Don't miss the special BONUS offer during our Beta-test period. The next 100 new Registered Users (from a unique IP address), to post at least five (5) piglix, will receive 1,000 extra sign-up points (eventually exchangeable for crypto-currency)!

* * * * *    Free Launch Promotions    * * * * *

  • $2,000 in free prizes! is giving away ten (10) Meccano Erector sets, retail at $200 each, that build a motorized Ferris Wheel (or one of 22 other models) ... see details

  • Free Ads! if you are a business with annual revenues of less than $1M - will place your ads free of charge for up to one year! ... read more

Women in law

Women in law describes the role played by women in the legal profession and related occupations, which includes lawyers (also called barristers, attorneys or legal counselors), prosecutors (also called District Attorneys or Crown Prosecutors), judges, legal scholars (including feminist legal theorists), law professors and law school deans.

In the US, while women made up 34% of the legal profession in 2014, women are underrepresented in senior positions in all areas of the profession. Women of color are even more underrepresented in the legal profession. In private practice law firms, women make up just 4% of managing partners in the 200 biggest law firms. In 2014 in Fortune 500 corporations, 21% of the general counsels were women, of which only 10.5% were African-American, 5.7% were Hispanic, 1.9% were Asian-American/Pacific Islanders, and 0% were Middle Eastern. In 2009, 21.6% of law school Deans were women. Women held 27.1% of all federal and state judge positions in 2012. In the US, "[w]omen of color were more likely than any other group to experience exclusion from other employees, racial and gender stereotyping." There are few women law school deans; the list includes Joan Mahoney, Barbara Aronstein Black at Columbia Law School, Elena Kagan at Harvard Law School, Kathleen Sullivan at Stanford Law School, and the Hon. Kristin Booth Glenn and Michelle J. Anderson at the City University of New York School of Law.

  • Annette Abbott Adams (1877–1956) was an American lawyer and judge who was the first woman to be the Assistant Attorney General in the United States. She obtained her law degree in 1912. Before beginning her legal career, she was one of the first female school principals in California. In 1950, she served by special assignment on a case in the California Supreme Court, becoming the first woman to sit on that court.
  • Florence Ellinwood Allen (1884 – 1966) was an American judge who was the first woman to serve on a state supreme court and one of the first two women to serve as a United States federal judge. She finished a master's degree in Political Science from Western Reserve in 1908. and took courses in constitutional law. She wanted to do a law degree, but at that time, Western Reserve's law school did not admit women. Allen attended the law school at the University of Chicago for a year, and then transferred to New York University. In 1913, she got her law degree, graduating with honors. She became interested in politics, and more committed to the cause of women's suffrage. She began challenging local laws that limited women's participation in the political process. She argued one case that went all the way to the Ohio Supreme Court. In 1919, she was appointed the assistant prosecuting attorney for Cleveland's Cuyahoga County. By 1920, she was elected as a Common Pleas judge. In 1922, Allen was elected to the Ohio Supreme Court. She was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in 1934, making her one of the first women federal judges.
  • Bartlett, K., 1990. "Feminist Legal Methods," Harvard Law Review, 1039(4): 829–888.
  • Bartlett, K. and R. Kennedy (eds.), 1991. Feminist Legal Theory, Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Chamallas, M., 2003. Introduction to Feminist Legal Theory, 2d edition, Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Law & Business.
  • Frug, M.J., 1992. "Sexual Equality and Sexual Difference in American Law," New England Law Review, 26: 665–682.
  • Gould, C., 2003. "Women's Human Rights & the U.S. Constitution," in S. Schwarwenbach and P. Smith (eds.), *Women and the United States Constitution, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 197–219.
  • MacKinnon, C., 2006. Are Women Human?, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Olsen, F. (ed.), 1995. Feminist Legal Theory, New York: New York University Press.
  • Manji (eds.), International Law: Modern Feminist Approaches, Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.
  • Scales, A., 2006. Legal Feminism: Activism, Lawyering and Legal Theory, New York: New York University Press.
  • Schwarzenbach, S. and P. Smith (eds.), 2003. Women & the United States Constitution, New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Sen, A., 1995. "Gender Inequality & Theories of Justice," in M. Nussbaum and J. Glover (eds.) 1995, pp. 259–273.
  • Smith, P., 2005. "Four Themes in Feminist Legal Theory: Difference, Dominance, Domesticity & Denial," in M. Golding and W. Edmundson, Philosophy of Law & Legal Theory, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 90–104.
  • –– (ed.), 1993. Feminist Jurisprudence, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Stark, B., 2004. "Women, Globalization, & Law," Pace International Law Review, 16: 333–356.


Don't forget! that as one of our early users, you are eligible to receive the 1,000 point bonus as soon as you have created five (5) acceptable piglix.