Main

  • Archaic Greece

    Archaic Greece


    • Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period. The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century as entirely unrecognisable from the perspective of the beginning of that century. According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. It began with a "structural revolution" which "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period.

      The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture. It laid the groundwork for the Classical period, both politically and culturally. It was in the Archaic period that the Greek alphabet developed, that the earliest surviving Greek literature was composed, that monumental sculpture and red-figure pottery began in Greece, and that the hoplite became the core of Greek armies. In Athens, the earliest institutions of the democracy were implemented under Solon, and the reforms of Cleisthenes at the end of the Archaic period brought in Athenian democracy as it was during the Classical period. In Sparta, many of the institutions credited to the reforms of Lycurgus were introduced during the period, the region of Messenia was brought under Spartan control, helotage was introduced, and the Peloponnesian League was founded, making Sparta the dominant power in the region.

      The word "archaic" derives from the Greek word archaios, which means "old". It refers to the period in ancient Greek history before the classical. The period is generally considered to have lasted from the beginning of the eighth century BC until the beginning of the fifth century BC, with the foundation of the Olympic Games in 776 BC and the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC forming notional start and end dates. The Archaic period was long considered to have been less important and historically interesting than the classical period, and was primarily studied as a precursor to it. More recently, however, Archaic Greece has come to be studied for its own achievements. With this reassessment of the significance of the Archaic period, some scholars have objected to the term "archaic", due to its connotations in English of being primitive and outdated. No term which has been suggested to replace it has gained widespread currency, however, and the term is still in use.



      Citations
      Bibliography
      • Anderson, Greg (2005). "Before Turannoi Were Tyrants: Rethinking a Chapter of Early Greek History". Classical Antiquity. 24 (2). 
      • Andrewes, A. (1982). "The Growth of the Athenian State". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Antonaccio, Carla M. (2007). "Colonization: Greece on the Move 900–480". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Boardman, John (1982). "The Material Culture of Archaic Greece". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. (1982). "Preface". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Cantarella, Eva (2005). "Gender, Sexuality, and Law". In Gagarin, Michael; Cohen, David. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Cook, R.M. (1979). "Archaic Greek Trade: Three Conjectures". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 99. 
      • Davies, John K. (2009). "The Historiography of Archaic Greece". In Raaflaub, Kurt A.; van Wees, Hans. A Companion to Archaic Greece. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 3–21. ISBN . 
      • Drews, Robert (1972). "The First Tyrants in Greece". Historia: Zeitschrift fur Alte Geschichte. 21 (2). 
      • Fischer-Bossert, Wolfgang (2012). "The Coinage of Sicily". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 142–156. ISBN . 
      • Grant, Michael (1988). The Rise of the Greeks. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 
      • Hall, Jonathan M. (2007). "Polis, Community, and Ethnic Identity". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Hammond, N.G.L (1982). "The Peloponnese". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.iii (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Hunt, Peter (2007). "Military Forces". In Sabin, Philip; van Wees, Hans; Whitby, Michael. The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (2007). "The Human Figure in Early Greek Sculpture and Vase Painting". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Jeffery, L.H. (1982). "Greek Alphabetic Writing". In Boardman, John; Edwards, I.E.S.; Hammond, N.G.L.; Sollberger, E. The Cambridge Ancient History. III.i (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Konuk, Koray (2012). "Asia Minor to the Ionian Revolt". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 43–60. ISBN . 
      • Kroll, John E. (2012). "The Monetary Background of Early Coinage". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 33–42. ISBN . 
      • Markoe, Glenn (1996). "The Emergence of Orientalizing in Greek Art: Some Observations on the Interchange between Greeks and Phoenicians in the 8th and 7th Centuries B.C.". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 301. 
      • Martin, T. R. (1986). Sovereignty and Coinage in Classical Greece. Princeton University Press. ISBN . 
      • Martin, T. R. (1996). "Why Did the Greek "Polis" Originally Need Coins?". Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte (45(3)): 257–283. 
      • Morris, Ian (2009). "The Eighth Century Revlution". In Raaflaub, Kurt A.; van Wees, Hans. A Companion to Archaic Greece. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 64–80. ISBN . 
      • Osborne, Robin (1998). Archaic and Classical Greek Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN . 
      • Osborne, Robin (2009). Greece in the Making: 1200–479 BC (2 ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN . 
      • Parker, Victor (1998). "Τυραννος. The Semantics of a Political Concept from Archilochus to Aristotle". Hermes. 126 (2). 
      • Psoma, Selene (2012). "Greece and the Balkans to 360 B.C.". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–172. ISBN . 
      • Rutter, N.K. (2012). "The Coinage of Italy". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 128–140. ISBN . 
      • Shapiro, H.A. (2007). "Introduction". In Shapiro, H.A. The Cambridge Companion to Archaic Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
      • Sheedy, Kenneth (2012). "Aegina, the Cyclades, and Crete". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 105–127. ISBN . 
      • Snodgrass, Anthony (1965). "The Hoplite Reform and History". The Journal for Hellenic Studies. 85. 
      • Snodgrass, Anthony (1980). Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment. London Melbourne Toronto: J M Dent & Sons Ltd. ISBN . 
      • Spier, J. (1990). "Emblems in Archaic Greece". Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. 37: 107–130. 
      • Van Alfen, Peter G. (2012). "The Coinage of Athens, Sixth to First Century B.C.". In Metcalfe, William E. The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 88–104. ISBN . 
      • Van Wees, Hans. (2009). "The Economy". In Raaflaub, Kurt A.; van Wees, Hans. A Companion to Archaic Greece. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 444–467. ISBN . 
      • Watson, Owen (1976). Owen Watson, eds. Longman modern English dictionary. Longman. ISBN . 
    Wikipedia
  • What Else?

    • Archaic Greece

Extras