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  • Building engineering

    Building engineering

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    • Building automation

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    • Building biology

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    • Building code

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    • Building information modeling

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    • Building materials

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    • Construction terminology

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    • Construction trades workers

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    • Drainage

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    • Electrical wiring

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    • Architectural elements

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    • Elevators

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    • Fire protection

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    • Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning


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    • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified buildings

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified buildings


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    • Materials science

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    • Piping

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Piping


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    • Prefabricated buildings

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    • Structural system

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    • Sustainable building

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    • Architectural engineering

    • Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. Definitions of an architectural engineer may refer to: Structural engineering involves the analysis and design of physical objects (buildings, bridges, equ ... Read »


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    • Index of construction articles

    • This page is a list of construction topics. Abated - Acoustics - Architectural engineer - Architecture - Autonomous buildings - Avanti (programme) Balloon framing - Braced wall line (shear wall) - Brick - Bricklayer - Brickwork - Building code - Building construction - Building foundations - Building material Carpen ... Read »


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    • 3D Print Canal House

    • The 3D Print Canal House is a three-year, publicly accessible "Research & Design by Doing" project in which an international team of partners from various sectors works together on 3D printing a canal house in Amsterdam. By building the house, all parties research the possibilities of 3D printing architecture and form ... Read »


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    • 4D BIM

    • 4D BIM, an acronym for 4D Building Information Modeling and a term widely used in the CAD industry, refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD components or assemblies with time- or schedule-related information.The use of the term 4D is intended to refer to the fourth dimension: time, i.e. 4D is 3D plus sch ... Read »


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    • 5D BIM

    • 5D BIM, an acronym for 5D Building Information Modeling, is a term used in the CAD and construction industries, and refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD components or assemblies with schedule (time - 4D BIM) constraints and then with cost-related information. The creation of 5D models enables the va ... Read »


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    • 6D BIM

    • 6D BIM, an acronym for 6D Building Information Modeling and a term widely used in the Construction industry, refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD components or assemblies with all aspects of project life-cycle management information. The 6D model is usually delivered to the owner when a construction ... Read »


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    • Acoustic board

    • An acoustic board is a special kind of board made of sound absorbing materials. Its job is to provide sound insulation. Between two outer walls sound absorbing material is inserted and the wall is porous. Thus, when sound passes through an acoustic board, the intensity of sound is decreased. The loss of sound energy is ... Read »


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    • Acoustic transmission

    • Acoustic transmission is the transmission of sounds through and between materials, including air, wall, and musical instruments. The degree to which sound is transferred between two materials depends on how well their acoustical impedances match. Musical instruments are generally designed to radiate sound effecti ... Read »


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    • Air barrier

    • Air barriers control air leakage into and out of the building envelope. Air barrier products may take several forms: Air barriers are divided into air barrier materials, air barrier accessories, air barrier components, air barrier assemblies and air barrier systems. Air barrier materials – Building materials tha ... Read »


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    • Air source heat pumps

    • An air source heat pump (ASHP) is a system which transfers heat from outside to inside a building, or vice versa. Under the principles of vapor compression refrigeration, an ASHP uses a refrigerant system involving a compressor and a condenser to absorb heat at one place and release it at another. They can be used as a ... Read »


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    • Applied element method

    • The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a numerical analysis used in predicting the continuum and discrete behavior of structures. The modeling method in AEM adopts the concept of discrete cracking allowing it to automatically track structural collapse behavior passing through all stages of loading: elastic, crack initiati ... Read »


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    • Aquifer storage and recovery

    • Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is the re-injection of potable water back into an aquifer for later recovery and use. ASR has been done for municipal, industry and agriculture use. The first ASR well with a downhole control valve was installed in Highlands Ranch, CO in 1992 for Centennial Water and Sanitation D ... Read »


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    • Architect of record

    • Architect of record is the architect or architecture firm whose name appears on a building permit issued for a specific project on which that architect or firm performed services. Building permits are issued by a government agency with the authority in a certain jurisdiction to regulate building construction and enforc ... Read »


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    • Architect-led design–build


    • Architectural acoustics

    • Architectural acoustics (also known as room acoustics and building acoustics) is the science and engineering of achieving a good sound within a building and is a branch of acoustical engineering. The first application of modern scientific methods to architectural acoustics was carried out by Wallace Sabine in the Fogg ... Read »


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    • Architectural engineer (PE)

    • Architectural engineering is a professional engineering designation in the United States. The architectural engineer applies the knowledge and skills of broader engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings and their component systems while paying careful atten ... Read »


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    • Architectural Engineering Institute

    • The Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI) is the professional organization for architectural engineers. It is managed as a semi-autonomous division of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), like the Structural Engineering Institute. ASCE and ASHRAE are the delegated societies for the architectural engineer ... Read »


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    • Architectural technologist

    • The Architectural Technologist, also known as a Building Technologist, provides technical building design services and solutions and is trained in architectural technology, building technical design and construction. Architectural Technologists apply the science of architecture and typically concentrate on the technolo ... Read »


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    • Architectural technology

    • Architectural technology, or building technology, is the application of technology to the design of buildings. It is a component of architecture and building engineering and is sometimes viewed as a distinct discipline or sub-category. New materials and technologies generated new design challenges and construction meth ... Read »


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    • Area (architecture)

    • In architecture, an area (areaway in North America) is an excavated, subterranean space around the walls of a building, designed to admit light into a basement, often providing access to the house for tradesmen and deliveries and access to vaults beneath the pavement for storage of coal and ash. The term is most c ... Read »


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    • Arthur B. Guise Medal

    • The Arthur B. Guise Medal is awarded annually by the Society of Fire Protection Engineers and recognizes eminent achievement in the advancement of the science and technology of fire protection engineering and is named in memory of the achievements of Arthur Guise. Source: SFPE ... Read »


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    • AS 1100

    • AS 1100 is an Australian Standard for technical drawing including both mechanical and architectural designs. AS 1100 standard drawings contain attributes that are universal around Australia. The standard is published by Standards Australia. The standard consists of five parts, You cannot view these without purchasing ... Read »


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    • ASHRAE 55

    • ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55 (Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy) is a standard that provides minimum requirements for acceptable thermal indoor environments. It establishes the ranges of indoor environmental conditions that are acceptable to achieve thermal comfort for occupants. It was first published in ... Read »


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    • Australian Institute of Building

    • The Australian Institute of Building

      The Australian Institute of Building(AIB) is a professional society founded in 1951, incorporated in 1955 and granted a Royal Charter in 1969. The Institute is an association of building professionals, associate professionals and technicians engaged in building practice, teaching, or research throughout Australia and o ... Read »


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    • Autonomous building

    • An autonomous building is a building designed to be operated independently from infrastructural support services such as the electric power grid, gas grid, municipal water systems, sewage treatment systems, storm drains, communication services, and in some cases, public roads. Advocates of autonomous building describe ... Read »


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    • B&ES TR/19


    • Basement

    • A basement or cellar is one or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the ground floor. Basements are generally used as a utility space for a building where such items as the boiler, water heater, breaker panel or fuse box, car park, and air-conditioning system are located; so also are ... Read »


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    • Beam and block

    • Beam and block is a construction method to support flooring, especially for ground floors. It is made of cast concrete, one piece of which is an inverted T-shape beam, the other piece being a simple rectangular block. The blocks are placed at regular intervals and the beams placed between them to form a connection betw ... Read »


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    • BIM Task Group

    • The Building Information Modelling (BIM) Task Group is a UK Government-funded group, managed through the Cabinet Office, created in 2011 (and holding its first meeting in May 2011) and chaired by Mark Bew. It was founded to "drive adoption of BIM across government" in support of the Government Construction Strategy. It ... Read »


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    • Birdsmouth joint

    • In light frame construction, a birdsmouth joint or bird's beak cut is a woodworking joint that is generally used to connect a roof rafter to the top plate of a supporting wall. It is an indentation cut into the rafter which consists of a "seat cut" (the face of which rests on the top plate) and a "heel cut" or "plumb c ... Read »


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    • Bond beam

    • A bond beam is a horizontal structural element, usually found as an embedded part of a masonry wall assembly. The bond beam serves to impart horizontal strength to a wall where it may not otherwise be braced by floor or roof structure. Bond beams encase steel reinforcing in grout or concrete, binding the structure toge ... Read »


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    • Bose International Planning and Architecture

    • Bose International Planning and Architecture is a group of professionals that provide design services to international clients. BI was founded in 1976 by internationally recognized architect Oru Bose AIA in Florida and for 26 years has been providing specialized design consultancy to clients all over the world. The ... Read »


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    • James Braidwood (firefighter)

    • James Braidwood (1800–1861) founded the world's first municipal fire service in Edinburgh in 1824, and was the first director of the London Fire Engine Establishment (the brigade which was eventually to become the London Fire Brigade). He is credited with the development of the modern municipal fire service. ... Read »


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    • BREEAM

    • BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method), first published by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) in 1990, is the world’s longest established method of assessing, rating, and certifying the sustainability of buildings. More than 250,000 buildings have been BREEAM certified and ... Read »


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    • Thermal bridge

    • . A thermal bridge, also called a cold bridge or heat bridge, is an area of an object (frequently a building) which has a significantly higher heat transfer than the surrounding materials resulting in an overall reduction in thermal insulation of the object or building. Thermal bridges occur in three ways, through: ma ... Read »


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    • BSRIA

    • BSRIA (it takes its name from the initial letters of the Building Services Research and Information Association) is a UK-based testing, instrumentation, research and consultancy organisation, providing specialist services in construction and building services engineering. It is a not-for-profit, member-based associatio ... Read »


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    • Building control officer

    • A building control officer (also known as a building inspector, BCO), is now generally known as a Building Control Surveyor in the United Kingdom. This is a person with the authority to control building work that is subject to the Building Regulations. The title Building Control Officer is one predominantly used by loc ... Read »


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    • Building design

    • Building Design

      Building Design, or BD, is a weekly architectural magazine and digital title in the United Kingdom. BD was launched in 1970 by publisher Morgan Grampian as a closed circulation weekly as high-tech architecture was just starting to take-off. It ceased its print edition in March 2014, remaining a digital only publicatio ... Read »


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    • Building Energy Codes Program

    • The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE's) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) was established in 1991 (originally called the Building Standards and Guidelines Program), with its activities defined by the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) (Pub. L. No 94-385), as amended, and the Energy Independence and S ... Read »


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    • Building energy simulation

    • Building energy simulation, also called building energy modeling (or energy modeling in context), is the use of software to predict the energy use of a building. A typical energy model will have inputs for climate; envelope; internal gains from lighting, equipment, and occupants; heating, cooling, and ventilation ... Read »


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    • Building engineer

    • Building engineer

      A building engineer is recognised as being expert in the use of technology in the design, construction, assessment and maintenance of the built environment. Building engineers are concerned with the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the ... Read »


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    • Building implosion

    • In the controlled demolition industry, building implosion is the strategic placing of explosive material and timing of its detonation so that a structure collapses on itself in a matter of seconds, minimizing the physical damage to its immediate surroundings. Despite its terminology, building implosion also includes th ... Read »


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    • Building information modeling

    • Building information modelling (BIM) is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places. Building information models (BIMs) are files (often but not always in proprietary formats and containing proprietary data) which can be extracted, ex ... Read »


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    • Building lifecycle management

    • Building lifecycle management or BLM is the adaptation of product lifecycle management (PLM)-like techniques to the design, construction, and management of buildings. Building lifecycle management requires accurate and extensive building information modeling (BIM). Life-cycle management of the built environment requir ... Read »


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    • Building performance

    • The building performance of a building or built environment is the efficiency of functioning of buildings and the construction industry, its impact on natural environment, urban environment and its users. It is achieved through means such as architectural design values, building science, architectural engineering, effi ... Read »


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    • Building regulations approval

    • To comply with the Building Act 1984 and the subsequent statutory instruments known as the Building Regulations, Building regulations approval is required to construct certain structures in in England and Wales. Construction projects falling into this category are sometimes referred to as "notifiable", however this is ... Read »


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    • Building regulations in the United Kingdom

    • Building regulations are statutory instruments that seek to ensure that the policies set out in the relevant legislation are carried out. Building regulations approval is required for most building work in the UK. Building regulations that apply across England and Wales are set out in the Building Act 1984 while those ... Read »


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    • Building restoration

    • Building restoration describes a particular treatment approach and philosophy within the field of architectural conservation. According to the U.S. Secretary of Interior's standards, "Restoration is said as the act or process of accurately depicting the form, features, and character of a property as it appeared at a pa ... Read »


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    • Building science

    • Building science is the collection of scientific knowledge and experience that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings and architecture. It traditionally includes areas such as building materials, building envelope, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, natural and ... Read »


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    • Building services engineering

    • Building services engineering, technical building services, architectural engineering, building engineering, or facilities and services planning engineering refers to the implementation of the engineering for the internal environment and environmental impact of a building. Building services engineers are responsible f ... Read »


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    • Building transportation systems

    • Building transportation systems include: ... Read »


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    • Bus SCS

    • SCS is an acronym for "Sistema Cablaggio Semplificato" ("Simplified Cable Solution"). It uses a fieldbus network protocol and has applications in the field of home automation and building automation. It is used mainly in bTicino and Legrand installations. An SCS bus is based on a sheathed twisted pair formed of tw ... Read »


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    • Cardington test

    • The Cardington Fire Tests were a series of large-scale fire tests conducted in real structures (wood, steel-concrete composite and concrete) at the BRE Cardington facility near Cardington, Bedfordshire, England. during the mid 1990s. After the tests, extensive computational and analytical studies of the behaviour of st ... Read »


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    • CEN/TC 125


    • Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability

    • Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability

      The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) is located at the University of British Columbia's (UBC) Point Grey Campus in Vancouver. The building is dedicated to research collaboration and outreach on urban sustainability. It was officially opened in November 2011. The CIRS vision is to be the most in ... Read »


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    • Chartered Association of Building Engineers

    • The Chartered Association of Building Engineers (CABE) is a professional body for building engineers in the United Kingdom and overseas. The Chartered Association of Building Engineers was founded as the Incorporated Association of Architects and Surveyors (IAAS) in 1925 in London. The Incorporated Association of ... Read »


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    • Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers

    • Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers

      The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE; pronounced 'sib-see') is an international professional engineering association based in London that represents building services engineers. It is a full member of the Construction Industry Council, and is consulted by government on matters relating to con ... Read »


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    • Chute (gravity)

    • A chute is a vertical or inclined plane, channel, or passage through which objects are moved by means of gravity. A chute, also known as a race, flume, cat, or river canyon, is a steep-sided passage through which water flows rapidly. Akin to these, man-made chutes, such as the timber slide and log flume, were use ... Read »


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    • Climate adaptive building shell

    • Climate adaptive building shell (CABS) is a term in building engineering that describes the group of facades and roofs that interact with the variability in their environment in a dynamic way. Conventional buildings have static building envelopes, and can therefore not act in response to changing weather conditions and ... Read »


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    • Clipsal C-Bus

    • C-Bus is a home-automation product range from the Clipsal brand owned by Schneider Electric. Since 1994 it has grown to include approximately 400 products. It is primarily used as a Lighting control system but also supports other automation functions such as irrigation and security. The initial products were labelled ... Read »


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    • COBie

    • Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie) is an international standard relating to managed asset information including space and equipment. It is closely associated with building information modeling (BIM) approaches to design, construction and management of built assets, and was devised by Bill Eas ... Read »


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    • Code for Sustainable Homes

    • The Code for Sustainable Homes is an environmental assessment method for rating and certifying the performance of new homes in United Kingdom. First introduced in 2006, it is a national standard for use in the design and construction of new homes with a view to encouraging continuous improvement in sustainable home bui ... Read »


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    • Construction engineering

    • Construction engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning, construction, and management of infrastructures such as roads, tunnels, bridges, airports, railroads, facilities, buildings, dams, utilities and other projects. Construction engineering is considered a professional sub-practi ... Read »


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    • Construction Engineers

    • Construction Engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning, construction, and management of infrastructures such as roads, tunnels, bridges, airports, railroads, facilities, buildings, dams, utilities and other projects. Construction Engineering is considered a professional sub-practi ... Read »


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    • Construction Management Association of America

    • The Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) is a non-profit and non-governmental, professional association serving the construction management industry. The Association was formed in 1982. Current membership is more than 14,000, including individual CM/PM practitioners, corporate members, and construction ... Read »


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    • Construction management

    • Construction project management (CM) is a professional service that uses specialized, project management techniques to oversee the planning, design, and construction of a project, from its beginning to its end. The purpose of CM is to control a project's time, cost and quality. CM is compatible with all project deliver ... Read »


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    • Contour crafting

    • Contour crafting is a building printing technology being researched by Behrokh Khoshnevis of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute (in the Viterbi School of Engineering) that uses a computer-controlled crane or gantry to build edifices rapidly and efficiently with substantially less man ... Read »


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    • Cooling load

    • Cooling load is the rate at which sensible and latent heat must be removed from the space to maintain a constant space dry-bulb air temperature and humidity. Sensible heat into the space causes its air temperature to rise while latent heat is associated with the rise of the moisture content in the space. The building d ... Read »


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    • Cooling tower

    • A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circu ... Read »


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    • Central Building Research Institute

    • Central Building Research Institute

      Coordinates: 29°51′55″N 77°54′12″E / 29.86528°N 77.90333°E / 29.86528; 77.90333 Sh. Yadvendra Pandey |head_label = Current R&D Projects The Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) at Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India, is a constituent establishment of Council of Scienti ... Read »


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    • Crawl space vent

    • A crawl space vent is a penetration in the wall of a building which allows air to circulate from the crawl space beneath the building to the exterior. Dry rot and other conditions detrimental to buildings (particularly wood and timber structures) can develop in enclosed spaces. Providing adequate ventilation is though ... Read »


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    • Curtain wall (architecture)

    • A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep the weather out and the occupants in. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material, reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advanta ... Read »


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    • The Dalmarnock fire tests

    • The Dalmarnock fire tests are a series of fire experiments that were conducted in a real high-rise building in the United Kingdom. In 2006, the BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, conducted this series of large-scale fire tests in a high-rise building in collaboration with the BBC se ... Read »


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    • Damp proofing

    • Damp proofing in construction is a type of moisture control applied to building walls and floors to prevent moisture from passing into the interior spaces. Damp problems are one of the most frequent problems encountered in homes. Damp proofing is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as ... Read »


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    • Daylight harvesting

    • Daylight harvesting systems use daylight to offset the amount of electric lighting needed to properly light a space, in order to reduce energy consumption. This is accomplished using lighting control systems that are able to dim or switch electric lighting in response to changing daylight availability. The term Dayligh ... Read »


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    • Demolition

    • Demolition is the tearing down of buildings and other man-made structures. Demolition contrasts with deconstruction, which involves taking a building apart while carefully preserving valuable elements for re-use purposes. For small buildings, such as houses, that are only two or three stories high, demolition is a rat ... Read »


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    • Design–build


    • Detailed engineering

    • Detailed engineering are studies which creates a full definition of every aspect of a project development. It includes all the studies to be performed before project construction starts. Detail engineering studies are a key component for every project development across Mining, Infrastructure, energy, oil&gas sectors. ... Read »


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    • Diffuser (thermodynamics)

    • A diffuser is "a device for reducing the velocity and increasing the static pressure of a fluid passing through a system”. Diffusers are used to slow the fluid's velocity while increasing its static pressure. The fluid's static pressure rise as it passes though a duct is commonly referred to as pressure recovery. ... Read »


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    • Direct digital control

    • Digital data control (DDC) is the automated control of a condition or process by a digital device (computer). DDC takes a centralized network-oriented approach. All instrumentation is gathered by various analog and digital converters which use the network to transport these signals to the central controller. The centr ... Read »


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    • Direct exchange geothermal heat pump

    • A direct exchange (DX) geothermal heat pump is a type of geothermal heat pump (or ground source heat pump) in which refrigerant circulates through copper tubing placed in the ground. It is a closed-loop, refrigerant-based geothermal system. Direct exchange geothermal heat pumps function similarly to air source heat pu ... Read »


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    • Diversified Project Management

    • Founded in 1989, Diversified Project Management is a New England-based owners’ representative consulting company headquartered in Newton, Massachusetts. With additional offices in Hartford, Connecticut, and Stamford, Connecticut, Diversified Project Management specializes in programming, project management, constr ... Read »


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    • Double glazing

    • Insulating glass (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple glazing/pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope. Insulating glass units (IGUs) are manufactured with ... Read »


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    • Drain-waste-vent system

    • In modern plumbing, a drain-waste-vent (or DWV) is part of a system that removes sewage and greywater from a building, and regulates air pressure in the waste-system pipes to aid free flow. Waste is produced at fixtures such as toilets, sinks, and showers, and exits the fixtures through a trap, a dipped section of pipe ... Read »


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    • Dumbwaiter

    • A dumbwaiter is a small freight elevator or lift intended to carry objects rather than people. Dumbwaiters found within modern structures, including both commercial, public and private buildings, are often connected between multiple floors. When installed in restaurants, schools, kindergartens, hospitals, retirement ho ... Read »


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    • Earth sheltering

    • Earth sheltering is the architectural practice of using earth against building walls for external thermal mass, to reduce heat loss, and to easily maintain a steady indoor air temperature. Earth sheltering has become relatively more popular in modern times, especially among environmentalists and advocates of passive so ... Read »


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    • Eden Project

    • Eden Project

      The Eden Project (Cornish: Edenva) is a popular visitor attraction in Cornwall, England. Inside the two biomes are plants that are collected from many diverse climates and environments. The project is located in a reclaimed Kaolinite pit, located 2 km (1.2 mi) from the town of St Blazey and 5 km (3 mi) from ... Read »


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    • Energy conversion efficiency

    • Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms. The input, as well as the useful output may be electric power, mechanical work, light (radiation), or heat. Energy conversion efficiency is not defined uniquely, but instead de ... Read »


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    • ETC Group (Energy Efficiency)

    • ETC Group provides energy efficiency consulting for commercial and industrial businesses. Energy savings are accomplished through engineering, analysis, education and advocacy. Mark Case founded ETC Group in 1988. ... Read »


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    • Douglas H. Evans

    • Douglas Harold Evans is an outspoken American author and fire protection engineer. Evans has worked for Rolf Jensen & Associates, as well as Clark County, Nevada Fire Prevention department . and has been a regular contributor to building code development in the United States. Evans has particular expertise in smoke con ... Read »


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    • External wall insulation

    • An external wall insulation system (or EWIS) is a thermally insulated, protective, decorative exterior cladding procedure involving the use of expanded polystyrene, mineral wool, polyurethane foam or phenolic foam, topped off with a reinforced cement based, mineral or synthetic finish and plaster. The thickness of the ... Read »


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    • Facade

    • A façade (/fəˈsɑːd/) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the façade of a building is often the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it se ... Read »


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    • Facade engineering

    • Building facades are one of the largest, most important elements in the overall aesthetic and technical performance of a building. Façade Engineering is the art and science of resolving aesthetic, environmental and structural issues to achieve the effective enclosure of buildings. Specialist companies are dedicated ... Read »


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    • Facadism

    • Facadism, façadism (or façadomy) refers to an architectural and construction practice where the facade of a building was designed or constructed separately from the rest of a building. More often it refers to the practice where only the facade of a building is preserved with new buildings erected behind or around ... Read »


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    • Facility condition assessment

    • Facility condition assessment (FCA) or Property Condition Assessment (PCA) is an industry term that describes the process of a qualified group of trained industry professionals performing an analysis of the condition of a facility or group of facilities that may vary in terms of age, design, construction methods, and m ... Read »


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    • Fire protection

    • Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of ... Read »


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    • Fire Technology

    • Fire Technology is a peer-reviewed journal publishing scientific research dealing with the full range of actual, possible, and potential fire hazards facing humans and the environment. It publishes original contributions, both theoretical and empirical, that contribute to the solution of problems in fire safety and rel ... Read »


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    • Flashing (weatherproofing)

    • Flashing refers to thin pieces of impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water into a structure from a joint or as part of a weather resistant barrier (WRB) system. The origin of flash and flashing are uncertain, but may come from the Middle English verb flasshen, 'to sprinkle, splash', related to ... Read »


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    • Flat roof

    • A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs. The slope of a roof is properly known as its pitch and flat roofs have up to approximately 10°. Flat roofs are an ancient form mostly used in arid climates and allow the roof space to be used as a living space or a living roof ... Read »


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    • Floating airport

    • A floating airport is an airport built and situated on a very large floating structure (VLFS) located many miles out at sea utilizing a flotation type of device or devices such as Pneumatic Stabilized Platform (PSP) technology. As the population increases and land becomes more expensive and scarce, very large floating ... Read »


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    • Flood opening

    • A flood opening or flood vent (also styled floodvent) is an orifice in an enclosed structure intended to allow the free passage of water between the interior and exterior. In the United States, flood openings are used to provide for the automatic equalization of hydrostatic pressure on either side of a wall. Build ... Read »


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    • GenerativeComponents

    • GenerativeComponents is parametric CAD software developed by Bentley Systems, was first introduced in 2003, became increasingly used in practice (especially by the London architectural community) by early 2005, and was commercially released in November 2007. GenerativeComponents has a strong traditional base of users i ... Read »


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    • Geothermal heat pump

    • A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a central heating and/or cooling system that transfers heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer). This design takes advantage of the moderate temperatures in the ground to boost efficiency an ... Read »


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    • Glass Pavilion

    • The Glass Pavilion, built in 1914 and designed by Bruno Taut, was a prismatic glass dome structure at the Cologne Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition. The structure was a brightly colored landmark of the exhibition, and was constructed using concrete and glass. The concrete structure had inlaid colored glass plates on the fa ... Read »


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    • Grade beam

    • A grade beam or grade beam footing is a component of a building's foundation. It consists of a reinforced concrete beam that transmits the load from a bearing wall into spaced foundations such as pile caps or caissons. It is used in conditions where the surface soil’s load-bearing capacity is less than the anticip ... Read »


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    • Grasshopper 3D

    • Grasshopper

      Grasshopper is a visual programming language and environment developed by David Rutten at Robert McNeel & Associates, that runs within the Rhinoceros 3D computer-aided design (CAD) application. Programs are created by dragging components onto a canvas. The outputs to these components are then connected to the inputs of ... Read »


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    • Gravel stop

    • A gravel stop is a sheet metal fabrication used at the perimeter of built up roofing. Traditional built up roofing (informally called "tar-and-gravel" roofing) consists of multiple layers of roofing felt mopped with layers of hot liquid bitumen, and surfaced with gravel. At the edges of the roof, some means is require ... Read »


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    • Green building

    • Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the using of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. In othe ... Read »


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    • Green retrofit

    • Green retrofit, home energy retrofit, home retrofit,Deep energy retrofit and home performance retrofit are terms with overlapping meaning for retrofits that ensure the maintenance and preservation of buildings and the continued operation and maintenance of energy efficiency technologies. The meaning ranges from steps h ... Read »


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    • Green Star (Australia)

    • Green Star is a voluntary sustainability rating system for buildings in Australia. It was launched in 2003 by the Green Building Council of Australia. The Green Star rating system assesses the sustainability of projects at all stages of the built environment lifecycle. Ratings can be achieved at the planning phase for ... Read »


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    • Haute Qualité Environnementale


    • Heat pump

    • A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to a destination called a "heat sink". Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. A heat pump uses a small amount of e ... Read »


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    • Home automation

    • Home automation or smart home (also known as domotics or domotica) is the residential extension of building automation and involves the control and automation of lighting, heating (such as smart thermostats), ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), and security, as well as home appliances such as washer/dryers, ovens or ... Read »


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    • HOME STAR

    • HOME STAR, (also spelled HOMESTAR), informally known as Cash for Caulkers, is a United States government program proposed in November 2009 to encourage economic growth by offering incentives to homeowners and retailers for improving the energy efficiency of existing homes. In late 2009 there was a broad perception ... Read »


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    • House energy rating

    • A House Energy Rating is the index of a building's thermal performance (i.e. heating and cooling requirements) for residential homes in Australia. The Australian Building Codes Board introduced energy efficiency measures for houses into the Building Code of Australia (BCA) on 1 January 2003. It has been adopted by all ... Read »


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    • Hurricane-proof building

    • Tornadoes, cyclones, and other storms with strong winds damage or destroy many buildings. However, with proper design and construction, the damage to buildings by these forces can be greatly reduced. A variety of methods can help a building survive strong winds and storm surge. Waves along coastal areas can destroy ... Read »


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    • HVAC

    • Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and hea ... Read »


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    • Thermal destratification

    • Thermal destratification is the process of mixing the internal air in a building to eliminate stratified layers and achieve temperature equalisation throughout the building envelope. It is the reverse of the natural process of thermal stratification, which is the layering of differing (normally rising) air temperatures ... Read »


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    • Hydrodemolition

    • Hydrodemolition (also known as hydro demolition, hydroblasting, hydro blasting, hydromilling, waterblasting, and waterjetting) is a concrete removal technique which utilizes high-pressure water to remove deteriorated and sound concrete as well as asphalt and grout. This process provides an excellent bonding surface for ... Read »


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    • Index of home automation articles

    • ... Read »


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    • Indoor Environmental Quality Global Alliance

    • The Indoor Environmental Quality Global Alliance (IEQ-GA) was initiated in 2014 aiming to improve the actual, delivered indoor environmental quality in buildings through coordination, education, outreach and advocacy. The alliance works to supply information, guidelines and knowledge on the indoor environmental qualit ... Read »


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    • Industrialised Building System (IBS)

    • Industrialised Building System (IBS) is a term used in Malaysia for a technique of construction where by components are manufactured in a controlled environment, either at site or off site, placed and assembled into construction works. Worldwide, IBS is also known as Pre-fabricated/Pre-fab Construction, Modern Method o ... Read »


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    • Insulating concrete form

    • Insulating concrete form or insulated concrete form (ICF) is a system of formwork for reinforced concrete usually made with a rigid thermal insulation that stays in place as a permanent interior and exterior substrate for walls, floors, and roofs. The forms are interlocking modular units that are dry-stacked (without m ... Read »


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    • Insulated glazing

    • Insulating glass (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple glazing/pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope. Insulating glass units (IGUs) are manufactured with ... Read »


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    • Integrated project delivery

    • Integrated project delivery (IPD), is a collaborative alliance of people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fa ... Read »


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    • International Building Performance Simulation Association

    • International Building Performance Simulation Association

      The International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), is a non-profit international society of building performance simulation researchers, developers and practitioners, dedicated to improving the built environment. IBPSA aims to provide a forum for researchers, developers and practitioners to review b ... Read »


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    • International Energy Conservation Code

    • The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) is a building code created by the International Code Council in 2000. It is a model code adopted by many states and municipal governments in the United States for the establishment of minimum design and construction requirements for energy efficiency. ... Read »


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    • Interstitial space (architecture)

    • An interstitial space is an intermediate space located between regular-use floors, commonly located in hospitals and laboratory-type buildings to allow space for the mechanical systems of the building. By providing this space, laboratory and hospital rooms may be easily rearranged throughout their lifecycles and theref ... Read »


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    • ISBEM

    • iSBEM is a free-cost software interface to the Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) which is designed for the purpose of indicating compliance with UK building regulations part L2a and L2b in England and section 6 in Scotland as regards carbon emissions from non domestic buildings. The latest version at time of writ ... Read »


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    • Joint (building)

    • A building joint is a junction where building elements meet without applying a static load from one element to another. When one or more of these vertical or horizontal elements that meet are required by the local building code to have a fire-resistance rating, the resulting opening that makes up the joint must be fire ... Read »


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    • Kansas Building Science Institute

    • The Kansas Building Science Institute is a vocational school located in Manhattan, Kansas. The Institute conducts week-long Home Energy Rater Trainings (HERS) as well as Building Performance Index (BPI) and Weatherization (WX) Trainings, among others. The Institute conducts trainings in a 3,000-square-foot (280 m2) ... Read »


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    • Kinetic architecture

    • Kinetic architecture is a concept through which buildings are designed to allow parts of the structure to move, without reducing overall structural integrity. A building's capability for motion can be used just to: enhance its aesthetic qualities; respond to environmental conditions; and/or, perform functions that wou ... Read »


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    • Land drains

    • The purpose of a land drain is to allow water in wet or swampy ground to rapidly drain away or to relieve hydrostatic pressure. They are subterranean linear structures which are laid to a fall which should be as steep as practicable. They are used in agriculture and in building construction sites. Modern land drains ta ... Read »


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    • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

    • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide. Developed by the non-profit U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings, homes, an ... Read »


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    • Life Safety Code

    • The publication Life Safety Code, known as NFPA 101, is a consensus standard widely adopted in the United States. It is administered, trademarked, copyrighted, and published by the National Fire Protection Association and, like many NFPA documents, is systematically revised on a three-year cycle. Despite its title, th ... Read »


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    • Lighting control system

    • A lighting control system is an intelligent network based lighting control solution that incorporates communication between various system inputs and outputs related to lighting control with the use of one or more central computing devices. Lighting control systems are widely used on both indoor and outdoor lighting of ... Read »


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    • Living Building Challenge

    • The Living Building Challenge is an international sustainable building certification program created in 2006 by the non-profit International Living Future Institute. It is described by the Institute as a philosophy, advocacy tool and certification program that promotes the most advanced measurement of sustainability in ... Read »


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    • Mail chute

    • A mail chute is a largely defunct letter collection device used in early multi-storey office buildings, hotels, apartment buildings and other high rise structures. Letters were dropped from the upper storeys and collected (usually at the ground level) at a central depository by the postal service. This innovation was b ... Read »


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    • Materials science

    • The interdisciplinarity field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from ch ... Read »


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    • Wear coefficient

    • The wear coefficient is a physical coefficient used to measure, characterize and correlate the wear of materials. Traditionally, the wear of materials has been characterized by weight loss and wear rate. However, studies have found that wear coefficient is more suitable. The reason being that it takes the wear rat ... Read »


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    • Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing

    • Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) refers to these aspects of building design and construction. In commercial buildings these aspects are often designed by an engineering firm specializing in MEP. MEP design is important for design decision-making, accurate documentation, performance and cost-estimation, constr ... Read »


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    • Metal faced insulating sandwich panels

    • A sandwich panel is any structure made of three layers: a low-density core, and a thin skin-layer bonded to each side. Sandwich panels are used in applications where a combination of high structural rigidity and low weight is required. Sandwich panels are an example of a sandwich structured composite: the strength and ... Read »


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    • Metal profiles

    • Metal profile sheet systems provide an efficient and reliable solution to the need to build envelopes of single story buildings. Over the years, these systems have evolved from the single skin metal cladding often associated with agricultural buildings to highly developed systems used with industrial, retrial and leisu ... Read »


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    • Midac

    • MIDAC is an acronym created in 1981 by a Sydney-based business, Combined Resources Computing (CRC). It stands for Microprocessor Intelligent Data Acquisition and Control. CRC was established in order to complete several building automation projects commenced by R-Tec. R-Tec was an Australian development company based ... Read »


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    • Modular Addition

    • In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli). The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, published in 1801. A familiar u ... Read »


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    • Modular building

    • Modular buildings and modular homes are sectional prefabricated buildings, or houses, that consist of multiple sections called modules. "Modular" is a method of construction differing from other methods of building. The module sections are constructed at an off site (sometimes, remote) facility, then delivered to the i ... Read »


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    • National Environmental Balancing Bureau

    • Founded in 1971 and headquartered in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA; the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB) is an international association certifying firms and qualifying supervisors and technicians in the following disciplines: Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing (TAB) of HVAC systems; Building Systems Commiss ... Read »


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    • National Fenestration Rating Council

    • The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) is a United States 501(c)3 non-profit organization which sponsors an energy efficiency certification and labeling program for windows, doors, and skylights. NFRC labels provide performance ratings for such products in five categories: U-value, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient ... Read »


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    • National Institute of Building Sciences

    • The National Institute of Building Sciences is a non-profit, non-governmental organization that brings together representatives of government, the professions, industry, labor and consumer interests, and regulatory agencies to focus on the identification and resolution of problems and potential problems that hamper the ... Read »


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    • Natural ventilation

    • Natural ventilation is the process of supplying air to and removing air from an indoor space without using mechanical systems. It refers to the flow of external air to an indoor space as a result of pressure differences arising from natural forces. There are two types of natural ventilation occurring in buildings: wind ... Read »


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    • NEC Engineering and Construction Contract

    • The New Engineering Contract (NEC), or NEC Engineering and Construction Contract, is a formalised system created by the Institution of Civil Engineers that guides the drafting of documents on civil engineering and construction projects for the purpose of obtaining tenders, awarding and administering contracts. As such ... Read »


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    • Neoparium

    • Neoparium, also known as Neopariés, is a glass material made in Japan by Nippon Electric Glass. Described as "crystalized glass ceramic," it was developed as an architectural cladding material for use in harsh environments. Typical units are 5/8" thick in a number of opaque colors. Panels can be fabricated with curv ... Read »


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    • New-construction building commissioning

    • Building commissioning (Cx) is the process of verifying, in new construction, all (or some, depending on scope) of the subsystems for mechanical (HVAC), plumbing, electrical, fire/life safety, building envelopes, interior systems (example laboratory units), co-generation, utility plants, sustainable systems, lighting, ... Read »


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    • Non-explosive demolition agents

    • Non-explosive demolition agents are commercial that are an alternative to explosives and gas pressure blasting products in demolition, mining, and quarrying. To use non-explosive demolition agents in demolition or quarrying, holes are drilled in the base rock as they would be for use with conventional explosives. A slu ... Read »


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    • Off-site construction

    • Offsite construction refers to the planning, design, fabrication, and assembly of building elements at a location other than their final installed location to support the rapid and efficient construction of a permanent structure. Such building elements may be prefabricated in a different location and transported to the ... Read »


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    • Optibo

    • Optibo is the product of a collaboration between Swedish firms to solve the housing industry's problem of availability of space caused by high land prices. Optibo's main architect was inspired when he saw the Disney cartoon, Mickey's Trailer, on TV. The project has led to the construction of an apartment which is only ... Read »


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    • Opus craticum

    • Opus craticum or craticii is an ancient Roman construction technique described by Vitruvius in his books De architectura as wattlework which is plastered over. Vitruvius disparaged this building technique as a grave fire risk, likely to have cracked plaster, and not durable. Surviving examples were found in the archaeo ... Read »


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    • Passive survivability

    • Passive survivability refers to the building's ability to maintain critical life-support conditions in the event of extended loss of power, heating fuel, or water. This is proposing that in a disaster situation whether it be a storm that causes a power outage and is unable to keep the interior of the building cool in s ... Read »


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    • Pavement life-cycle cost analysis


    • Penetrant (mechanical, electrical, or structural)

    • Penetrants, or penetrating items, are the mechanical, electrical or structural items that pass through an opening in a wall or floor, such as pipes, electrical conduits, ducting, cables and cable trays, or structural steel beams and columns. When these items pierce a wall or floor assembly, they create a space between ... Read »


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    • Penetration (firestop)

    • A penetration, in firestopping, is an opening, such as one created by the use of a cast-in-place sleeve, in a wall or floor assembly required to have a fire-resistance rating, for the purpose of accommodating the passage of a mechanical, electrical or structural penetrant. The penetration may or may not contain a fires ... Read »


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    • Performance gap

    • The performance gap is a term commonly used to denote the disparity that is found between the energy use predicted in the design stage of buildings and the energy use of those buildings in operation. The performance gap is produced mainly due to uncertainties. Uncertainties are found in any “real-world” ... Read »


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    • Performance-based building design

    • Performance-Based Building Design is an approach to the design of any complexity of building, from single-detached homes up to and including high-rise apartments and office buildings. A building constructed in this way is required to meet certain measurable or predictable performance requirements, such as energy effici ... Read »


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    • Permanent modular construction

    • Modular buildings and modular homes are sectional prefabricated buildings, or houses, that consist of multiple sections called modules. "Modular" is a method of construction differing from other methods of building. The module sections are constructed at an off site (sometimes, remote) facility, then delivered to the i ... Read »


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    • Phase-change material

    • A phase-change material (PCM) is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at a certain temperature, is capable of storing and releasing large amounts of energy. Heat is absorbed or released when the material changes from solid to liquid and vice versa; thus, PCMs are classified as latent he ... Read »


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    • Physical plant

    • Physical plant, mechanical plant or industrial plant (and where context is given, often just plant) refers to the necessary infrastructure used in operation and maintenance of a given facility. The operation of these facilities, or the department of an organization which does so, is called "plant operations" or facilit ... Read »


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    • Pile cap


    • Pile driver

    • A pile driver is a mechanical device used to drive piles (poles) into soil to provide foundation support for buildings or other structures. The term is also used in reference to members of the construction crew that work with pile-driving rigs. One traditional type of pile driver includes a heavy weight placed between ... Read »


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    • Pinch analysis

    • Pinch analysis is a methodology for minimising energy consumption of chemical processes by calculating thermodynamically feasible energy targets (or minimum energy consumption) and achieving them by optimising heat recovery systems, energy supply methods and process operating conditions. It is also known as process int ... Read »


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    • List of pioneering solar buildings

    • The following buildings have been recognized as being of international significance in pioneering the use of modern engineered solar building design: ... Read »


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    • Piping

    • Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping (and accompanying in-line components) can be manufactured from wood, fiberglass, glass, st ... Read »


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    • Piping and plumbing fitting

    • A fitting is used in pipe systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes and for other purposes, such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow. "Plumbing" is generally used to describe the conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in domestic or commercial environments; "piping" ... Read »


      Wikipedia
    • Plasterwork

    • Plasterwork refers to construction or ornamentation done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. This is also sometimes called pargeting. The process of creating plasterwork, called plastering or rendering, has been used in ... Read »


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    • Plastic hinge

    • In the structural engineering beam theory term, plastic hinge, is used to describe the deformation of a section of a beam where plastic bending occurs. In earthquake engineering plastic hinge is also a type of energy damping device allowing plastic rotation [deformation] of an otherwise rigid column connection. In pla ... Read »


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    • Plastic moment

    • In structural engineering, the plastic moment (Mp) is a property of a structural section. It is defined as the moment at which the entire cross section has reached its yield stress. This is theoretically the maximum bending moment that the section can resist - when this point is reached a plastic hinge is formed and an ... Read »


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    • Plumbing

    • Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing; however, plumbing is not limited to these applications. Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuse ... Read »


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    • Point-to-point laser technology

    • Point-to-point laser technology (PPLT) refers to a technology that enables a user or surveyor to survey or capture a building's geometry in real time or while on site by translating laser range finder data directly into a Computer-aided design (CAD) or building information models (BIM) work station. Most commonly ... Read »


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    • Prefabricated building

    • A prefabricated building, informally a prefab, is a building that is manufactured and constructed using prefabrication. It consists of factory-made components or units that are transported and assembled on-site to form the complete building. Buildings have been built in one place and reassembled in another through ... Read »


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    • Process duct work

    • Process duct work conveys large volumes of hot, dusty air from processing equipment to mills, baghouses to other process equipment. Process duct work may be round or rectangular. Although round duct work costs more to fabricate than rectangular duct work, it requires fewer stiffeners and is favored in many applications ... Read »


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    • Process integration

    • Process integration is a term in chemical engineering which has two possible meanings. 1. A holistic approach to process design which emphasizes the unity of the process and considers the interactions between different unit operations from the outset, rather than optimising them separately. This can also be called int ... Read »


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    • Project delivery method

    • A project delivery method is a system used by an agency or owner for organizing and financing design, construction, operations, and maintenance services for a structure or facility by entering into legal agreements with one or more entities or parties. Common project delivery methods include: Though DBB is now us ... Read »


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    • Project manager

    • A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers have the responsibility of the planning, procurement and execution of a project, in any domain of engineering. Project managers are first point of contact for any issues or discrepancies arising from within the heads of various dep ... Read »


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    • Public interest design

    • Public interest design is a human-centered and participatory design practice that places emphasis on the “triple bottom line” of sustainable design that includes ecological, economic, and social issues and on designing products, structures, and systems that address issues such as economic development and the ... Read »


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    • QIVICON

    • Qivicon is an alliance of companies from different industries that was founded in 2011 by Deutsche Telekom. The companies are collaborating on a cross-vendor, wireless-based home automation solution that has been available in the German market since fall 2013. It includes products in the areas of energy, security, and ... Read »


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    • QSAS

    • Qatar Sustainability Assessment System (QSAS) is a green building certification system developed for the State of Qatar. The primary objective of Qatar Sustainability Assessment System [QSAS] is to create a sustainable built environment that minimizes ecological impact while addressing the specific regional needs and e ... Read »


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    • R-value (insulation)

    • The R-value is a measure of thermal resistance, or ability of heat to transfer from hot to cold, through materials (such as insulation) and assemblies of materials (such as walls and floors). The higher the R-value, the more a material prevents heat transfer. R-value depends on materials' resistance to heat conduction, ... Read »


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    • Radiant cooling

    • A radiant cooling system refers to a temperature-controlled surface that cools indoor temperatures by the removing sensible heat and where more than half of heat transfer occurs through thermal radiation. Heat will flow from objects, occupants, equipment and lights in a space to a cooled surface as long as their temper ... Read »


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    • Radiation material science

    • Radiation materials science describes the interaction of radiation with matter: a broad subject covering many forms of irradiation and of matter. Some of the most profound effects of irradiation on materials occur in the core of nuclear power reactors where atoms comprising the structural components are displaced ... Read »


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    • Radon mitigation

    • Radon mitigation is any process used to reduce radon gas concentrations in the breathing zones of occupied buildings or radon from water supplies. Mitigation of radon in the air is accomplished through ventilation, either collected below a concrete floor slab or membrane on the ground, or by increasing the air changes ... Read »


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    • Rainscreen

    • A rainscreen is an exterior wall detail where the siding (wall cladding) stands off from the moisture-resistant surface of an air barrier applied to the sheathing (sheeting) to create a capillary break and to allow drainage and evaporation. The rain screen is the siding itself but the term rainscreen implies a system o ... Read »


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    • Raising of Chicago

    • During the 1850s and 1860s engineers carried out a piecemeal raising of the level of central Chicago. Streets, sidewalks and buildings were physically raised on hydraulic jacks or jackscrews. The work was funded by private property owners and public funds. During the 19th century, the elevation of the Chicago area ... Read »


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    • Rebar spacer

    • A rebar spacer is a device that secures the reinforcing steel or "rebar" in reinforced concrete structures as the rebar is assembled in place prior to the final concrete pour. The spacers are left in place for the pour to keep the reinforcing in place, and become a permanent part of the structure. The main categories ... Read »


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    • Reclaimed lumber

    • Reclaimed lumber is processed wood retrieved from its original application for purposes of subsequent use. Most reclaimed lumber comes from timbers and decking rescued from old barns, factories and warehouses, although some companies use wood from less traditional structures such as boxcars, coal mines and wine barrels ... Read »


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    • Color-tagged structure

    • A color-tagged structure is a structure in the United States which has been classified by a color to represent the severity of damage or the overall condition of the building. The exact definition for each color may be different at local levels. A "red-tagged" structure has been severely damaged to the degree that the ... Read »


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    • Reflex (building design software)

    • Reflex was a 3D building design software application developed in the mid 1980s and - along with it predecessor Sonata - is now regarded as a forerunner to today's building information modelling applications. The application was developed by two former GMW Computers employees who had been involved with Sonata. After S ... Read »


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    • Reglet

    • In architecture a reglet is 1.) a thin, flat band relating to mouldings or 2.) a groove in a wall or parapet for receiving the top edge of a flashing. In this usage it is also called a raggle and may be related to regle, a groove. If a flashing is simply applied to a surface then it is called a face reglet. Flashing r ... Read »


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    • Relocatable buildings

    • Relocatable Buildings are partially or completely assembled buildings that are constructed in a building manufacturing facility using a modular construction process. They are designed to be reused or repurposed multiple times and transported to different locations. Relocatable buildings can offer more flexibility and a ... Read »


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    • Responsive architecture

    • Responsive architecture is an evolving field of architectural practice and research. Responsive architectures are those that measure actual environmental conditions (via sensors) to enable buildings to adapt their form, shape, color or character responsively (via actuators). Responsive architectures aim to refine and ... Read »


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    • Roof pitch

    • In building construction, roof pitch is a numerical measure of the steepness of a roof. Roofs may be functionally flat or "pitched". The pitch of a roof is its vertical rise divided by its horizontal span (or "run"), what is called "slope" in geometry and stair construction, or the tangent function in trigonometry ... Read »


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    • Room acoustics

    • Room acoustics describes how sound behaves in an enclosed space. The way that sound behaves in a room can be broken up into roughly four different frequency zones: The sound wave has reflections at the walls, floor and ceiling of the room. The incident wave then has interference with the reflected one. This actio ... Read »


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    • Building engineering

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