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    Car safety

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Car safety

    • Road collisions by type

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Road collisions by type


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    • Automotive lamps

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Automotive lamps


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    • Automotive safety technologies

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Automotive safety technologies


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    • Driving under the influence

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Driving under the influence


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    • New car assessment programs

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    • Automotive standards

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    • Automobile safety

    • Automobile safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions. Road traffic safety more broadly includes roadway design. One of the first formal academic studies into improving vehicle safety was by Cornell Aeronautical L ... Read »


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    • 2009–11 Toyota vehicle recalls


    • Advanced driving test

    • The advanced driving test is a special exam for motorists who can drive to a skill level substantially above average, and candidates who passed are called advanced drivers. It is available from several societies, including the Institute of Advanced Motorists, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, the Drivi ... Read »


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    • Aquaplaning

    • Aquaplaning or hydroplaning by the tires of a road vehicle, aircraft or other wheeled vehicle occurs when a layer of water builds between the wheels of the vehicle and the road surface, leading to a loss of traction that prevents the vehicle from responding to control inputs. If it occurs to all wheels simultaneously, ... Read »


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    • Artificial Passenger

    • The Artificial Passenger is a telematic device, developed by IBM, that interacts verbally with a driver to reduce the likelihood of them falling asleep at the controls of a vehicle. It is based on inventions covered by U.S. patent 6,236,968. The Artificial Passenger is equipped to engage a vehicle operator by carrying ... Read »


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    • Australian Design Rules


    • Automobile handling

    • Automobile handling and vehicle handling are descriptions of the way a wheeled vehicle responds and reacts to the inputs of a driver, as well as how it moves along a track or road. It is commonly judged by how a vehicle performs particularly during cornering, acceleration, and braking as well as on the vehicle's direct ... Read »


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    • Automobile safety rating

    • An automobile safety rating is a grade given by a testing organisation to a motor vehicle indicating the safety of occupants in the event of a motor vehicle crash. In Australia, vehicle safety ratings are provided by ANCAP whose procedures are similar to EuroNCAP. In Europe, vehicle safety ratings are provided by ... Read »


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    • Automotive Crash Injury Research Center

    • The Automotive Crash Injury Research Center was begun in 1952 by John O. Moore at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, which spun off in 1972 as Calspan Corporation. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks, energy-absorbing ste ... Read »


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    • Automotive Industry Standards

    • The Automotive Industry Standards are the automotive technical specifications of India. They are based on the UNECE norms. The automotive regulations in India are governed by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRT&H) which is the nodal ministry for regulation of the automotive sector in India. In India ... Read »


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    • Automotive Safety Integrity Level

    • Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) is a risk classification scheme defined by the ISO 26262 - Functional Safety for Road Vehicles standard. This is an adaptation of the Safety Integrity Level used in IEC 61508 for the automotive industry. This classification helps defining the safety requirements necessary to be ... Read »


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    • Barrier transfer machine

    • Barrier transfer machines, also known as zipper machines or road zipper, are heavy vehicles used to transfer concrete lane dividers, such as jersey barriers, which are used to relieve traffic congestion during rush hours. Many other cities use them temporarily during construction work. The lanes created by the machine ... Read »


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    • Bullbar

    • A bullbar or push bumper (also roo bar or nudge bar in Australia, moose bumper in Canada, and push bar, bull bar, brush guard, grill guard or cattle pusher in the United States) is a device installed on the front of a vehicle to protect its front from collisions, whether an accidental collision with a large animal in r ... Read »


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    • Bundorf analysis

    • A Bundorf analysis is a measure of the characteristics of a vehicle that govern its understeer balance. The understeer is measured in units of degrees of additional yaw per [g-force|g of lateral acceleration]]. Hence the total understeer is 11.0 deg/g minus 6.9 deg/g, or 4.1 deg/g. Negative values are oversteerin ... Read »


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    • Car check

    • The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (UK), better known as the DVLA, is an Executive Agency of the Department for Transport (DfT). The Agency is accountable to the Secretary of State and Ministers and, through them, to Parliament and the public, for efficient and effective management of the Agency and its respon ... Read »


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    • Center for Auto Safety

    • The Center for Auto Safety (CAS) was founded in 1970 by Consumers Union and Ralph Nader as a Washington, D.C.-based lobbying group focused on the United States automotive industry. CAS counts numerous far-reaching efforts among its successes: ... Read »


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    • Circle of forces

    • The circle of forces, traction circle, friction circle, or friction ellipse is a useful way to think about the dynamic interaction between a vehicle's tire and the road surface. The diagram below shows the tire from above, so that the road surface lies in the x-y plane. The vehicle to which the tire is attached is movi ... Read »


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    • City safety

    • A collision avoidance system is an automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of a collision. It is also known as a precrash system, forward collision warning system, or collision mitigating system. It uses radar (all-weather) and sometimes laser (LIDAR) and camera (employing image recognition) to detect ... Read »


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    • Click It or Ticket

    • Click It or Ticket is a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration campaign aimed at increasing the use of seat belts among young people in the United States. The campaign relies heavily on targeted advertising aimed at teens and young adults. The Click It or Ticket campaign has existed at state level for many yea ... Read »


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    • Clunk Click Every Trip

    • "Clunk Click Every Trip" is the slogan of a series of British public information films, commencing in January 1971 and starring the now disgraced entertainer Jimmy Savile. The BBC adapted Savile's slogan for the title of his Saturday night variety show beginning in 1973. The slogan was introduced during the previous c ... Read »


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    • Crash incompatibility

    • Crash incompatibility, crash compatibility, vehicle incompatibility, and vehicle compatibility are terms in the automobile crash testing industry. They refer to the tendency of some vehicles to inflict more damage on another vehicle (the "crash partner vehicle") in two-car crashes. Vehicle incompatibility is said to le ... Read »


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    • Crash simulation

    • A crash simulation is a virtual recreation of a destructive crash test of a car or a highway guard rail system using a computer simulation in order to examine the level of safety of the car and its occupants. Crash simulations are used by automakers during computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis for crashworthiness i ... Read »


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    • Dekra

    • DEKRA is a vehicle inspection company founded in Berlin, Germany in 1925 as Deutscher Kraftfahrzeug-Überwachungs-Verein (German Motor Vehicle Inspection Association). With approximately 36,000 employees and revenues of roughly €1.9 billion, DEKRA is the largest inspection company in Germany and the third-larges ... Read »


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    • Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority

    • Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority

      The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) of Ghana is the government agency responsible for the licensing and evaluation of drivers and cars in Ghana. DVLA was established in 1999 by Act 569 of Ghana's parliament. The act allowed the authority to have a semi-autonomous status in the public sector organizat ... Read »


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    • Driver's manual


    • Drop Stop

    • Drop Stop is a patented device designed to prevent items from falling down in between a car's front seats and center console. It was invented by Marc Newburger and Jeffrey Simon of Los Angeles. Drop Stop is constructed out of black Neoprene filled with polyester fiberfill and is about 17 inches long. It has a slot sew ... Read »


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    • Dynamic rollover

    • A helicopter is susceptible to a lateral rolling tendency, called dynamic rollover, when lifting off the surface. For dynamic rollover to occur, some factor has to first cause the helicopter to roll or pivot around a skid, or landing gear wheel, until its critical rollover angle is reached. Then, beyond this point, mai ... Read »


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    • ECall

    • eCall is a European initiative intended to bring rapid assistance to motorists involved in a collision anywhere in the European Union. eCall will be mandatory in all new cars sold within EU after April 2018. The concept of eCall was presented in 1999 by European civil servant Luc Tytgat, at the launching of the Ga ... Read »


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    • Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions

    • Worldwide it was estimated that 1.25 million people were killed and many millions more were injured in motor vehicle collisions in 2013. This makes motor vehicle collisions the leading cause of death among young adults of 15-29 years of age (360,000 die a year) and the ninth cause of death for all ages worldwide. In th ... Read »


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    • Esuvee

    • ESUVEE was a US year-long consumer education campaign on sport utility vehicle safety in 2005. There was also an associated website game. The goal of the campaign was to encourage safe driving of SUVs. The campaign emphasized the need to drive carefully to avoid rolling the vehicles over because SUVs handle like trucks ... Read »


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    • Experimental Safety Vehicle

    • Experimental Safety Vehicle (ESV) is the designation for experimental concept cars which are used to test car safety ideas. In 1973 the U.S. DOT announced its ESV project, the aim of which was to obtain safer vehicles by 1981. A car produced by this effort was known as the Minicar RSV. In 1991, the ESV abbreviation w ... Read »


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    • Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System

    • The Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System (Chinese: 电子监控与信息系统), also known by its acronym of EMAS, is a computerised system that is used to monitor traffic on Singapore's expressways. EMAS enables Land Transport Authority (LTA) personnel to detect accidents and respond t ... Read »


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    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108

    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108 (FMVSS 108) regulates all automotive lighting, signalling and reflective devices in the United States. Like all other Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, FMVSS 108 is administered by the United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administra ... Read »


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    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208

    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208 (FMVSS 208) regulates automotive occupant crash protection in the United States. Like all other Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, FMVSS 208 is administered by the United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. This standard o ... Read »


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    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 226

    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 226 (FMVSS 226) regulates automotive ejection mitigation in the United States. Like all other Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, FMVSS 226 is administered by the United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. This standard establi ... Read »


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    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) are U.S. federal regulations specifying design, construction, performance, and durability requirements for motor vehicles and regulated Automobile safety-related components, systems, and design features. They are the U.S. counterpart to the UN Regulations developed by the ... Read »


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    • Fishtailing

    • Fishtailing is a vehicle handling problem which occurs when the rear wheels lose traction, resulting in oversteer. This can be caused by low friction surfaces (sand, gravel, rain, snow, ice, etc.). Rear-drive vehicles with sufficient power can induce this loss of traction on any surface, which is called power-oversteer ... Read »


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    • Freeway Traffic Management System

    • COMPASS, also referred to as Freeway Traffic Management System, is a system run by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to monitor and manage the flow of traffic on various roads (including 400-series highways) in Ontario. COMPASS uses pairs of in-road sensors to detect the speed and density of traffic flow ... Read »


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    • Friction Circle

    • The circle of forces, traction circle, friction circle, or friction ellipse is a useful way to think about the dynamic interaction between a vehicle's tire and the road surface. The diagram below shows the tire from above, so that the road surface lies in the x-y plane. The vehicle to which the tire is attached is movi ... Read »


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    • Geier v. American Honda Motor Co.

    • Geier v. American Honda Motor Co.

      Geier v. American Honda Motor Company, 529 U.S. 861 (2000), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that a federal automobile safety standard pre-empted a stricter state rule. The Court held that Alexis Geier, who suffered severe injuries in a 1987 Honda Accord, could not sue Honda for failing to ... Read »


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    • General Motors ignition switch recalls

    • On February 6, 2014, General Motors (GM) recalled about 800,000 of its small cars due to faulty ignition switches, which could shut off the engine during driving and thereby prevent the airbags from inflating. The company continued to recall more of its cars over the next several months, resulting in nearly 30 million ... Read »


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    • Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Co.

    • Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Company (119 Cal.App.3d 757, 174 Cal.Rptr. 348) was personal injury tort case decided in Orange County California in February 1978 and affirmed by a California appellate court in May 1981. The lawsuit involved the safety of the design of the Ford Pinto automobile, manufactured by the Ford Motor C ... Read »


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    • Grit bin

    • A grit bin or salt bin is an item of street furniture, commonly found in countries where freezing temperatures and snowfall occur, which holds a mixture of salt and grit which is spread over roads if they have snow or ice on them. A grit bin improves winter road safety on roads which are not gritted by other means, suc ... Read »


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    • Hand signals

    • Hand signals are given by cyclists and some motorists to indicate their intentions to other traffic. Under the terms of the Vienna Convention on Traffic, bicycles are considered to be vehicles and cyclists are considered to be drivers. The traffic codes of most countries reflect this. In some countries (such as in the ... Read »


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    • Head injury criterion

    • The Head Injury Criterion (HIC) is a measure of the likelihood of head injury arising from an impact. The HIC can be used to assess safety related to vehicles, personal protective gear, and sport equipment. Normally the variable is derived from the measurements of an accelerometer mounted at the centre of gravity of a ... Read »


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    • High and Mighty (book)

    • High and Mighty: SUVs - The World's Most Dangerous vehicles and how they got that way () is a book by Keith Bradsher which details the tax breaks, protectionism and policy decisions which led to the rise of the sport utility vehicle in modern America, and the poor safety record of the first and second generation of SUV ... Read »


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    • Hill jumping

    • Hill jumping is the act of accelerating a rally vehicle as it approaches the top of a hill, causing the vehicle to go airborne. The activity is also called "hill topping" and "yumping". Hill jumping may take place at formal rally racing events or, at substantial risk to the health and safety of participants and third ... Read »


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    • Hit and run

    • Hit-and-run is the act of causing (or contributing to) a traffic crash (such as colliding with a person or a fixture), without stopping afterwards. It is considered a crime in most jurisdictions. In many jurisdictions there may be an additional obligation to exchange information about one's financial responsibilit ... Read »


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    • Hybrid III

    • The Hybrid III is the standard crash test dummy for frontal crash tests as of the beginning of the 21st century. It was initially only a 50th percentile male (equal in height and weight to the average North American male at the time of its development). Hybrid III, the 50th percentile male dummy which made its first a ... Read »


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    • Hydraulic rescue tools

    • Hydraulic rescue tools, also known as the Jaws of Life, are used by emergency rescue personnel to assist vehicle extrication of crash victims, as well as other rescues from small spaces. These tools include cutters, spreaders, and rams. Such devices were first used in 1963 as a tool to free race car drivers from their ... Read »


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    • Institute of Advanced Motorists

    • IAM RoadSmart formerly called the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) is a charity based in the United Kingdom and serving nine countries, whose objective is to improve car driving and motorcycle riding standards, and so enhance road safety, by using the British police's system of car and motorcycle control commonly ... Read »


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    • Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

    • The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is a U.S. nonprofit organization funded by auto insurers, established in 1959 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. It works to reduce the number of motor vehicle crashes, and the rate of injuries and amount of property damage in the crashes that still occur. It car ... Read »


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    • ISO 26262

    • Titled "Road vehicles – Functional safety", ISO 26262 is an international standard for functional safety of electrical and/or electronic systems in production automobiles defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2011. Functional safety features form an integral part of each autom ... Read »


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    • Isofix

    • ISOFIX is the international standard for attachment points for child safety seats in passenger cars. The system has other regional names including LATCH ("Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children") in the United States and UAS ("Universal Anchorage System") or Canfix in Canada. It has also been called the "Universal Chil ... Read »


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    • Julie (public information film)

    • Julie, also known as Julie knew her killer, is the title of a British public information film (PIF) about the importance of wearing a seatbelt in the rear of a car. It ran on national television from 1998 to 2003, and was so successful it was also shown in France, Germany and Australia as well as being remade by Royal ... Read »


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    • Kick plate

    • A kick plate causes the rear wheels of a vehicle to slide, causing the car to skid out of control, the purpose of which is to train drivers to react to a skidding vehicle in a controlled environment. ... Read »


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    • L-plate

    • An L-plate is a square plate bearing a sans-serif letter L, for learner, which must be affixed to the front and back of a vehicle in many countries if its driver is a learner under instruction, or a motorcycle rider with provisional entitlement to ride restricted motorcycles. In Australia the rules vary from state ... Read »


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    • Landwind X6

    • Landwind X6

      The Landwind X6 is a SUV developed by Chinese automaker Jiangling Motors and manufactured by its subsidiary Landwind. Like some Chinese-made cars, the JMC Landwind is widely derived from older imported technology and design, in this case the Isuzu Rodeo, which was sold from 1998 to 2004. In China the SUV is sold unde ... Read »


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    • Driver's license


    • Lifeguard (automobile safety)

    • Lifeguard was the name of a 1956 safety package marketed by the Ford Motor Company. Spurred by Robert McNamara, the Cornell University crash research program and the first year of Ford's own crash testing (1955) the Lifeguard package included: The buying public was unresponsive to the Lifeguard package according to s ... Read »


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    • List of countries by traffic-related death rate

    • Legend This list of countries by traffic-related death rate shows the annual number of road fatalities per capita per year, per amount of motor vehicles and per vehicle-km in some countries in the year the data was collected. According to the World Health Organization, road traffic injuries caused an estimated 1.25 m ... Read »


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    • Management systems for road safety

    • Progress in the area of prevention is formulated in an environment of beliefs, called paradigms as can be seen in the next table. Some of them can be referred to as professional folklore, i.e. a widely supported set of beliefs with no real basis. For example, the “accident-prone driver” was a belief that was ... Read »


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    • Mcgee v. General Motors Corp.

    • McGee v. General Motors was a 1998 court case in which the jury awarded plaintiffs Robert and Connie McGee $60 million. The trial revealed hidden information about a General Motors fuel tank design. General Motors (GM) was alleged to have sacrificed vehicle safety measures in favor of additional profit. This case was f ... Read »


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    • Medical-psychological assessment (Germany)

    • In Germany, a medical-psychological assessment (MPA) is used by the authorities in deciding whether to revoke or reissue a driving licence. Medical-psychological assessment has been shown to be highly effective in reducing the number of repetitions of driving under the influence. The first standards mandating the ... Read »


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    • Mercedes-Benz ESF 2009 Experimental Safety Vehicle

    • Mercedes-Benz ESF 2009 Experimental Safety Vehicle is a safety research vehicle based on the S400 Hybrid, unveiled in 2009. The vehicle was unveiled in the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Conference in Stuttgart. ... Read »


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    • Minicar RSV

    • The Minicar RSV was a concept automobile created in the United States by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to find ways to decrease highway fatalities. The design was picked in 1975 from a competition between Calspan & Minicars, after rejecting unsuitable concepts presented by the domestic aut ... Read »


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    • Mitsubishi Montero Sport sudden unintended acceleration incident

    • Mitsubishi Montero Sport and other Known SUV
      alleged sudden unintended acceleration incident by human error or by mispedal application.

      Near the end of 2015, isolated case of accidents occurring in the Philippines involving the Mitsubishi Challenger model, locally marketed as Montero Sport, were reported causing concerns regarding the safety of the car model and filing of several class action lawsuits against Mitsubishi Motors Philippines. To date, al ... Read »


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    • Moose test

    • The evasive maneuver test (Swedish: Undanmanöverprov), more commonly known as the moose test or elk test (Swedish: Älgtest, German: Elchtest), is performed to determine how well a certain vehicle evades a suddenly appearing obstacle. This test has been standardized in ISO 3888-2. Forms of the test have been perf ... Read »


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    • MOT test

    • The MOT test (Ministry of Transport, or simply MOT) is an annual test of vehicle safety, aspects and exhaust emissions required in Great Britain for most vehicles over three years old used on any way defined as a road in the Road Traffic Act 1988; it does not apply only to highways (or in Scotland a relevant road) but ... Read »


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    • Motor carrier safety rating

    • The motor carrier safety rating is an evaluation given to an interstate commercial motor carrier (a company which employs truck or bus drivers) by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). A safety rating is determined by a compliance review, an on-site examination of motor carrier operations, such as d ... Read »


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    • Motorway Incident Detection and Automatic Signalling

    • Motorway Incident Detection and Automatic Signalling, usually abbreviated to MIDAS, is a distributed network of traffic sensors, mainly inductive loops, (trialling at the moment radar technology by Wavetronix and magneto-resistive wireless sensors by Clearview Intelligence) which are designed to alert the local RCC (Re ... Read »


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    • Multiple-vehicle collision

    • A multiple vehicle collision (colloquially known as a multi-car collision, multi-vehicle collision, pile-up, chain-reaction crash, or simply a multi) is a road traffic accident involving many vehicles. Generally occurring on high-capacity and high-speed routes such as freeways, they are one of the deadliest forms of tr ... Read »


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    • National Car Test

    • The National Car Test (Irish: An tSeirbhís Náisiúnta Tástála Carranna; abbreviated NCT) is a roadworthiness test, which all cars in the Republic of Ireland must undergo. Following a recent competitive tender process, the Road Safety Authority awarded the National Car Testing Service contract for the oper ... Read »


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    • National Transportation Safety Committee

    • The National Transportation Safety Committee (NTSC, Indonesian: Komite Nasional Keselamatan Transportasi, KNKT) is an Indonesian government agency charged with the investigation of air, land, rail, and marine transportation safety deficiencies. It has its headquarters on the third floor of the Ministry of Transportatio ... Read »


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    • Objects in mirror are closer than they appear

    • The phrase "objects in (the) mirror are closer than they appear" is a safety warning that is required to be engraved on passenger side mirrors of motor vehicles in the USA, Canada, Nepal, India and Saudi Arabia. It is present because while these mirrors' convexity gives them a useful field of view, it also makes object ... Read »


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    • Pam-Crash

    • Pam-Crash is a software package from ESI Group used for crash simulation and the design of occupant safety systems, primarily in the automotive industry. The software enables automotive engineers to simulate the performance of a proposed vehicle design and evaluate the potential for injury to occupants in multiple cras ... Read »


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    • Park-to-reverse

    • A park-to-reverse defect is a term used to describe several scenarios in which cars with automatic transmission can fail to properly engage the parking mechanism, causing the vehicle to unintentionally roll, sometimes resulting in injury or vehicular accidents. The term has significance in product liability law, and in ... Read »


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    • Pass Plus

    • Pass Plus Scheme commonly referred to as Pass Plus is a scheme run in the United Kingdom aimed at new drivers who have recently passed the standard driving test, which helps to give drivers the confidence to drive on their own and to increase experience on the road. Pass plus is an optional course introduced by DS ... Read »


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    • POLAR III

    • POLAR III is a pedestrian test dummy created by Honda. The dummy is used to study how pedestrians are injured or killed when hit by automobiles. POLAR III has instruments to measure the level of injury throughout the body. About 5,000 pedestrians are killed in traffic accidents each year in the United States. By stud ... Read »


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    • Polish Automobile and Motorcycle Association

    • Polski Związek Motorowy

      The Polski Związek Motorowy (PZM, PZMot) (English: Polish Automobile and Motorcycle Association) is an automobile club and the governing body of motorsports in Poland. It is based in Warsaw. Established in 1950 by merging the Polish Car Club and the Polish Motorcycle Association. According to its charter, the PZM d ... Read »


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    • PReVENT

    • PReVENT is a European automotive industry activity co-funded by the European Commission to contribute to road safety by developing and demonstrating preventive safety applications and technologies. Preventive and active safety applications help drivers to avoid or mitigate accidents by using in-vehicle systems that se ... Read »


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    • Road Traffic Act 1930

    • The Road Traffic Act 1930 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom introduced by the Minister of Transport Herbert Morrison. The last major legislation on road traffic was the Motor Car Act 1903. Amendments had been discussed in 1905, 1913 and 1914 as the Motor Car Act (1903) Amendment Bill and Motor Car ... Read »


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    • Road Traffic Act 1934

    • The Road Traffic Act 1934 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom introduced by the Minister of Transport, Leslie Hore-Belisha. The Act was made in a year in which there had been a record numbers of road casualties. The Locomotive Acts of the late 1800s had placed heavy restrictions of speeds of "locomo ... Read »


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    • Roadcraft

    • Roadcraft refers to the system of car or motorcycle control outlined in two books Roadcraft: The Police Driver's Handbook and Motorcycle Roadcraft: The Police Rider's Handbook. The books are produced by the Police Foundation and published by The Stationery Office. The official Roadcraft website provides further informa ... Read »


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    • Roadside memorial

    • A roadside memorial is a marker that usually commemorates a site where a person died suddenly and unexpectedly, away from home. Unlike a grave site headstone, which marks where a body is laid, the memorial marks the last place on earth where a person was alive – although in the past travelers were, out of neces ... Read »


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    • Rollover

    • A rollover is a type of vehicle crash in which a vehicle tips over onto its side or roof. Rollovers have a higher fatality rate than other types of vehicle collisions. Vehicle rollovers are divided into two categories: tripped and untripped. Tripped rollovers are caused by forces from an external object, such as a ... Read »


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    • Roof crush

    • Roof crush is the failure and displacement of an automobile roof into the passenger compartment during a rollover accident. Every year approximately 10,000 Americans are killed in rollover accidents, accounting for about 30% of all light vehicle occupant fatalities. The number of occupant injuries is significantly hig ... Read »


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    • Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents

    • Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents

      The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA) is a British charity that aims to save lives and prevent life-changing injuries which occur as a result of accidents. In the past, it has successfully campaigned on issues of road safety, including playing an integral role in the introduction of drink-drive legi ... Read »


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    • Seat belt legislation

    • Seat belt legislation requires the fitting of seat belts to motor vehicles and the wearing of seat belts by motor vehicle occupants. Laws requiring the fitting of seat belts to cars have in some cases been followed by laws mandating their use, with the effect that thousands of deaths on the road have been prevented. Di ... Read »


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    • Seat belt legislation in Canada

    • Seat belt legislation in Canada is left to the provinces. All provinces in Canada have primary enforcement seat belt laws, which allow a police officer to stop and ticket a driver if s/he observes a violation. Ontario was the first province to pass a law which required vehicle occupants to wear seat belts, a law that c ... Read »


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    • Seat belt legislation in the United States

    • Most seat belt laws in the United States are left to the states. However, the first seat belt law was a federal law, Title 49 of the United States Code, Chapter 301, Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, which took effect on January 1, 1968, that required all vehicles (except buses) to be fitted with seat belts in all designa ... Read »


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    • Seat belt use rates by country

    • This is a table of seat belt use rates (percent) in various countries worldwide. ... Read »


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    • Seat belt use rates in the United States

    • Seat belt use rates in the United States has been rising steadily since 1983, from 14% to 86% in 2012. Seat belt use in the country in 2012 ranged from a minimum of 66.5% in South Dakota to a maximum of 96.9% in Washington. Other states and territories with use rates of 90% and higher include California, Washington D.C ... Read »


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    • Second impact (safety)

    • The second impact (also known as second collision and human collision) is the impact suffered between a vehicle occupant and the vehicle he or she is riding in during some kind of safety incident. The first impact is the impact between the vehicle and another object. There is also a third impact between the internal or ... Read »


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    • Selective recruitment

    • Selective recruitment is an observed effect in traffic safety. When safety belt laws are passed, belt wearing rates increase, but casualties decline by smaller percentages than estimated in a simple calculation. This is because those converted from non-use to use are not “recruited” random members of the driv ... Read »


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    • Self aligning torque

    • Self aligning torque, also known as aligning torque, SAT, or Mz, is the torque that a tire creates as it rolls along, which tends to steer it, i.e. rotate it around its vertical axis. In the presence of a non-zero slip angle, this torque tends to steer the tire toward the direction in which it is traveling, hence its n ... Read »


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    • Single vehicle approval

    • The single vehicle approval is a test introduced in 1998 by the British government to determine the road worthiness of a vehicle not otherwise type approved within the UK, on a one off basis. Typically used by 'kit cars', very low volume production vehicles, and personally imported cars, allowing these cars to be used ... Read »


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    • Skid school

    • Skid School is an industry term used by racing enthusiasts to describe teen classes that promote safe driving. Many of these skid schools also promote racing techniques. The Massachusetts State Auto Dealers Association promotes Skid School classes in Massachusetts. In 2007 Marshall Jespersen won an award for his role ... Read »


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    • Skidpad

    • A skidpad or skidpan is a circular area of flat pavement used for various tests of a car's handling. The most common skidpad use is testing lateral acceleration, measured in g. This usage is similar to that of a kick plate. The test is carried out on a circular track with a defined radius. A car driving on said track ... Read »


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    • Slip angle

    • In vehicle dynamics, slip angle or sideslip angle is the angle between a rolling wheel's actual direction of travel and the direction towards which it is pointing (i.e., the angle of the vector sum of wheel forward velocity vx{\displaystyle v_{x}} and lateral velocity vy{\displaystyle v_{y}}). For a free-rolling wheel ... Read »


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    • Snow tire

    • Snow tires—often also called winter tires—are tires designed for use in colder weather, snow and ice. Snow chains can be a slower-speed, temporary alternative in snowy conditions. Snow tires have a tread design with bigger gaps than those on summer tires, increasing traction on snow and mud. Some have metal s ... Read »


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    • Solomon curve

    • The Solomon curve is a graphical representation of the collision rate of automobiles as a function of their speed compared to the average vehicle speed on the same road. The curve was based on research conducted by David Solomon in the late 1950s and published in 1964. Subsequent research suggests significant biases in ... Read »


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    • Sudden unintended acceleration

    • Sudden unintended acceleration (SUA) is the unintended, unexpected, uncontrolled acceleration of a vehicle, often accompanied by an apparent loss of braking effectiveness. Such problems may be caused by driver error (e.g., pedal misapplication), mechanical or electrical problems, or some combination of these factors. ... Read »


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    • Suzuki Motor Corp. v. Consumers Union of the U.S., Inc.

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      Suzuki v. Consumers Union was a 1996 lawsuit initiated by Suzuki of North America against Consumers Union, filed eight years after their magazine Consumer Reports gave a very unfavorable and much disputed review of the Suzuki Samurai, deeming the Samurai "not acceptable" in their ratings. The compact SUV Suzuki Sa ... Read »


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    • Swedish Accident Investigation Authority

    • Swedish Accident Investigation Authority

      The Swedish Accident Investigation Authority (Swedish: Statens haverikommission, or SHK, in English formerly the Swedish Accident Investigation Board) is a Swedish government agency tasked with investigating all types of serious civil or military accidents that can occur on land, on the sea or in the air. Incidents are ... Read »


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    • Takata Corporation airbag recalls

    • Takata Corporation

      JPY 642.8 billion (FY 2014) JPY -29.5 billion (FY 2014) Takata Corporation (タカタ株式会社, Takata Kabushiki Gaisha) is an automotive parts company based in Japan. The company has production facilities on four continents, with its European headquarters located in Germany, where it also ha ... Read »


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    • Texas A&M Transportation Institute


    • Time-triggered architecture

    • Time-triggered architecture (abbreviated as TTA), also known as a time-triggered system, is a computer system that executes one or more sets of tasks according to a pre-determined task schedule. Implementation of a TT system will typically involve use of a single interrupt that is linked to the periodic overflow of a t ... Read »


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    • Traction Circle

    • The circle of forces, traction circle, friction circle, or friction ellipse is a useful way to think about the dynamic interaction between a vehicle's tire and the road surface. The diagram below shows the tire from above, so that the road surface lies in the x-y plane. The vehicle to which the tire is attached is movi ... Read »


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    • Traffic psychology

    • Traffic psychology is a discipline of psychology that studies the relationship between psychological processes and the behavior of road users. In general, traffic psychology aims to apply theoretical aspects of psychology in order to improve traffic mobility by helping to develop and apply accident countermeasures, as ... Read »


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    • Traffic Safety (book)

    • Traffic Safety, , is a book authored by Leonard Evans, published in 2004 by the Science Serving Society of Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. The book is organized as follows: Traffic Safety uses the methods of science to examine the deaths, injuries, and property damage from traffic crashes. It is more focused on publi ... Read »


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    • Traffic Safety and the Driver

    • Traffic Safety and the Driver, is a book authored by Leonard Evans. The book was organized as follows: While the data presented is in some regards dated, the concepts apply now as they did then. This book has been repeatedly referred to as a classic in the fields of traffic safety, vehicle safety, and crash preventio ... Read »


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    • Transport Accident Investigation Commission

    • The Transport Accident Investigation Commission (TAIC, Māori: Te Komihana Tirotiro Aitua Waka) is a transport safety body of New Zealand. It has its headquarters on the 16th floor of the AXA Centre in Wellington. The agency investigates aviation, marine, and rail accidents and incidents occurring in New Zealand. It ... Read »


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    • Understeer and oversteer

    • Understeer and oversteer are vehicle dynamics terms used to describe the sensitivity of a vehicle to steering. Simply put, oversteer is what occurs when a car turns (steers) by more than the amount commanded by the driver. Conversely, understeer is what occurs when a car steers less than the amount commanded by the dri ... Read »


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    • Uniform Tire Quality Grading

    • Uniform Tire Quality Grading, commonly abbreviated as UTQG, is the term encompassing a set of standards for passenger car tires that measures a tire's treadwear, temperature resistance and traction. The UTQG was created by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in 1978, a branch of the United States Departm ... Read »


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    • Unsafe at Any Speed

    • Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of The American Automobile

      Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile by Ralph Nader, published in 1965, is a book accusing car manufacturers of resistance to the introduction of safety features such as seat belts, and their general reluctance to spend money on improving safety. It was a pioneering work containing su ... Read »


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    • Vehicle blind spot

    • A blind spot in a vehicle is an area around the vehicle that cannot be directly observed by the driver while at the controls, under existing circumstances. Blind spots exist in a wide range of vehicles: aircraft, cars, motorboats, sailboats, and trucks. Other types of transport have no blind spots at all, such as bicyc ... Read »


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    • Intelligent vehicle technologies

    • Intelligent vehicle technologies comprise electronic, electromechanical, and electromagnetic devices - usually silicon micromachined components operating in conjunction with computer-controlled devices and radio transceivers to provide precision repeatability functions (such as in robotics artificial intelligence syste ... Read »


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    • Vehicle extrication

    • Vehicle extrication is the process of removing a vehicle from around a person who has been involved in a motor vehicle accident, when conventional means of exit are impossible or inadvisable. A delicate approach is needed to minimize injury to the victim during the extrication. This operation is typically accomplished ... Read »


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    • Vehicle fire

    • A vehicle fire is an undesired conflagration (uncontrolled burning) involving a motor vehicle. Also termed car fire or auto fire, it is one of the most common causes of fire-related property damage. A motor vehicle contains many types of flammable materials, including flammable liquids like gasoline and oil as wel ... Read »


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    • Vehicle Identity Check

    • The Vehicle Identity Check (VIC) was introduced in the United Kingdom on 7 April 2003, and was created to prevent the illegal practice of vehicle cloning. It is a joint effort run by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) and the Vehicle and Operator Services Agency (VOSA). At present the VIC is only applicabl ... Read »


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    • Vehicle inspection

    • Vehicle inspection is a procedure mandated by national or subnational governments in many countries, in which a vehicle is inspected to ensure that it conforms to regulations governing safety, emissions, or both. Inspection can be required at various times, e.g., periodically or on transfer of title to a vehicle. If re ... Read »


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    • Vehicle inspection in Australia

    • Vehicle inspection in Australia is done on a state basis. Each state or territory has the authority to set its own laws pertaining to vehicle inspections, all (with the exception of the self-governing territory of Norfolk Island) have some form of inspection, either periodically or before a transfer of ownership. ... Read »


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    • Vehicle inspection in the United States

    • In the United States, vehicle safety inspection and emissions inspection are governed by each state individually. 17 states have a periodic (annual or biennial) safety inspection program, while Maryland and Alabama require a safety inspection on sale or transfer of vehicles which were previously registered in another s ... Read »


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    • Vehicular automation

    • Vehicular automation involves the use of mechatronics, artificial intelligence, and multi-agent system to assist a vehicle's operator. These features and the vehicles employing them may be labeled as intelligent or smart. A vehicle using automation for difficult tasks, especially navigation, may be referred to as semi- ... Read »


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    • VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge

    • VIAC, the VisLab Intercontinental Autonomous Challenge, is the challenge conceived by VisLab as an extreme test of autonomous vehicles. It ran from July 20, 2010 to October 28, 2010, involving four driverless vehicles driving with virtually no human intervention on an almost 16,000 kilometres (9,900 mi) trip from Pa ... Read »


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    • Volvo VESC

    • Volvo VESC, the Volvo Experimental Safety Car, was an ESV concept car built by Volvo in 1972. Its design emphasized car safety, and many of the ideas (especially the front) would later appear on the Volvo 240. With safety features such as crumple zones, rollover protection, a "disappearing" steering wheel, anti-lock b ... Read »


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    • Warrant of Fitness

    • A Warrant of Fitness (WoF) is an official New Zealand document certifying that a light motor vehicle has passed a compulsory periodic inspection of safety and roadworthiness. Most vehicles with a gross mass under 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb) that are used on public roads are required to undergo a WoF test, with the fr ... Read »


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    • WHALE (Safety Program)

    • The WHALE Program is a child safety program focused on rescue workers and automobile accidents. W.H.A.L.E. stands for “We Have A Little Emergency.” This car seat safety program was developed by Connie Day, a caregiver from Virginia. In the event of an automobile accident that incapacitates the adult driver an ... Read »


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    • Williamson v. Mazda Motor of America, Inc.

    • Williamson v. Mazda Motor of America, Inc.

      Williamson v. Mazda Motor of America, Inc., 562 U.S. 323 (2011), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, in which the Court unanimously held that Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208, promulgated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, does not federally preempt state tort lawsuits ... Read »


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    • Windshield

    • The windshield (North America) or windscreen (EU & Commonwealth countries) of an aircraft, car, bus, motorbike or tram is the front window. Modern windshields are generally made of laminated safety glass, a type of treated glass, which consists of two (typically) curved sheets of glass with a plastic layer laminated be ... Read »


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    • Work-related road safety in the United States

    • People who are driving as part of their work duties are an important road user category. First, workers themselves are at risk of road traffic injury. Contributing factors include fatigue and long work hours, delivery pressures, distractions from mobile phones and other devices, lack of training to operate the assigned ... Read »


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    • World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations

    • World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations

      The World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations is a working party (WP.29) of the Sustainable Transport Division of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). It is tasked with creating a uniform system of regulations, called UN Regulations, for vehicle design to facilitate international trade. ... Read »


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    • World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson

    • World-Wide Volkswagen Corp. v. Woodson

      World-Wide Volkswagen Corp v. Woodson, 444 U.S. 286 (1980) is a United States Supreme Court case involving strict products liability, personal injury and various procedural issues and considerations. The 1980 opinion, written by Justice Byron White, is included in the first-year civil procedure curriculum at nearly eve ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Car safety

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