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    Horticulture and gardening

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    • Gardening by country

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    • Aquarium plants

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    • Domesticated plants

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    • Drainage

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    • Horticultural exhibitions

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    • Garden features

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    • Fertilizers

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    • Garden festivals

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    • Floristry

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    • Florists

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    • Gardens

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    • Greenhouses

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    • Groundskeepers

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    • Herbicides

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    • Horticulturists and gardeners

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    • House plants

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    • Hydroculture

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    • Irrigation

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    • Landscape architecture

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    • Landscape or garden designers

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    • Lawns

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    • Gardening lists

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    • Micropropagation

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    • Nitrogen-fixing crops

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    • Orchards

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    • Organic gardening

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    • Horticultural organizations

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    • Parks

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    • Garden pests

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    • Physiological plant disorders

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    • Plant awards

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    • Plants

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    • Garden plants

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    • Pollination

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    • Soil improvers

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    • Sprouting

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    • Sustainable gardening

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    • Horticultural techniques

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    • Viticulture

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    • Works about horticulture and gardening

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    • Garden writers

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    • Gardening portal

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    • Horticulture stubs

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    • Gardening

    • Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture. In gardens, ornamental plants are often grown for their flowers, foliage, or overall appearance; useful plants, such as root vegetables, leaf vegetables, fruits, and herbs, are grown for consumption, for use as dyes, or for medicinal o ... Read »


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    • Horticulture

    • Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of growing plants. It includes the cultivation of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms, algae, flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and ornamental trees and plants. ... Read »


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    • Adventitiousness

    • Adventitious has various meanings in various disciplines and in general usage. Adventitious is from the Latin root advenire, meaning "to come to" and in English the meanings tend to have connections to "accidental/ casual occurrence", "arising from without; supervenient, accidental, casual". People sometimes speak of ... Read »


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    • Aero Garden

    • The AeroGarden is an indoor garden made by AeroGrow International. The AeroGarden can be used to grow small amounts of vegetables, herbs, salad plants, and flowers. The seeds for these plants come in special seed pods, or consumers can use their own seeds with a custom kit. The plants get artificial sunlight from CFL o ... Read »


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    • Agrifirm

    • Agrifirm is a cooperative enterprise in which more than 15,000 Dutch farmers and horticulturalists have combined their purchasing power. Agrifirm in its current form was founded in 2010 due to a successive merger of regional cooperatives. The enterprise operates as a link for farmers being currently active throughout t ... Read »


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    • Allotment (gardening)

    • An allotment garden (British English), often called simply an allotment, or a community garden (North America) is a plot of land made available for individual, non-commercial gardening or growing food plants. Such plots are formed by subdividing a piece of land into a few or up to several hundred land parcels that are ... Read »


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    • Amish Paste

    • The Amish Paste heirloom tomato is, as the name implies, a plum tomato of Amish origins, that is commonly used for cooking, although it's sweet enough to eat fresh. The Amish Paste tomato is reputed to have originated in the 1870s with the oldest Amish community in Wisconsin; Medford. It became popular once acquired ... Read »


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    • Annual plant

    • An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seed, within one year, and then dies. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the fol ... Read »


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    • Applied ecology

    • Applied ecology is a subfield within ecology, which considers the application of the science of ecology to real-world (usually management) questions. It is an integrated treatment of the ecological, social, and biotechnological aspects of natural resource conservation and management. It is also called ecological or env ... Read »


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    • Aquascaping

    • Aquascaping is the craft of arranging aquatic plants, as well as rocks, stones, cavework, or driftwood, in an aesthetically pleasing manner within an aquarium—in effect, gardening under water. Aquascape designs include a number of distinct styles, including the garden-like Dutch style and the Japanese-inspired nat ... Read »


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    • Arboriculture

    • Arboriculture /ˈɑːrbəráµ»kʌltʃər/ is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture i ... Read »


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    • Arborist

    • An arborist, or (less commonly) arboriculturist, is a professional in the practice of arboriculture, which is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. Arborists generally focus on the health and safety of individual plants and trees, rather than managi ... Read »


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    • Atomic gardening

    • Atomic gardening is a form of mutation breeding where plants are exposed to radioactive sources, typically cobalt-60, in order to generate useful mutations. The practice of plant irradiation has resulted in the development of over two thousand new varieties of plants, most of which are now used in agricultural product ... Read »


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    • Baby Bio

    • Baby Bio is the brand name for a range of house plant and, more recently, outdoor plant care products created by Pan Britannica Industries Ltd (PBI) and now marketed by Bayer. The most popular and first Baby Bio product was a house plant feed, or fertilizer, which is a dark brown concentrate that must be diluted with ... Read »


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    • Back garden

    • A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house from the front garden. Such gardens have a special place in English suburban and gardening culture. A back garden arises when the main building divides the surrounding gardens into two. This happens especially in th ... Read »


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    • Backcrossing

    • Backcrossing is a crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents or an individual genetically similar to its parent, in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent. It is used in horticulture, animal breeding and in production of gene knockout organisms. Backcrossed hybrids a ... Read »


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    • Bare root

    • Bare root is a technique of arboriculture whereby a plant is removed from soil in a dormant state, from which it can more rapidly acclimate to new soil conditions. Bare root stock should be planted within 48 hours of receipt for optimal results. Bare rooting is often used as a method of propagating rose canes. ... Read »


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    • Basal shoot

    • Basal shoots, root sprouts, adventitious shoots, water sprouts and suckers are various types of shoots which grow from a bud at the base of a tree or shrub or from adventitious buds in its roots. A plant that produces suckers (root sprouts) is referred to as surculose. Root suckers may emerge some distance from the ori ... Read »


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    • Base-cation saturation ratio

    • Base-cation saturation ratio (BCSR) is a method of interpreting soil test results that is widely used in sustainable agriculture, supported by the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (ATTRA) and claimed to be successfully in use on over a million acres (4,000 km²) of farmland worldwide. The tradi ... Read »


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    • Bedding (horticulture)

    • Bedding, in horticulture, refers to the temporary planting of fast-growing plants into flower beds to create colourful, temporary, seasonal displays, during spring, summer or winter. Plants used for bedding are generally annuals, biennials or tender perennials; succulents are gaining in popularity. [1] Some bedding pl ... Read »


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    • Beneficial weed

    • A beneficial weed is a plant not generally considered domesticated and often viewed as a weed but which has some companion plant effect, is edible, contributes to soil health, or is otherwise . Beneficial weeds include many wildflowers, as well as other weeds that are commonly removed or poisoned. Although erroneou ... Read »


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    • Blanching (horticulture)

    • Blanching is a technique used in vegetable growing. Young shoots of a plant are covered to exclude light to prevent photosynthesis and the production of chlorophyll, and thus remain pale in color. Different methods used include covering with soil (hilling or earthing up) or with solid materials such as board or terraco ... Read »


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    • Bletting

    • Bletting is a process of softening that certain fleshy fruits undergo, beyond ripening. There are some fruits that are either sweeter after some bletting, such as sea buckthorn, or for which most varieties can be eaten raw only after bletting, such as medlars, persimmons, quince, service tree fruit, and wild service tr ... Read »


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    • Bolting (horticulture)

    • Bolting is the premature production of a flowering stem (or stems) on agricultural and horticultural crops before the crop is harvested, in a natural attempt to produce seeds and hence reproduce. These flowering stems are usually vigorous extensions of existing leaf-bearing stems, and in order to produce them, a plant ... Read »


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    • The Botany of Desire

    • The Botany of Desire

      The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-Eye View of the World is a 2001 nonfiction book by journalist Michael Pollan. Pollan presents case studies that mirror four types of human desires that are reflected in the way that we selectively grow, breed, and genetically engineer our plants. The tulip, beauty; marijuana, intoxicatio ... Read »


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    • Bridge graft

    • A bridge graft is used to supply nutrients to the rootstock of a woody perennial when the bark, and therefore the conductive tissues, have been removed from part of the trunk. This wound is often caused by rabbits or other rodents, stripping the bark away and girdling the tree. The inability of the plant to transport f ... Read »


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    • Building material

    • Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less syntheti ... Read »


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    • Building supplies

    • Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less syntheti ... Read »


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    • Ornamental bulbous plant

    • Ornamental bulbous plants, often called ornamental bulbs or just bulbs in gardening and horticulture, are herbaceous perennials grown for ornamental purposes, which have underground or near ground storage organs. Botanists distinguish between true bulbs, corms, rhizomes, tubers and tuberous roots, any of which may be t ... Read »


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    • Butterfly gardening

    • Butterfly gardening is designed to create an environment that attracts butterflies, as well as certain moths. Butterfly gardening is often aimed at inviting those butterflies and moths to lay eggs as well. Because some plants are not fed upon by adult butterflies, the caterpillar host should also be planted for a bigge ... Read »


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    • Carbon dioxide generator

    • A Carbon dioxide generator or CO2 generator is a machine used to enhance carbon dioxide levels in order to promote plant growth in greenhouses or other enclosed areas. Carbon dioxide generators have been used to help grow marijuana. They can be fueled with propane or natural gas. CO2 generators were used mostly by comm ... Read »


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    • Chance seedling

    • A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred. Plants that come from the artificial union of gametes from a maternal and paternal source are not chance seedlings. Identifying the paren ... Read »


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    • Chilling requirement

    • The chilling requirement of a fruit is the minimum period of cold weather after which a fruit-bearing tree will blossom. It is often expressed in chill hours, which can be calculated in different ways, all of which essentially involve adding up the total amount of time in a winter spent at certain temperatures. Some b ... Read »


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    • Cincturing

    • Girdling, also called ring-barking is the complete removal of a strip of bark (consisting of cork cambium or "phellogen", phloem, cambium and sometimes going into the xylem) from around the entire circumference of either a branch or trunk of a woody plant. Girdling results in the death of the area above the girdle over ... Read »


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    • Citrus production

    • Citrus fruits are the highest value fruit crop in terms of international trade. There are two main markets for citrus fruit: Most citrus production is accounted for by oranges, but significant quantities of grapefruits, pomeloes, lemons and limes are also grown. While the origin of citrus fruits cannot be precise ... Read »


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    • Climate-friendly gardening

    • Climate-friendly gardening is gardening in ways which reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from gardens and encourage the absorption of carbon dioxide by soils and plants in order to aid the reduction of global warming. To be a climate-friendly gardener means considering both what happens in a garden and the materials ... Read »


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    • Clipping (gardening)

    • In gardening, clipping is equivalent to pruning, the practice of removing diseases, over mature or otherwise unwanted portions from a plant. Clipping usually involves much less removal than pruning, and is used more for herbaceous (all-green) plants than for woody ones. ... Read »


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    • Cloche (agriculture)

    • In agriculture and gardening, a cloche (from French, cloche or "bell") is a covering for protecting plants from cold temperatures. The original form of a cloche is a bell-shaped glass cover that is placed over an individual plant; modern cloches are usually made from plastic. The use of cloches is traced back to market ... Read »


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    • Coir

    • Coir (pronunciation: /ˈkɔɪər/), or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses. Coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir (ma ... Read »


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    • Columbian Exchange

    • The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade after Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.Invasive species of flora and fauna and comm ... Read »


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    • Community gardening

    • A community garden is a single piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people. According to Marin Master Gardeners, "a community garden is any piece of land gardened by a group of people, utilizing either individual or shared plots on private or public land". Community gardens provide fresh products and ... Read »


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    • Compartmentalization of decay in trees

    • Compartmentalization Of Decay In Trees (CODIT), also known as Compartmentalization Of Disease In Trees by some, is a concept created by Dr. Alex Shigo after years of studying tree decay patterns. Though disputed upon its introduction in the late 1970s, the concept is now widely accepted by modern arboriculture and is r ... Read »


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    • Compost Everything

    • Compost Everything: The Good Guide to Extreme Composting is a 2015 gardening book about extreme composting written by David the Good. ... Read »


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    • Concours des villes et villages fleuris

    • The Concours des villes et villages fleuris ("towns and villages in bloom competition") is a contest organized annually in France which aims to encourage communes to adopt and implement policies that improve the quality of life of their inhabitants and enhance their attractiveness to visitors through the provision and ... Read »


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    • Controlled-environment agriculture

    • Controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) is a technology-based approach toward food production. The aim of CEA is to provide protection and maintain optimal growing conditions throughout the development of the crop. Production takes place within an enclosed growing structure such as a greenhouse or building. Plants are ... Read »


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    • Corymbia citriodora

    • Corymbia citriodora

      Eucalyptus citriodoraE. maculata var. citriodoraE. melissiodora Corymbia citriodora is a tall tree, growing to 35 metres in height (but sometimes taller), from temperate and tropical north eastern Australia. It is also known as lemon-scented gum, blue spotted gum, lemon eucalyptus and eucalyptus citriodora. Corym ... Read »


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    • Cultigen

    • A cultigen (from the Latin cultus – cultivated, and gens – kind) is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection. These "man-made" or anthropogenic plants are, for the most part, plants of commerce that are used in horticulture, agriculture and for ... Read »


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    • Cultivated plant taxonomy

    • Cultivated plant taxonomy is the study of the theory and practice of the science that identifies, describes, classifies, and names cultigens—those plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity. Cultivated plant taxonomists do, however, work with all kinds of plants in cultivation. ... Read »


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    • Cut flowers

    • Cut flowers are flowers or flower buds (often with some stem and leaf) that have been cut from the plant bearing it. It is usually removed from the plant for indoor decorative use. Typical uses are in vase displays, wreaths and garlands. Many gardeners harvest their own cut flowers from domestic gardens, but there is a ... Read »


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    • Cutting (plant)

    • A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative (asexual) propagation. A piece of the stem or root of the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil. If the conditions are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant independent of the parent, a proce ... Read »


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    • Damp proofing

    • Damp proofing in construction is a type of moisture control applied to building walls and floors to prevent moisture from passing into the interior spaces. Damp problems are one of the most frequent problems encountered in homes. Damp proofing is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as ... Read »


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    • Decoction

    • Decoction is a method of extraction by boiling herbal or plant material to dissolve the chemicals of the material, which may include stems, roots, bark and rhizomes. Decoction involves first mashing the plant material to allow for maximum dissolution, and then boiling in water to extract oils, volatile organic compound ... Read »


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    • Deep water culture

    • Deep water culture (DWC) is a hydroponic, and so also aquaponic, method of plant production by means of suspending the plant roots in a solution of nutrient-rich, oxygenated water. Bubbleponics is a related method of plant production that involves a top-fed deep water culture system. Early Deep Water Culture (DWC) ... Read »


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    • Degree day

    • A degree day is a measure of heating or cooling. Total degree days from an appropriate starting date are used to plan the planting of crops and management of pests and pest control timing. Weekly or monthly degree-day figures may also be used within an energy monitoring and targeting scheme to monitor the heating and c ... Read »


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    • Desfontainia

    • Desfontainia

      Desfontainia is a genus of flowering plants placed currently in the family Columelliaceae, though formerly in Loganiaceae,Potaliaceae (now subsumed in Gentianaceae), or a family of its own, Desfontainiaceae. The genus was named for the French botanist, René Louiche Desfontaines. It is hardy to −5 °C (23 ... Read »


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    • Garden designer

    • A garden designer is someone who designs the plan and features of gardens, either as an amateur or professional. The compositional elements of garden design and landscape design are: terrain, water, planting, constructed elements and buildings, paving, site characteristics and genius loci, and the local climatic qualit ... Read »


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    • DIF (technique)

    • DIF is a greenhouse technique involving temperature control for the purpose of controlling plant internode length and thus elongation rates. DIF's effectiveness has led to a reduction in the need and use of chemical plant growth regulators. Although many common greenhouse plants do react strongly to -DIF, there are som ... Read »


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    • Division (horticulture)

    • Division, in horticulture and gardening, is a method of asexual plant propagation, where the plant (usually an herbaceous perennial) is broken up into two or more parts. Both the root and crown of each part is kept intact. The technique is of ancient origin, and has long been used to propagate bulbs such as garlic and ... Read »


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    • Double digging

    • Double digging is a gardening technique used to increase soil drainage and aeration. It involves the loosening of two layers of soil, and the addition of organic matter. Double digging is typically done when cultivating soil in a new garden, or when deep top-soil is required. On poor or heavy soils, or for vegetable g ... Read »


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    • Dwarfing

    • Dwarfing is a process in which a breed of animals or cultivar of plants is changed to become significantly smaller than standard members of their species. The effect can be induced through human intervention or non-human processes, and can include genetic, nutritional or hormonal means. Used most specifically, dwarfing ... Read »


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    • Energy-efficient landscaping

    • Energy-efficient landscaping is a type of landscaping designed for the purpose of conserving energy. There is a distinction between the embedded energy of materials and constructing the landscape, and the energy consumed by the maintenance and operations of a landscape. Design techniques include: Energy-efficient lan ... Read »


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    • Epicormic shoot

    • An epicormic shoot is a shoot growing from an epicormic bud, which lies underneath the bark of a trunk, stem, or branch of a plant. Epicormic buds lie dormant beneath the bark, their growth suppressed by hormones from active shoots higher up the plant. Under certain conditions, they develop into active shoots, suc ... Read »


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    • Espalier

    • Espalier (/ᵻˈspælɪər/ or /ᵻˈspæli.eɪ/) is the horticultural and ancient agricultural practice of controlling woody plant growth for the production of fruit, by pruning and tying branches to a frame. Plant are frequently shaped in formal patterns, flat against a structure such as a wall, f ... Read »


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    • Evesham Custom

    • The Evesham Custom is a distinctive form of customary leasehold tenure used in the market gardens of Evesham, Worcestershire. It is the most well-known of a number of former local practises, such as the Ulster Custom and North Lincolnshire Custom. The underlying principle of such customs was that the tenant could be gr ... Read »


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    • Eyecatchers

    • An eyecatcher is something artificial that has been placed in the landscape as a to "catch the eye" or gain a viewer's attention. It is used to decorate or ornament landscapes for aesthethic reasons, and are typically found in gardens, parks and the grounds of stately homes. Many of these can be found in various forms ... Read »


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    • Garden festival

    • A garden / flora festival or exposition is a festival and exposition held to celebrate the arts of gardening, garden design, landscaping and landscape architecture. There are local garden festivals, regional garden festivals, National Garden Festivals and International Garden Festivals. The idea probably originated wit ... Read »


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    • Floribunda (rose)

    • Floribunda (Latin for "many-flowering") is a modern group of garden roses that was developed by crossing hybrid teas with polyantha roses, the latter being derived from crosses between Rosa chinensis and Rosa multiflora (sometimes called R. polyantha). The idea was to create roses that bloomed with the polyantha profus ... Read »


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    • Floriculture

    • Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists. Floriculture crops include be ... Read »


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    • Floriculture in Canada

    • The worldwide floriculture industry is worth well over 30 billion U.S dollars and demand as well as production are on the rise. Though Canada is not one of the major floriculture producers worldwide, this sector remains of importance to the nation. Sixteen years ago the Canadian floriculture industry was valued at ... Read »


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    • Foliar feeding

    • Foliar feeding is a technique of feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizer directly to their leaves. Plants are able to absorb essential elements through their leaves. The absorption takes place through their stomata and also through their epidermis. Transport is usually faster through the stomata, but total absorpt ... Read »


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    • Foodscaping

    • Foodscaping, sometimes called edible landscaping or front yard farming, is a type of landscaping in which all or major areas of a lawn on private property or sometimes public property are used to grow food. It has been considered as a hybrid between farming and landscaping in the sense of having an "all-encompassing wa ... Read »


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    • French intensive gardening

    • French intensive gardening is a method of gardening in which humans work with nature to foster healthy, vibrant plants with smaller space and less water than more traditional gardening. As a very detail oriented method, more time will be spent than on an average type of garden, and the maximized productivity and beauti ... Read »


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    • Garden design

    • Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the garden owner themselves, or by professionals of varying levels of experience and expertise. Most professional garden designers have some training in horticulture and t ... Read »


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    • Garden Museum

    • The Garden Museum, formerly known as the Museum of Garden History, is based in the deconsecrated parish church of St Mary-at-Lambeth in Lambeth, adjacent to Lambeth Palace on the south bank of the River Thames in London, located on Lambeth Road. The museum is currently closed for re-development and will re-open in 2017 ... Read »


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    • Garden roses

    • Garden roses are predominantly hybrid roses that are grown as ornamental plants in private or public gardens. They are one of the most popular and widely cultivated groups of flowering plants, especially in temperate climates. Numerous cultivars have been produced, especially over the last two centuries, though roses h ... Read »


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    • Garden sanctuary

    • The concept of the Garden Sanctuary follows on from the popular understanding of a therapeutic "Secret Garden" first imagined by Frances Hodgson Burnett. A Secret Garden, or a Garden Sanctuary, may be ... Read »


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    • Garden sharing

    • Garden sharing or urban horticulture sharing is a local food and urban farming arrangement where a landowner allows a gardener access to land, typically a front or back yard, in order to grow food. This may be an informal, one-to-one relationship, but numerous Web-based projects exist to facilitate matchmaking. In som ... Read »


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    • Garden World Images

    • Garden World Images, (GWI) previously known as the Harry Smith Collection, whose origins can be traced back to the early 1950s and is one of the oldest and largest library of horticultural/botanical colour photographs in the World. The library supplies images of flowers, plants and gardens to newspapers, TV shows, publ ... Read »


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    • Gardenesque

    • The term gardenesque was introduced by John Claudius Loudon (1783–1843) in 1832 to describe a style of planting design in accordance with his 'Principle of Recognition'. Loudon was worried that picturesque planting could be mistaken for natural growth and argued that for a planting design to be recognizable a ... Read »


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    • Gardening in restricted spaces

    • There are many ways to garden in restricted spaces. Often a small or limited space is an issue in growing and cultivating plants. Restricted space gardens can be located on small lawns, balconies, patios, porches, rooftops, inside the home, or in any other available place. Gardening in small places can be applied to ed ... Read »


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    • Index of gardening articles

    • This is a list of gardening topics. Aesthetics - African Violet Society of America - Allotment - Aquascaping - Arboretum - Architectural theory Bonsai - Botanical gardens California native plants - Chelsea Flower Show - Community garden - Companion planting - Compost - Composting - Conservation Design English gard ... Read »


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    • Girdled grapes

    • Girdling, also called ring-barking is the complete removal of a strip of bark (consisting of cork cambium or "phellogen", phloem, cambium and sometimes going into the xylem) from around the entire circumference of either a branch or trunk of a woody plant. Girdling results in the death of the area above the girdle over ... Read »


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    • Girdling

    • Girdling, also called ring-barking is the complete removal of a strip of bark (consisting of cork cambium or "phellogen", phloem, cambium and sometimes going into the xylem) from around the entire circumference of either a branch or trunk of a woody plant. Girdling results in the death of the area above the girdle over ... Read »


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    • Goat groundskeeping

    • Goat groundskeeping is the use of goats to eat vegetation as a form of landscape maintenance or conservation grazing. As goats are herd animals, several goats are usually used together and so companies such as California Grazing, Eco-Goats and Rent A Goat exist to rent such herds out, as needed. This may be expensive a ... Read »


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    • Grade (slope)

    • The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal. It is a special case of the gradient in calculus where zero indicates gravitational level. A larger number indicates higher ... Read »


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    • Greenhouse

    • A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse, or, if with sufficient heating, a hothouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings. A ... Read »


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    • Greenskeeper

    • A greenkeeper is a person responsible for the care and upkeep of a golf course or a sport turf playing surface. A professional who maintains a golf course or country club's grounds. This includes all cultural practices along with setting of pins and marking of hazards for regular club play along with tournament pl ... Read »


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    • Groundcover

    • Groundcover or ground cover is any plant that grows over an area of ground. Groundcover provides protection of the topsoil from erosion and drought. In an ecosystem, the ground cover forms the layer of vegetation below the shrub layer known as the herbaceous layer. The most widespread ground covers are grasses of vari ... Read »


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    • Groundskeeping

    • Groundskeeping is the activity of tending an area of land for aesthetic or functional purposes; typically in an institutional setting. It includes mowing grass, trimming hedges, pulling weeds, planting flowers, etc. The U.S. Department of Labor estimated that more than 900,000 workers are employed in the landscape and ... Read »


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    • Grow box

    • A grow box is a partially or completely enclosed system for raising plants indoors or in small areas. Grow boxes are used for a number of reasons, including lack of available outdoor space or the desire to grow vegetables, herbs or flowers during cold weather months. They can also help protect plants against pests or d ... Read »


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    • Growing degree-day

    • Growing degree days (GDD), also called growing degree units (GDUs), are a heuristic tool in phenology. GDD are a measure of heat accumulation used by horticulturists, gardeners, and farmers to predict plant and animal development rates such as the date that a flower will bloom, an insect will emerge from dormancy, or a ... Read »


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    • Growing region

    • A growing region is an area suited by climate and soil conditions to the cultivation of a certain type of crop or plant group. Most crops are cultivated not in one place only, but in several distinct regions in diverse parts of the world. Cultivation in these areas may be enabled by a large-scale regional climate, or ... Read »


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    • Growing season

    • The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth. While each plant or crop has a specific growing season that depends on its genetic adaptation, growing seasons can generally be grouped into macro-environmental classes. Geog ... Read »


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    • Growstones

    • Growstones are a substrate for growing plants that can be used for soilless purposes or as a soil conditioner. This substrate is made from recycled glass. It has both more air and water retention space than perlite and peat. Another property of this medium is that it holds more water than parboiled rice hulls. Growston ... Read »


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    • Guerrilla gardening

    • Guerrilla gardening is the act of gardening on land that the gardeners do not have the legal rights to utilize, such as an abandoned site, an area that is not being cared for, or private property. It encompasses a diverse range of people and motivations, ranging from gardeners who spill over their legal boundaries to g ... Read »


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    • Habit (biology)

    • Habit is equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology; the term refers variously to aspects of behaviour or structure, as follows: In zoology, habit (not to be confused with habitus as described below) usually refers to a specific behavior pattern, either adopted, learned, pathological, innate, or directl ... Read »


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    • Hardiness (plants)

    • Hardiness of plants describes their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. It is usually limited to discussions of climatic adversity. Thus a plant's ability to tolerate cold, heat, drought, flooding, or wind are typically considered measurements of hardiness. Hardiness of plants is defined by their native exte ... Read »


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    • Hardiness zone

    • A hardiness zone (a subcategory of vertical zonation) is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone (see the scale on the right or the table below). For example ... Read »


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    • Edward Harwood (American inventor)

    • Edward "Ed" Harwood (born February 4, 1950) is an American inventor, entrepreneur, and one of the pioneers of aeroponics. He is the founder of Aero Farm Systems, L.L.C. (AeroFarms), as well as the chief inventor of “Method and apparatus for aeroponic farming" (United States Patent No. 8,782,948). Ed Harwood w ... Read »


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    • Heritage Gardens in Australia

    • This page combines data from a dozen written reference books about Australian Heritage gardens, from 200 years of garden heritage. Private gardens have been excluded from the list. at Woolmers, Tasmania, and the National Rose Garden - Launceston Examiner. You can help! An Index of Heritage, Historic and Renowned ... Read »


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    • Hilling

    • Hilling, earthing up or ridging is the technique in agriculture and horticulture of piling soil up around the base of a plant. It can be done by hand (usually using a hoe), or with powered machinery, typically a tractor attachment. Hilling buries the normally above-ground part of the plant, promoting desired growth. T ... Read »


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    • Historical hydroculture

    • This is a history of notable hydroculture phenomena. Ancient hydroculture proposed sites, and modern revolutionary works are mentioned. Included in this history are all forms of aquatic and semi-aquatic based horticulture that focus on flora: aquatic gardening, semi-aquatic crop farming, hydroponics, aquaponics, passiv ... Read »


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    • History of gardening

    • The history of ornamental gardening may be considered as aesthetic expressions of beauty through art and nature, a display of taste or style in civilized life, an expression of an individual's or culture's philosophy, and sometimes as a display of private status or national pride—in private and public landscapes. ... Read »


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    • Horticultural botany

    • Horticultural botany is the study of the botany of current and potential cultivated plants, with emphasis on the ornamental plants of horticulture, by a horticultural botanist or plantsman—plantsperson." Professional horticultural botanists are employed by botanical gardens, large plant nurseries, university ... Read »


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    • Horticultural building system

    • Horticultural Building Systems are defined as the instance where vegetation and an architectural/architectonic system exist in a mutually defined and intentionally designed relationship that supports plant growth and an architectonic concept. The most common form of these systems in contemporary vernacular is green wal ... Read »


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    • Horticultural flora

    • A horticultural flora, also known as a garden flora, is a plant identification aid structured in the same way as a native plants flora. It serves the same purpose: to facilitate plant identification; however, it only includes plants that are under cultivation as ornamental plants growing within the prescribed climate z ... Read »


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    • Horticultural oil

    • Horticultural Oils or Narrow Range Oils are lightweight oils, either petroleum or vegetable based. They are used in both horticulture and agriculture, where they are applied as a dilute spray on plant surfaces to control insects and mites. They are also sometimes included in tank mixes as a surfactant. The oils provid ... Read »


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    • Horticultural therapy

    • Horticultural therapy (also known as social and therapeutic horticulture or STH) is defined by the American Horticultural Therapy Association (AHTA) as the engagement of a person in gardening and plant-based activities, facilitated by a trained therapist, to achieve specific therapeutic treatment goals. The visual aest ... Read »


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    • Horticulture industry

    • The horticulture industry embraces the production, processing and shipping of and the market for fruits and vegetables. As such it is a sector of agribusiness and industrialized agriculture. Industrialized horticulture sometimes also includes the floriculture industry. Among the most important fruits are: Important v ... Read »


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    • Hot container composting

    • Hot container composting (also referred to as in-vessel composting for larger industrial batches) is different to cold composting, in that compost is created without losing valuable heat. Heat loss is the reason why a compost pile takes so long to decompose. Observers have noted that the time taken to create compost ca ... Read »


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    • Hotbed

    • In biology, a hotbed is a pile of decaying organic matter warmer than its surroundings due to the heat given off by the metabolism of the microorganisms in the decomposing pile. A hotbed covered with a small glass cover (also called a hotbox) is used as a small version of a hothouse (heated greenhouse). The bed is oft ... Read »


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    • Houseplant care

    • Houseplant care is the act of houseplants and ensuring they have the necessary conditions for survival and continuing growth. This includes providing soil with sufficient nutrients, correct lighting conditions, air circulation and adding the right amount of water. Watering houseplants on a regular basis is necessary ... Read »


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    • Hungry gap

    • In cultivation of vegetables in a British-type climate, the hungry gap is the gardeners' name for the period in spring when there is little or no fresh produce available from a vegetable garden or allotment. It usually starts when overwintered brassica vegetables such as brussels sprouts and winter cauliflowers and Jan ... Read »


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    • Hybrid tea rose

    • Hybrid tea is an informal horticultural classification for a group of garden roses. They were created by cross-breeding two types of roses, initially by hybridising hybrid perpetuals with tea roses. It is the oldest group classified as a modern garden rose. Hybrid teas exhibit traits midway between both parents, being ... Read »


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    • Hydroculture

    • Hydroculture is the growing of plants in a soilless medium, or an aquatic based environment. Plant nutrients are distributed via water. The word "hydro" derives its name from the Greek word ὕδωρ (hudōr) meaning water, hence hydroculture = water culture. Hydroculture is aquatic horticulture. In ba ... Read »


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    • Hydrozoning

    • Hydrozoning is the practice of clustering together plants with similar water requirements in an effort to conserve water. Grouping plants into hydrozones is an approach to irrigation and planting design where plants with similar water needs are grouped together. Through the practice of hydrozoning, it is possible to cu ... Read »


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    • Indigenous horticulture

    • Indigenous horticulture is practised in various ways across all inhabited continents. Indigenous refers to the native peoples of a given area and horticulture is the practice of small-scale inter cropping. In North Africa we look at the farming practices of the Egg on, a Nigerian hill farming community. The Egg on ... Read »


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    • Inosculation

    • Inosculation is a natural phenomenon in which trunks, branches or roots of two trees grow together. It is biologically very similar to grafting. It is most common for branches of two trees of the same species to grow together, though inosculation may be noted across related species. The branches first grow separately ... Read »


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    • Intensive gathering

    • Intensive gathering entails the tending-to of wild plants. Intensive gathering or "tending" methods include weeding, discouraging predators, pot-irrigation, and limited harvesting to ensure reproduction. The same system of methods is involved in cultivation, a process which additionally requires systematic soil prepara ... Read »


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    • Japanese rock garden

    • The Japanese rock garden (枯山水, karesansui?) or "dry landscape" garden, often called a zen garden, creates a miniature stylized landscape through carefully composed arrangements of rocks, water features, moss, pruned trees and bushes, and uses gravel or sand that is raked to represent ripples in water. A ... Read »


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    • Kane's Hedge


    • Keyhole garden

    • A keyhole garden is a 2 meter wide circular raised garden with a keyhole-shaped indentation on one side. The indentation allows gardeners to add uncooked vegetable scraps, greywater, and manure into a composting basket that sits in the center of the bed. In this way, composting materials can be added to the basket thro ... Read »


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    • Kitchen garden

    • The traditional kitchen garden, also known as a potager (in French, jardin potager) or in Scotland a kailyaird, is a space separate from the rest of the residential garden – the ornamental plants and lawn areas. Most vegetable gardens are still miniature versions of old family farm plots, but the kitchen garden is ... Read »


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    • Kokedama

    • Kokedama (苔玉, in English, literally "moss ball") is a ball of soil, covered with moss, on which an ornamental plant grows. The idea has its origins in Japan, where it is a combination of both Nearai and Kusamono Bonsai styles. Today, Kokedama is very popular in Japanese gardens. Kokedama is also called p ... Read »


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    • Landscape contracting

    • Landscape Contracting is: "a profession that involves the art and technology of landscape and garden project planning, construction and landscape management, and maintenance and gardening; for garden aesthetics, human enjoyment and safety, and ecosystem-plant community sustainability. " Landscape contracting is a ... Read »


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    • Landscape design

    • Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practised by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In contemporary practice, landscape design bridges the space between landscape architecture and garden design. Landscape design focuses on both the integrated master landsca ... Read »


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    • Landscape fabric

    • Landscape fabric is a textile material used to control weeds by inhibiting their exposure to sunlight. The fabric is normally placed around desirable plants, covering areas where other growth is unwanted. The fabric itself can be made from synthetic or organic materials, sometimes from recycled sources. ... Read »


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    • Landscape manager

    • Landscape managers are professionally trained and qualified experts in landscaping management for conservation and recreation stewardship of designed and natural landscapes. Landscape managers work with designed landscapes, such as public parks, private gardens and public botanic gardens, and golf courses and sports c ... Read »


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    • Landscape Ontario

    • Landscape Ontario Horticultural Trades Association

      Landscape Ontario Horticultural Trades Association was founded in 1973 by combining three separate horticultural associations into one. The original organizations were: Ontario Garden Maintenance and Landscape Association, Ontario Landscape Contractors Association and Ontario Nurseryman's Association. Landscape Ontari ... Read »


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    • Landscape products

    • Landscape products refers to a group of building industry products used by garden designers and landscape architects and exhibited at trade fairs devoted to these industries. It includes: walls, fences, paving, gardening tools, outdoor lighting, water features, fountains, garden furniture, garden ornaments, gazebos, ga ... Read »


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    • Layering

    • Layering is a means of plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem grows roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant. Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticu ... Read »


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    • Leaching (agriculture)

    • In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. Soil structure, crop planting, type and application rates of fertilizers, and other factors are taken into account to avoid excessive nutrient loss. Leaching may also refer to the practice of applying ... Read »


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    • Liners

    • "Liners" is a horticultural term referring to trays of very young plants, usually grown for sale to retailers or wholesalers, who then grow them to a larger size before selling them to consumers. Liners are usually grown from seed, but may also be grown from cuttings or tissue culture. They are grown in plastic trays w ... Read »


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    • List of Dahlia cultivars

    • The horticultural cultivation of the dahlia plant has resulted in over 57,000 registered cultivars of dahlia. Several of them are listed below. Dahlia 'Akita' is a branching, tuberous tender perennial cultivar with large chrysanthemum petals in shades of dark crimson to red, blending to yellow toward the heart. Th ... Read »


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    • List of horticulture and gardening books/publications


    • List of permaculture projects

    • A permaculture project is a deployment of permaculture practices on an ongoing basis. The Biofarming approach applied in Ethiopia has very similar features and can be considered permaculture. It is mainly promoted by the non-governmental organisation BEA, based in Addis Ababa. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (U ... Read »


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    • Market garden

    • A market garden is the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants. The diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, typically, from under one acre (0.4 ha) to a few acres, or sometimes in greenhouses distinguishes it from ... Read »


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    • Master gardener program

    • Master Gardener programs (also known as Extension Master Gardener Programs) are volunteer programs that train individuals in the science and art of gardening. These individuals pass on the information they learned during their training, as volunteers who advise and educate the public on gardening and horticulture. ... Read »


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    • Matrix planting

    • Matrix planting is a form of self-sustaining gardening, with a focus on attractive rather than food-bearing plants. Matrix planting is based on matching plant to space. The idea is that, when done successfully, plants replace spades, rakes, and hoes as the controllers of what goes on in the garden. Wildflowers gr ... Read »


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    • Monastic garden

    • A monastic garden was used by many and for multiple purposes. In many ways, gardening was the chief method of providing food for households, but also encompassed orchards, cemeteries and pleasure gardens, as well as medicinal and cultural uses. Gardening is the deliberate cultivation of plants herbs, fruits, flowers, o ... Read »


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    • Microponics

    • Microponics is the symbiotic integration of fish, plants and micro-livestock in a semi-controlled environment. The term was adopted by Australian urban farmer, Gary Donaldson, in 2008, to describe his integrated backyard food production concept. While microponics was also the name given to an obscure grafting method us ... Read »


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    • Micropropagation

    • Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants, using modern plant tissue culture methods. Micropropagation is used to multiply noble plants such as those that have been genetically modified or bred through conventional plant breeding methods. I ... Read »


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    • Mosaiculture

    • Mosaiculture is the process of creating designs out of flower beds. In 2013 an international competition in Mosaicultures was held in Montreal, Canada. ... Read »


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    • Mother plant

    • A Mother plant is a plant grown for the purpose of taking cuttings or offsets in order to grow more quantity of the same plant. ... Read »


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    • Naturescaping

    • Naturescaping (or nature scaping) is a method of landscape design and landscaping that allows people and nature to coexist with landscaping. By incorporating certain plants, especially native ones, into one's yard, one can attract beneficial insects, birds, and other creatures, and help keep our rivers and streams heal ... Read »


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    • No-dig gardening

    • No-dig gardening is a non-cultivation method used by some organic gardeners. The origins of no-dig gardening are unclear, and may be based on pre-industrial or nineteenth-century farming techniques.Masanobu Fukuoka started his pioneering research work in this domain in 1938, and began publishing in the 1970s his Fukuok ... Read »


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    • Olericulture

    • Olericulture is the science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food. Olericulture is the production of plants for use of the edible parts. Vegetable crops can be classified into 9 major categories: Olericulture deals with the production, storage, processing and marketi ... Read »


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    • Open Agriculture Initiative

    • The MIT Open Agriculture Initiative (OpenAg) was founded in 2015 by Caleb Harper as an initiative of the MIT Media Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The project aims to develop controlled-environment agriculture platforms called "Food Computers" that operate on a variety of scales, and which can be used ... Read »


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    • Orchard

    • An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are generally grown for commercial production. Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose. A f ... Read »


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    • Organic fertilizer

    • Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, animal excreta (manure), human excreta, and vegetable matter. (e.g. compost and crop residues). Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include animal wastes from meat processing, peat, manure, slurry, and guano. In contrast, the majority of fertilizers u ... Read »


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    • Organic horticulture

    • Organic horticulture is the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants by following the essential principles of organic agriculture in soil building and conservation, pest management, and heirloom variety preservation. The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) togeth ... Read »


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    • Orlah

    • The prohibition on orlah-fruit (lit. "uncircumcised" fruit) is a command found in the Bible not to eat fruit produced by a tree during the first three years after planting. The Hebrew word orlah literally means "uncircumcised". This meaning is often footnoted in English translations: Leviticus 19:23 "When you enter th ... Read »


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    • P-Patch

    • A P-Patch is a parcel of property used for gardening allotments; the term is specific to Seattle, Washington. The "P" originally stood for "Picardo", after the family who owned Picardo Farm in Seattle's Wedgwood neighborhood, part of which became the original P-Patch. (A folk etymology attributes it to "pea patch".) ... Read »


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    • Permeable paving

    • Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements with a base and subbase that allow the movement of stormwater through the surface. In addition to reducing runoff, this effectively traps suspended solids and filters pollutants from the water. Examples include roads, paths, law ... Read »


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    • Permaculture

    • Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered on simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. Permaculture was developed, and the term coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. It has many branches that include but are not limited ... Read »


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    • Photoautotropic tissue culture

    • Photoautotrophic tissue culture is defined as "micropropagation without sugar in the culture medium, in which the growth or accumulation of carbohydrates of cultures is dependent fully upon photosynthesis and inorganic nutrient uptake". There are multiple advantages to using this form of propagation, because this syst ... Read »


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    • Plant nursery

    • A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to usable size. They include retail nurseries which sell to the general public, wholesale nurseries which sell only to businesses such as other nurseries and to commercial gardeners, and private nurseries which supply the needs of institutions or private estate ... Read »


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    • Plantify

    • Plantify.co.uk is an online plant shop based in Windsor, Berkshire (UK) that sells a wide variety of herbaceous and perennial plants. The plant shop supplies over 3150 plants sourced from small British growers and hosts a Plant Finder encyclopedia and free garden design tool. Plantify.co.uk was founded in 2011 by ... Read »


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    • Pleaching

    • Pleaching or plashing is a technique of interweaving living and dead branches through a hedge for stock control. Trees are planted in lines, the branches are woven together to strengthen and fill any weak spots until the hedge thickens. Branches in close contact may grow together, due to a natural phenomenon called ino ... Read »


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    • Plug (horticulture)

    • Plugs in horticulture are small-sized seedlings grown in trays from expanded polystyrene or polythene filled usually with a peat or compost substrate. This type of plug is used for commercially raising vegetables and bedding plants. Similarly plugs may also refer to small sections of lawn grass sod. After being planted ... Read »


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    • Polli:Nation

    • Polli:Nation is a UK social movement which aims to help protect the future of pollinators. Polli:Nation is the name for schools coming together in clusters to collect data about pollinating insects and make improvements for insects based on what they find. 'Free’ pollination by bees and other insects is worth ov ... Read »


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    • Pollination

    • Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place. Like all living organisms, seed plants have a single major goal: to pass their genetic information on to the next generation. The reproductive unit is the seed, and polli ... Read »


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    • Polytunnel

    • A polytunnel (also known as a polyhouse, hoop greenhouse or hoophouse, or high tunnel) is a tunnel made of polyethylene, usually semi-circular, square or elongated in shape. The interior heats up because incoming solar radiation from the sun warms plants, soil, and other things inside the building faster than heat can ... Read »


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    • Pomato

    • The pomato (or tomtato, ketchup and chips) is produced by grafting together a tomato plant and a potato plant, both of which are members of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. Cherry tomatoes grow on the vine, while white potatoes grow in the soil from the same plant. The concept of grafting related potatoes and t ... Read »


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    • Pomology

    • Pomology (from Latin pomum (fruit) + -logy) is a branch of botany that studies and cultivates fruit. The denomination fruticulture—introduced from Romance languages (from Latin fructus and cultura)—is also used. Pomological research is mainly focused on the development, cultivation and physiological studies ... Read »


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    • Post-harvest losses (vegetables)

    • The post-harvest sector includes all points in the value chain from production in the field to the food being placed on a plate for consumption. Postharvest activities include harvesting, handling, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and marketing. Losses of horticultural produce are a major problem in the ... Read »


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    • Postharvest

    • In agriculture, postharvest handling is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing. The instant a crop is removed from the ground, or separated from its parent plant, it begins to deteriorate. Postharvest treatment largely determines final quality, wheth ... Read »


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    • Pot-in-pot

    • Pot-in-pot is a type of system used in plant nurseries. Plants are planted in pots that will accommodate their point-of-sale size, and those pots are placed into slightly larger pots planted in a field. These pots are usually planted in long rows in large fields. The larger pots are usually connected to a central irrig ... Read »


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    • Sakuteiki

    • Sakuteiki (作庭記?, literally, Records of Garden Making) is the oldest published Japanese text on garden-making. It was most likely the work of Tachibana Toshitsuna. Sakuteiki is most likely the oldest garden planning text in the world. It was written in the mid-to-late 11th century. During the Kamakura pe ... Read »


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    • Propagule

    • In biology, a propagule is any material that is used for the purpose of propagating an organism to the next stage in their life cycle, such as by dispersal. The propagule is usually distinct in form from the parent organism. Propagules are produced by plants (in the form of seeds or spores), fungi (in the form of spore ... Read »


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    • Pruning

    • Pruning is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots. Reasons to prune plants include deadwood removal, shaping (by controlling or directing growth), improving or maintaining health, reducing risk from falling branches, prepa ... Read »


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    • Pteridomania

    • Pteridomania or Fern-Fever was a craze for ferns. Victorian decorative arts presented the fern motif in pottery, glass, metal, textiles, wood, printed paper, and sculpture, with ferns "appearing on everything from christening presents to gravestones and memorials". Pteridomania, meaning Fern Madness or Fern Craze, ... Read »


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    • Raised-bed gardening

    • Raised-bed gardening is a form of gardening in which the soil is formed in three-to-four-foot-wide (1.0–1.2 m) beds, which can be of any length or shape. The soil is raised above the surrounding soil (approximately six inches to waist-high), is sometimes enclosed by a frame generally made of wood, rock, or concret ... Read »


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    • Ramification (botany)

    • In botany, ramification is the divergence of the stem and limbs of a plant into smaller ones, i.e. trunk into branches, branches into increasingly smaller branches, etc. Gardeners stimulate the process of ramification through pruning, thereby making trees, shrubs and other plants bushier and denser. Short internodes ( ... Read »


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    • Ripening

    • Ripening is a process in fruits that causes them to become more palatable. In general, a fruit becomes sweeter, less green, and softer as it ripens. Even though the acidity of fruit increases as it ripens, the higher acidity level does not make the fruit seem tarter. This is attributed to the Brix-Acid Ratio. Ripe ... Read »


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    • Rock garden

    • A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden, is a small field or plot of ground designed to feature and emphasize a variety of rocks, stones, and boulders. The standard layout for a rock garden consists of a pile of aesthetically arranged rocks in different sizes, with small gaps between in which plants ... Read »


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    • Rolawn

    • Rolawn Limited has become Europe's largest producer of lawn turf. Based in the North of England in the county of North Yorkshire, Rolawn is a widely known name in the UK turf industry, partly because of the quantity of turf that the company is able to produce on a regular basis and partly because of the technological a ... Read »


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    • Root ball

    • A root ball is the main mass of roots at the base of a plant such as a shrub. It is of particular significance in horticulture when plants are repotted or planted out in the ground. The quality and preparation of the root ball will determine how well the plant will survive this transplantation and then flourish in its ... Read »


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    • Root barrier

    • Root barrier is a physical underground wall, placed so that structures and plants may cohabit happily together. Method of placement is to trench down to a naturally occurring horizontal zone which is rootproof, place the root barrier in one continuous piece into the trench with the root barrier top finishing above ... Read »


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    • Rose trial grounds

    • Rose trial grounds or rose test gardens are agricultural areas where garden roses are grown to be assessed for qualities such as health, floriferousness, novelty, and scent. Roses on trial are usually considered for awards of merit or medals at the end of the trial period. Roses that win an award may be more likely to ... Read »


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    • Sativum

    • Sativa, Sativus, and Sativum are Latin botanical adjectives meaning cultivated, used to designate certain seed-grown domestic crops. Sativa (ending in -a) is the feminine form of the adjective, but masculine (-us) and neuter (-um) endings are also used to agree with the gender of the nouns they modify. For example, th ... Read »


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    • Scarification (botany)

    • Scarification in botany involves weakening, opening, or otherwise altering the coat of a seed to encourage germination. Scarification is often done mechanically, thermally, and chemically. The seeds of many plant species are often impervious to water and gases, thus preventing or delaying germination. Any process desig ... Read »


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    • Seed swap

    • Seed swaps are events where gardeners meet to exchange seeds. Swapping can be arranged online or by mail, especially when participants are spread out geographically. Swap meet events, where growers meet and exchange their excess seeds in person, are also growing in popularity. In part this is due to increased interest ... Read »


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    • Seedbed

    • A seedbed or seedling bed is the local soil environment in which seeds are planted. Often it comprises not only the soil but also a specially prepared cold frame, hotbed or raised bed used to grow the seedlings in a controlled environment into larger young plants before transplanting them into a garden or field. A seed ... Read »


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    • Sheet mulching

    • In permaculture, sheet mulching is an agricultural no-dig gardening technique that attempts to mimic natural forests' processes. When deployed properly and in combination with other permacultural principles, it can generate healthy, productive, and low maintenance ecosystems. A model for sheet mulching consists of ... Read »


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    • Shredding (tree-pruning technique)

    • Shredding is a traditional European method of tree pruning by which all side branches are removed repeatedly leaving the main trunk and top growth. In the Middle Ages the practice was common throughout Europe, but it is now rare, found mainly in central and Eastern Europe. The purpose of shredding is to allow harvest ... Read »


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    • Shrubbery

    • A shrubbery is a wide border to a garden where shrubs are thickly planted, or a similar larger area with a path winding through it. A singular shrub is also known as a bush. A shrubbery was a feature of 19th-century gardens in the English manner, with its origins in the gardenesque style of the early part of the c ... Read »


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    • Silver sand

    • Silver sand is a fine white sand used in gardening. It consists largely of quartz particles that are not coated with iron oxides. Iron oxides colour sand from yellows to rich browns. Silver sand is also used as a constituent of mortar for laying light coloured pavers. ... Read »


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    • Slow gardening

    • Slow gardening is a philosophical approach to gardening which encourages participants to savor everything they do, using all the senses, through all seasons, regardless of garden type of style. Slow Gardening applies equally to people growing vegetables, herbs, flowers, and fruits, as well as those who tend to their ow ... Read »


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    • Snedding

    • Snedding is the process of stripping the side shoots and buds from the length of a branch or shoot, usually of a tree or woody shrub. This process is most commonly performed during hedge laying and prior to the felling of trees on plantations ready for cropping. The verb, "to sned", analogous to today's limbing, was a ... Read »


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    • Soft landscape materials

    • The term soft landscape is used by practitioners of landscape design, landscape architecture, and garden design; and gardeners to describe the vegetative materials which are used to improve a landscape by design. The corresponding term hard landscape is used to describe construction materials. The range of soft landsca ... Read »


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    • Softscape

    • Softscape refers to the live horticultural elements of a landscape. Softscaping can include, flowers, plants, shrubs, trees, flower beds, and duties like weed/nuisance management, grading, planting, mowing, trimming, aerating, spraying, and digging for everything from plants and shrubs , to flower beds. Wheel barrows a ... Read »


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    • Soil

    • Soil is a mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil is a natural body called the pedosphere which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth ... Read »


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    • Soil conservation

    • Soil conservation is the preventing of soil loss from [erosion] or reduced fertility caused by over usage,[Soil acidification acidification] [salinization] or other chemical [soil contamination]. [Slash-and-burn] and other unsustainable methods of [subsistence farming] are practiced in some lesser developed areas. A s ... Read »


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    • Soil fertility

    • Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality. A fertile soil has the following properties: The following properties contribute to soil fertility in most situations: In lands used for agr ... Read »


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    • Soil pH

    • The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity in soils. pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the activity of hydronium ions (H+ or, more precisely, H 3O+ aq) in a solution. In water, it normally ranges from -1 to 14, with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is acidic and above 7 is alkaline. Soil p ... Read »


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    • Soil type

    • In terms of soil texture, soil type usually refers to the different sizes of mineral particles in a particular sample. Soil is made up in part of finely ground rock particles, grouped according to size as sand and silt in addition to clay, organic material such as decomposed plant matter. Each component, and their siz ... Read »


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    • Space in landscape design

    • Space in landscape design refers to theories about the meaning and nature of space as a volume and as an element of design. The concept of space as the fundamental medium of landscape design grew from debates tied to modernism, contemporary art, Asian art and design- as seen in the Japanese garden, and architecture. ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Horticulture and gardening

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