Main

  • Intersex and medicine

    Intersex and medicine

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Intersex and medicine

    • Intersex medical and health organizations

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Intersex medical and health organizations


      Wikipedia
    • 5-alpha-reductase deficiency

    • 5-alpha-reductase deficiency

      5α-Reductase deficiency (5-ARD) is an autosomal recessive intersex condition caused by a mutation of the 5α reductase type II gene. 5α-Reductase is an enzyme that converts testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in peripheral tissues. These enzymes also participate in the creation of such neuroste ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    • 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

      17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency is a rare disorder of sexual development, or intersex condition, affecting testosterone biosynthesis by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III (17β-HSD III), which can produce impaired virilization (historically termed male pseudohermaphroditism) of genetically mal ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • 45,X/46,XY mosaicism


    • Androgen insensitivity syndrome

    • Androgen insensitivity syndrome

      Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an intersex condition that results in the partial or complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens. The unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones can impair or prevent the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as th ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    • Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

      Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is a condition that results in the complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens. The unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones prevents the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of male se ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome

    • Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome

      Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) is a condition that results in a mild impairment of the cell's ability to respond to androgens. The degree of impairment is sufficient to impair spermatogenesis and / or the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty in males, but does not affect genital diffe ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    • Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

      Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is a condition that results in the partial inability of the cell to respond to androgens. The partial unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones impairs the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of ma ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Androgen-induced hermaphroditism

    • Androgen-induced hermaphroditism is a syndrome resulting from a hermaphroditic birth defect of the genital organs. They are induced in the 46,XX gonadally female fetus. This occurs when there is too much masculinizing hormone transmitted through the placenta. The external genitalia are that of a male. If there is an ex ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Aphallia

    • Aphallia is a congenital malformation in which the phallus (penis or clitoris) is absent. It is the female counterpart of penile agenesis and testicular agenesis. The word is derived from the Greek a- for "not", and phallos for "penis". It is classified as an intersex condition. It is a rare condition, with only a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Aromatase deficiency

    • Aromatase deficiency

      Aromatase deficiency is a condition resulting from insufficient production of the enzyme aromatase, which can result in inappropriate virilization of female fetuses and delayed puberty, as well as inappropriate virilization of the mother during pregnancy. The deficiency causes the virilization of XX fetuses. Altho ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Aromatase excess syndrome

    • Aromatase excess syndrome

      Aromatase excess syndrome (AES or AEXS), also sometimes referred to as familial hyperestrogenism or familial gynecomastia, is a rare genetic and endocrine syndrome which is characterized by an overexpression of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of the estrogen sex hormones from the androgens, in tu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Chimera (genetics)

    • A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells from different zygotes. This can result in male and female organs, two blood types, or subtle variations in form. Animal chimeras are produced by the merger of multiple fertilized eggs. In plant chimeras, however, the distinct ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Clitoromegaly

    • Clitoromegaly

      Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris that is mostly congenital or acquired, though deliberately induced clitoris enlargement as a form of female genital body modification is achieved through various uses of anabolic steroids, including testosterone, and may also be referred to as ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Cloacal exstrophy

    • Cloacal exstrophy (EC) is a severe birth defect wherein much of the abdominal organs (the bladder and intestines) are exposed. It often causes the splitting of both male and female genitalia (specifically, the penis and clitoris respectively), and the anus is occasionally sealed. Cloacal exstrophy is a rare birth defe ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Compulsory sterilization

    • Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization. The reasons governments implement sterilization programs vary in purpose and intent. In the first half of the 20th century, several such pro ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis). Most of these conditions invo ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

      3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase II deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (3β-HSD CAH) is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from a mutation in the gene for one of the key enzymes in cortisol synthesis by the adrenal gland, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) type II ( ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency


    • Congenital anomalies of the genitalia

    • Congenital anomaly of the genitalia is a medical term referring to any physical abnormality of the male or female internal or external genitalia present at birth. This is a broad category of conditions, some common and some rare. Some result from excessive or deficient androgen effect, others result from teratogen ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Georgiann Davis

    • Georgiann Davis is an assistant professor of sociology at University of Nevada, Las Vegas and author of the book Contesting Intersex: The Dubious Diagnosis. Davis formerly held a similar position at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Born with Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, she writes widely on intersex issue ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Delayed puberty

    • Puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning. Puberty may be delayed for several years and still occur normally, in which case it is considered constitutional delay of growth and puberty, a v ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Milton Diamond

    • Milton Diamond (born March 6, 1934 in New York City) is a Professor Emeritus of anatomy and reproductive biology at the University of HawaiÊ»i at Mānoa. He has had a very long and productive career in the study of human sexuality. Diamond retired from the University in December 2009 but continues with his research ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Disorders of sex development

    • Disorders of sex development (DSD), sometimes referred to as disorders of sex differentiation or differences of sex development, are medical conditions involving the reproductive system. More specifically, these terms refer to "congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is aty ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Alice Dreger

    • External media

      Alice Domurat Dreger is a historian, bioethicist, author, and former professor of clinical medical humanities and bioethics at the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois. Dreger has been a featured speaker at TED Talks. Dreger is widely known for her academic work and activism in sup ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Estrogen insensitivity syndrome

    • Estrogen insensitivity syndrome

      Estrogen insensitivity syndrome (EIS), or estrogen resistance, is a form of congenital estrogen deficiency caused by a defective estrogen receptor (ER), specifically ERα. Thus, estrogens cannot be recognized and initiate their biological action. Congenital estrogen deficiency can also be caused by a defect in the ar ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Anne Fausto-Sterling

    • Anne Fausto-Sterling

      Anne Fausto-Sterling (born July 30, 1944) is the Nancy Duke Lewis Professor of Biology and Gender Studies at Brown University. She participates actively in the field of sexology and has written extensively on the fields of biology of gender, sexual identity, gender identity, and gender roles. Fausto-Sterling recei ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Fixing Sex

    • Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience

      Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, a book by Stanford anthropologist and bioethicist Katrina Karkazis, was published in 2008. Described as "thoughtful", "meticulous", and an "authoritative treatise on intersex", the book examines the perspectives of intersex people, their families, and clini ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Galileo's Middle Finger


    • Richard Goldschmidt

    • Richard Benedict Goldschmidt (April 12, 1878 – April 24, 1958) was a German-born American geneticist. He is considered the first to integrate genetics, development, and evolution. He pioneered understanding of reaction norms, genetic assimilation, dynamical genetics, sex determination, and heterochrony. Controvers ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Gonadal dysgenesis

    • Gonadal dysgenesis is any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system characterized by a progressive loss of germ cells on the developing gonads of an embryo. This loss leads to extremely hypoplastic (underdeveloped) and dysfunctioning gonads mainly composed of fibrous tissue, hence the name streak gon ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Gonochorism

    • In biology, gonochorism (Greek offspring + disperse) or unisexualism or gonochory describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism. The term is most often used with animals, in which the individual organisms are often gonochorous. Gonochory is less common in plants. F ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • History of intersex surgery

    • The history of intersex surgery is intertwined with the development of the specialities of pediatric surgery, pediatric urology, and pediatric endocrinology, with our increasingly refined understanding of sexual differentiation, with the development of political advocacy groups united by a human qualified analysis, and ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Morgan Holmes

    • Morgan Holmes is a Canadian sociologist and a professor at Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario. She is also an intersex activist and writer, and former member of Intersex Society of North America. Holmes underwent a clitorectomy, described as a "clitoral recession", at age 7, at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toron ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Hypogonadism

    • Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes in males or the ovaries in females—that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis. In layman's terms, it is sometimes called interrupted stage 1 puberty. Low androgen (e.g., testosterone) levels are referred to as hypoandrogeni ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Hypospadias

    • Hypospadias

      Hypospadias /haɪpoʊˈspeɪdiəs/ is a birth abnormality of the urethra where the urinary opening is not at the usual location on the head of the penis. It is the second most common birth abnormality of what is typically seen as the male reproductive system, affecting approximately 1 of every 250 males at bi ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Imposex

    • Imposex is a disorder in sea snails caused by the toxic effects of certain marine pollutants. These pollutants cause female sea snails (marine gastropod molluscs) to develop male sex organs such as a penis and a vas deferens). It was believed that the only inducer of imposex was tributyltin (TBT), which can be act ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Inborn errors of steroid metabolism

    • An inborn error of steroid metabolism is an inborn error of metabolism due to defects in steroid metabolism. A variety of conditions of abnormal steroidogenesis exist due to genetic mutations in the enzymes involved in the process, of which include: In addition, several conditions of abnormal steroidogenesis due to g ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Intersex medical interventions

    • Intersex medical interventions are surgical, hormonal and other medical interventions performed to modify atypical or ambiguous genitalia and other sex characteristics, primarily for the purposes of making a person's appearance more normal and to reduce the likelihood of future problems. The history of intersex surgery ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency

    • Isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency (ILD), also called isolated 17,20-desmolase deficiency, is a rare endocrine and autosomal recessive genetic disorder which is characterized by a complete or partial loss of 17,20-lyase activity and, in turn, impaired production of the androgen and estrogen sex steroids. The condition man ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Katrina Karkazis

    • Katrina Karkazis is a medical anthropologist and bioethicist at the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, Stanford University School of Medicine. She has written widely on intersex issues, disease, treatment practices, policy and lived experiences, and the interface between medicine and society. In 2016, she was joint ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Klinefelter syndrome

    • Klinefelter syndrome

      Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males. The primary feature is sterility. Often symptoms may be subtle and many people do not realize they are affected. Sometimes symptoms are more prominent and may include weaker muscles, greate ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Leydig cell hypoplasia

    • Leydig cell hypoplasia (or aplasia) (LCH), also known as Leydig cell agenesis, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic and endocrine syndrome affecting an estimated 1 in 1,000,000 biological males. It is characterized by an inability of the body to respond to luteinizing hormone (LH), a gonadotropin which is normally res ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    • Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an endocrine disorder that is an uncommon and potentially lethal form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). It arises from defects in the earliest stages of steroid hormone synthesis: the transport of cholesterol into the and the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone†... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Heino Meyer-Bahlburg

    • Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg (born 1940) is a German-born psychologist best known for his work on biology of sexual orientation, gender identity, intersexuality, and HIV. Meyer-Bahlburg earned his Diplom from University of Hamburg in 1966 and his Dr. rer. nat. in Psychology from University of Düsseldorf in 1970. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Micropenis

    • Micropenis

      Micropenis is an unusually small penis. A common criterion is a dorsal (measured on top) erect penile length of at least 2.5 standard deviations smaller than the mean human penis size, or smaller than about 7 cm (2 3⁄4 in) for an adult when compared to an average erection of 12.5 cm (5 in). The con ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • John Money

    • John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a psychologist, sexologist and author, specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender. He was one of the first scientists to study the psychology of sexual fluidity and how the societal constructs of "gender" affect an individual. His work has ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Maria New

    • Maria Iandolo New is a professor of Pediatrics, Genomics and Genetics at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City. She is an expert in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a genetic intersex condition affecting the adrenal gland. Dr. Maria New received her undergraduate degree from Cornell Universit ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Orchidometer

    • An orchidometer (or orchiometer) is a medical instrument used to measure the volume of the testicles. The orchidometer was introduced in 1966 by Swiss pediatric endocrinologist Prof. Andrea Prader of the University of Zurich. It consists of a string of twelve numbered wooden or plastic beads of increasing size from ab ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Ovotestis

    • An ovotestis is a gonad with both testicular and ovarian aspects. In humans, ovotestes are an anatomical abnormality associated with gonadal dysgenesis. In invertebrates that are normally hermaphroditic, such as most gastropods (snails and slugs) in the clade Eupulmonata, an ovotestis is a common feature of the reprodu ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Phall-O-Meter

    • The Phall-O-meter is a satirical measure that critiques medical standards for normal male and female phalluses. The tool was developed by Kiira Triea based on a concept by Suzanne Kessler and is used to demonstrate concerns with the medical treatment of intersex bodies. The Phall-O-meter was developed by Kiira T ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Prader scale

    • The Prader scale or Prader staging, named after Dr. Andrea Prader, is a coarse rating system for the measurement of the degree of virilization of the genitalia of the human body and is similar to the Quigley scale. It primarily relates to virilization of the female genitalia in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia ( ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Precocious puberty

    • In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age. In most cases, the process is normal in every aspect except the unusually early age, and simply represents a variation of normal development. In a minority of children, the early development is triggered by a disease such as a tumor or inju ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) refers to genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization. PGD is considered in a similar fashion to prenatal diagnosis. When used to screen for a specific genetic disease, its main ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Progestin-induced virilisation

    • Progestin-induced virilisation

      Maternal use of androgens or high doses of certain weakly androgenic synthetic progestogens (progestins) structurally related to testosterone can masculinize (virilize) the external genitalia of a female fetus during susceptible times in pregnancy. Some degree of fusion of the labioscrotal folds and urogenital folds a ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pseudohermaphroditism

    • Pseudohermaphroditism, or pseudo-hermaphroditism, is an old clinical term for the condition in which an organism is born with primary sex characteristics of one sex but develops the secondary sex characteristics that are different from what would be expected on the basis of the gonadal tissue (ovary or testis). It can ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias

    • Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias (PPSH) refers to a configuration of the external genitalia of an infant. In a sense, this configuration is roughly midway between normal male genitalia and normal female genitalia in structure and appearance. It is a relatively common form of genital ambiguity caused by undervir ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Quigley scale

    • The Quigley scale is a descriptive, visual system of phenotypic grading that uses seven classes between "fully masculinized" and "fully feminized" genitalia. It was proposed by pediatric endocrinologist Charmian A. Quigley et al. in 1995. It is similar in function to the Prader scale and is used to describe genitalia i ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • List of researchers on intersex

    • Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as genitals, gonads and chromosome patterns, "that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". This list consists of notable researchers on intersex issues, including human rights, legal recognition and medical issues. The individual listings not ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sex assignment

    • Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth. In the majority of births, a relative, midwife, nurse or physician inspects the genitalia when the baby is delivered, and sex and gender are assigned, without the expectation of ambiguity. Assignment may also be done ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sex steroid

    • Sex steroid

      Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. Their effects are mediated by slow genomic mechanisms through nuclear receptors as well as by fast nongenomic mechanisms through membrane-associated receptors and signaling cascades. The term ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Sexing the Body

    • Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality

      Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality is a 2000 book by Brown University Professor of Biology and Gender Studies Anne Fausto-Sterling, in which she explores the social construction of gender, and the social and medical treatment of intersex people. She stated that in it she sets out to "con ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • XY gonadal dysgenesis

    • Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a type of hypogonadism in a person whose karyotype is 46,XY. The person is externally female with streak gonads, and if left untreated, will not experience puberty. Such gonads are typically surgically removed (as they have a significant risk of developing tumors) and a typi ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Testicular prostheses

    • Testicular prostheses are plastic ovoids implanted in the scrotum. These provide the appearance and feel of testes and prevent shrinking of scrotum. ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • True hermaphroditism

    • True hermaphroditism, now clinically known as ovotesticular disorder of sex development, is a medical term for an intersex condition in which an individual is born with ovarian and testicular tissue. More commonly one or both gonads is an ovotestis containing both types of tissue. Although similar in some ways to mixe ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Turner syndrome

    • Turner syndrome

      Turner syndrome (TS) also known as 45,X, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome. Signs and symptoms vary among those affected. Often, a short and webbed neck, low-set ears, low hairline at the back of the neck, short stature, and swollen hands and feet are seen at birth. Typica ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • XX male syndrome

    • XX male syndrome (also called de la Chapelle syndrome, for Albert de la Chapelle, who characterized it in 1972) is a rare sex chromosomal disorder. Usually, it is caused by unequal crossing over between X and Y chromosomes during meiosis in the father, which results in the X chromosome containing the normally-male SRY ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Intersex and medicine

Extras