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    Breeding

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Breeding

    • Breeds

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Breeds


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    • Animal breeding

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Animal breeding


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    • Biological patent law

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Biological patent law


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    • Hybridisation (biology)

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Hybridisation (biology)


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    • Plant breeding

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Plant breeding


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    • Breed

    • A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having appearance (phenotype), homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. Breeds are formed through genetic isolation and either natural adaptation to the environment or selective breeding, or a combin ... Read »


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    • Selective breeding

    • Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. Domesticate ... Read »


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    • Backcrossing

    • Backcrossing is a crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents or an individual genetically similar to its parent, in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent. It is used in horticulture, animal breeding and in production of gene knockout organisms. Backcrossed hybrids a ... Read »


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    • Backyard breeder

    • Backyard breeder is a term used to describe amateur animal breeders whose breeding is considered substandard, with little or misguided effort towards ethical, selective breeding. Unlike puppy mills and other animal mill operations, backyard breeders breed on a small scale, usually at home with their own pets (hence the ... Read »


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    • Breed standard

    • A breed standard (also called bench standard or standard of points) in animal fancy and animal husbandry is a set of guidelines which is used to ensure that the animals produced by a breeder or breeding facility conform to the specifics of the standardized breed. Breed standards are devised by breed associations or br ... Read »


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    • Breed type

    • Breed type is the whole of the characteristics that are typical of a breed of domesticated animals. Breed type may include details of form or color that are not directly related to the economic value of the animal, and are usually defined in breed standards. "Examples [of breed type] include the shape of horns and the ... Read »


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    • Breeder

    • A breeder is a person who selectively breeds carefully selected mates, normally of the same breed to sexually reproduce offspring with specific, consistently replicable qualities and characteristics. This might be as a farmer, agriculturalist, or hobbyist, and can be practiced on a large or small scale, for food, fun, ... Read »


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    • Breeding back

    • Breeding back is a form of artificial selection by the deliberate selective breeding of domestic animals, in an attempt to achieve an animal breed with a phenotype that resembles a wildtype ancestor, usually one that is extinct. Breeding back is not to be confused with dedomestication. It must be kept in mind that a b ... Read »


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    • Breeding program

    • A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animals or plants, usually involving at least several individuals and extending over several generations. There are a couple of breeding methods, such as artificial (which is man made) and natural (it occurs on its own, which is very rare). According to the Dutc ... Read »


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    • Coefficient of relationship

    • The coefficient of relationship is a measure of the degree of consanguinity (or biological relationship) between two individuals. A coefficient of inbreeding can be calculated for an individual, as a measure for the amount of pedigree collapse within that individual's genealogy. The term coefficient of relationship was ... Read »


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    • Diallel cross

    • A diallel cross is a mating scheme used by plant and animal breeders, as well as geneticists, to investigate the genetic underpinnings of quantitative traits. In a full diallel, all parents are crossed to make hybrids in all possible combinations. Variations include half diallels with and without parents, omitting rec ... Read »


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    • F1 hybrid

    • An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F1 hybrids are used in genetics, and in selective breeding, where it may appear as F1 crossbreed. The term is sometimes written with a subscript, as F1 hybrid. Subsequent generations are called F2, F3, ... Read »


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    • F2 generation

    • An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F1 hybrids are used in genetics, and in selective breeding, where it may appear as F1 crossbreed. The term is sometimes written with a subscript, as F1 hybrid. Subsequent generations are called F2, F3, ... Read »


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    • Genetic erosion

    • Genetic erosion is a process whereby the already limited gene pool of an endangered species of plant or animal diminishes even more when individuals from the surviving population die off without getting a chance to meet and breed with others in their endangered low population. The term is sometimes used in a narrow sen ... Read »


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    • Genetic pollution

    • Genetic pollution is a controversial term for uncontrolledgene flow into wild populations. This gene flow is undesirable according to some environmentalists and conservationists, including groups such as Greenpeace, TRAFFIC, and GeneWatch UK. Some conservation biologists and conservationists have used genetic poll ... Read »


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    • Genetic purging

    • Genetic purging is the reduction of the frequency of a deleterious allele occurred by an increased efficiency of natural selection that is prompted by inbreeding. Purging occurs because many deleterious alleles only express all their harmful effect in homozygosis. During inbreeding, as related individuals mate, they p ... Read »


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    • Haven Herefords

    • Haven Herefords is the oldest family run herd of Hereford cattle in the world and is operated from the hamlet known as The Haven at Dilwyn in Herefordshire, UK. The herd is in its fifth generation and is currently being run by Edward Lewis. Thomas Lewis founded his Hereford herd at The Woodhouse, Shobdon, Hereford ... Read »


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    • Heterosis

    • Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring. The adjective derived from heterosis is heterotic. An offspring exhibits heterosis if its traits are enhanced as a result of mixing the genetic contributions of its parents. These ... Read »


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    • Hybrid (biology)

    • In biology a hybrid, also known as cross breed, is the result of mixing, through sexual reproduction, two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera. Using genetic terminology, it may be defined as follows: From a taxonomic perspective, hybrid refers to: The term hybrid is derived from La ... Read »


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    • Inbred strain

    • Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding. Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for reproducibility of conclusions all ... Read »


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    • Inbreeding

    • Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction, but more commonly refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from incestuous sexual relationships and con ... Read »


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    • Inbreeding depression

    • Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to an organism's ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. ... Read »


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    • Index selection

    • Index Selection is a method of artificial selection in which several useful traits are selected simultaneously. First, each trait that is going to be selected is assigned a weight - the importance of the trait. I.e., if you were selecting for both height and the coat darkness in dogs, if height were the more important ... Read »


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    • Mutation breeding

    • Mutation breeding, sometimes referred to as "variation breeding", is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits (or lacking undesirable ones) to be bred with other cultivars. Plants created using mutagenesis are sometimes called mutagenic plants or mutagen ... Read »


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    • Outbreeding depression

    • In biology, outbreeding depression is when progeny resulting from crosses between genetically distant individuals (outcrossing) exhibit lower fitness in the parental environment than either of their parents, or than progeny from crosses between individuals that are more closely related. The concept is opposed to inbree ... Read »


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    • Postnaturalism

    • Postnaturalism is the theory of the postnatural, a term coined to describe organisms that have been intentionally and heritably altered by humans. Postnaturalism is a cultural process whereby organisms are bred to satisfy a specific cultural purpose. It can be used to read these organisms, which serve as insights into ... Read »


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    • Preservation breeding

    • Preservation breeding is an attempt by many animal breeders to preserve bloodlines of animals, either of a rare breed, or of rare pedigrees within a breed. One purpose of preservation breeding is to protect genetic diversity within a species, another is to preserve valuable genetic traits that may not be popular or in ... Read »


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    • PRI disease resistant apple breeding program

    • The PRI disease resistant apple breeding program is a joint project of the Purdue University, Rutgers University, and the University of Illinois, to breed apple cultivars to be resistant to apple scab. PRI stands for 'P'urdue, 'R'utgers and 'I'llinois. It was L. Fredric Hough, then a graduate student at the Univer ... Read »


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