applicants and irregular border-crossers over the age of 14 have their fingerprints taken as a matter of European Community law. These are then sent in digitally to a cent ... Read »


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    • Examination support document

    • An examination support document (ESD) is a submission to the United States Patent and Trademark Office by an applicant for a United States patent. An ESD must comprise at least: As of November 1, 2007, examination support documents will be required for each patent application that has more than 5 independent claims or ... Read »


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    • Exclusive jurisdiction

    • In civil procedure, exclusive jurisdiction exists where one court has the power to adjudicate a case to the exclusion of all other courts. It is the opposite situation from concurrent jurisdiction (or non exclusive jurisdiction), in which more than one court may take jurisdiction over the case. Exclusive jurisdiction ... Read »


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    • Excusable negligence

    • Excusable negligence is a paradoxical phrase, since if the failure to exercise reasonable care under the circumstances is excusable, there is no negligence. 38 Am J1st Negl § 12. As used in statutes authorizing the opening of a default and allowing a party to defend on the merits, the standard set by courts is slipp ... Read »


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    • Expert determination

    • Expert determination is a historically accepted form of dispute resolution invoked when there is not a formulated dispute in which the parties have defined positions that need to be subjected to arbitration, but rather both parties are in agreement that there is a need for an evaluation. Expert determination is a proce ... Read »


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    • Expert shopping

    • Expert shopping is the practice of finding an authority on a given subject whose professional opinion is skewed toward the answer that the searching party already prefers. This is commonplace in the news media, politics, and business, though can be found in all walks of life. Another well-known use is in lawsuits, whe ... Read »


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    • Fair trade law

    • A fair trade law was a statute in any of various states of the United States that permitted manufacturers the right to specify the minimum retail price of a commodity, a practice known as "price maintenance". Such laws first appeared in 1931 during the Great Depression in the state of California. They were ostensibly i ... Read »


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    • Fair Use Project

    • The Fair Use Project is part of the Stanford Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School. Founded in 2006, it offers legal assistance to "clarify, and extend, the boundaries of "fair use" in order to enhance creative freedom." It is headed by Tony Falzone, lecturer at Stanford Law. It has been involved in se ... Read »


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    • False designation of origin

    • In consumer law, false designation of origin occurs when the manufacturer or seller lies about the country of origin or maker of its products. For example, if a manufacturer makes a product and then claims that it is a high end name brand product. In U.S. law, false designation of origin is defined by 15 U.S.C.  ... Read »


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    • False lien

    • A false lien is document that purports to describe a lien, but which has no legal basis, based upon false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements or representations. The filing of false liens has been used as a tool of harassment in "paper terrorism", often against government officials. The practice was pioneered by the ... Read »


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    • Family patrimony

    • Family patrimony is a type of civil law patrimony that is created by marriage or civil union (where recognized) which creates a bundle of entitlements and obligations that must be shared by the spouses or partners upon divorce, annulment, dissolution of marriage or dissolution of civil union, when there must be a divis ... Read »


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    • Family purpose doctrine

    • In law, the family purpose doctrine is a rule that holds the owner of an automobile liable for damages to others while a member of the family is driving the vehicle, regardless of whether or not the owner gave permission. The underlying theory is that the vehicle is owned for family purposes. In the US, this is primar ... Read »


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    • Federal judge

    • Federal judges are judges appointed by a federal level of government as opposed to the state / provincial / local level. In Brazil, federal judges of first instance are chosen exclusively by public contest. Judges of Federal Courts of Appeal or Higher Courts are appointed according to specific rules. Appeal judges ... Read »


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    • Federal jurisdiction

    • Federal jurisdiction is the jurisdiction of the federal government in any country that uses federalism. Such a country is known as a Federation. All federations, by definition, must have some form of federal jurisdiction, this will commonly include powers relating to international relations and war. Though power for p ... Read »


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    • Federal Reports Act

    • The Federal Reports Act of 1942 (Pub.L. 77–831) was signed into law on December 24, 1942. It coordinated United States federal reporting requirements in order to eliminate and reduce costs and burdens on potential respondents. It was effectively overwritten by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 and its amendment ... Read »


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    • Felony murder rule (Ohio)

    • In the U.S. state of Ohio, the common law felony murder rule has been effectively abolished through the enactment of Ohio's involuntary manslaughter statute. Ohio's first degree murder rule requires that a killing that occurs during a felony must be an intentional killing, instead of the felony murder rule in other jur ... Read »


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    • Finance charge

    • In United States law, a finance charge is any fee representing the cost of credit, or the cost of borrowing. It is interest accrued on, and fees charged for, some forms of credit. It includes not only interest but other charges as well, such as financial transaction fees. Details regarding the federal definition of fin ... Read »


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    • Fireman's rule


    • First possession theory of property

    • The "first possession" theory of property holds that ownership of something is justified simply by someone seizing it before someone else does. This contrasts with the labor theory of property where something may become property only by applying productive labor to it, i.e. by making something out of the materials of n ... Read »


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    • Forfeiture (law)


    • Formal contract

    • A formal contract is a contract where the parties have signed under seal, while an informal contract is one not under seal. A seal can be any impression made upon the document by the parties to the contract. This was traditionally done in wax stating the intentions of the parties to be bound by the contract. Only parti ... Read »


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    • Free and clear

    • In property law, the term free and clear refers to ownership without legal encumbrances, such as a lien or mortgage. So, for example: a person owns his house free and clear if he has paid off the mortgage and no creditor has filed a lien against it. Lately there has been a resurgence in interest for free and clear pro ... Read »


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    • Free scientific research

    • The free scientific research is a jusphilosophical school precursor of the jurisprudence of values, which defends basically that, in order to discover the origins of law's principles and rules, the interpreter's studies may have support on various "sciences" such as sociology, economics, linguistics, philosophy and the ... Read »


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    • Freedom of testation

    • Freedom of testation is the power of a person to make a will and testament specifying whatever heirs they please. It is historically associated with English common law, and contrasted with forced heirship, where part or all of the estate is automatically inherited by the next of kin. Opponents of abosolute freedom of t ... Read »


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    • Fused profession

    • Fused profession is a term relating to jurisdictions where the legal profession is not divided between barristers and solicitors. Generally, the term is used in the context of Commonwealth countries, where the single profession of "barrister and solicitor" is provided by statute. In some jurisdictions (e.g., New South ... Read »


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    • General incorporation law

    • A general incorporation law allows corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature. It also refers to a law enabling a certain type of corporation, such as a railroad, to exercise eminent domain and other special rights without a charter from the legislature. In 1795, North Carolina was the first stat ... Read »


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    • Geographic targeting order

    • A Geographic targeting order (or GTO) is an order issued by the United States Secretary of Treasury requiring any United States domestic financial institutions that exist within a geographic area to report on transactions any greater than a specified value. GTOs are defined in the Bank Secrecy Act in 31 U.S.C. § ... Read »


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    • GNAT Modified General Public License

    • The GNAT Modified General Public License (short: Modified GPL, GMGPL) is a version of the GNU General Public License specifically modified for the found in the Ada programming language. The modification is as follows: The GNAT Ada compiler can automate conformance checks for some GPL software license issues via a co ... Read »


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    • Good law

    • Good law is the concept in jurisprudence that a legal decision is still valid. That is, that a decision has not been overturned (during an appeal) or otherwise rendered obsolete (such as by a change in the underlying law). ... Read »


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    • Goods and Services Tax Act 2014

    • Goods and Services Tax Act 2014

      The Goods and Services Tax Act 2014 (Malay: Akta Cukai Barang dan Perkhidmatan 2014), is a Malaysian laws which enacted to provide for the imposition and collection of goods and services tax and for matters connected therewith. The Goods and Services Tax Act 2014, in its current form (19 June 2014), consists of 19 ... Read »


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    • Grade (crime)

    • The grade of a crime is its ranking or classification by its degree or seriousness or severity. A felony is more serious than a misdemeanor, which is more serious than an infraction. A first degree felony is more serious than a second degree felony. The severity of punishment is based on the grade of the crime. ... Read »


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    • Green v Hatchy Investments pty Ltd

    • Green v Hatchy Investments pty Ltd was an important appeals case in Queensland, Australia, which set a precedent for Queensland landlord-tenant law, and clarified the rule around the requirement of conciliation before a plaintiff could begin legal proceedings in court. Mr Green was a tenant in a property in Brisbane, ... Read »


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    • Grievance

    • In general, grievance (from class. lat. gravis: heavy) is a wrong or suffered, real or supposed, which forms legitimate grounds of complaint. In the past, the word meant oppressive state of things. The revolt of English barons in the early thirteenth century which led to the Magna Carta of 1215 was partly motivated b ... Read »


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    • Guest statute

    • A guest statute is a term used in the law of torts to describe a statute that makes it more difficult for a passenger in an automobile to recover damages from the driver for injuries received in an accident resulting from ordinary negligence on the part of the driver. Instead, passengers are limited to suits based on g ... Read »


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    • Harm

    • Harm is a moral and legal concept. Bernard Gert construes harms as any of the following: Joel Feinberg gives an account of harms as setbacks to interests. He distinguishes welfare interests from ulterior interests. Hence on his view there are two kinds of harms. Welfare interests are Ulterior interests are "a perso ... Read »


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    • Hart–Fuller debate


    • Harvard Negotiation Project

    • The Harvard Negotiation Project is a project created at Harvard University which deals with issues of negotiations and conflict resolution. The stated aims and goal of the project, according to the Harvard University Law School site is as follows: The mission of the Harvard Negotiation Project (HNP) to improve the th ... Read »


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    • Headnote

    • A headnote is a brief summary of a particular point of law that is added to the text of a court decision to aid readers in locating discussion of a legal issue in an opinion. As the term implies, headnotes appear at the beginning of the published opinion. In 1906, the United States Supreme Court ruled, in United State ... Read »


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    • Hebraic law

    • The term Hebraic law refers to a set of ancient Hebrew Law as found in the Torah of the Hebrew Bible also known as Mosaic Law. The Hebraic law has a great similarity to the law as proclaimed by ancient monarchs of the Middle East, including Hammurabi of the 18th–17th century BC and his famous law code known as the ... Read »


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    • Highway authority

    • A highway authority is a name given to a body responsible for the administration of public roads. The National Highways Authority of India is the national authority for the management of a network of over 60,000 km of national highways in India. The Authority is a part of the Ministry of Shipping, Road Transpor ... Read »


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    • His Honour

    • His Honour or Her Honour is an honorific prefix which is traditionally applied to certain classes of people, in particular justices and judges and mayors. In Australia and the United States, the prefix is also used for magistrates (spelled in the American style, "Honor"). A corruption of the term, "", is sometimes used ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Law stubs

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