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Post-colonial


Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is an academic discipline that analyzes, explains, and responds to the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism. Postcolonialism speaks about the human consequences of external control and economic exploitation of native people and their lands. Drawing from postmodern schools of thought, postcolonial studies analyse the politics of knowledge (creation, control, and distribution) by examining the functional relations of social and political power that sustain colonialism and neocolonialism—the imperial regime's depictions (social, political, cultural) of the colonizer and of the colonized.

As a genre of contemporary history, postcolonialism questions and reinvents the manner in which a culture is being viewed, challenging the narratives expounded during the colonial era. Anthropologically, it records human nations between the colonists and the peoples under colonial rule, seeking to build an understanding of the nature and practice of colonial rule. As a critical theory, it presents, explains, and illustrates the ideology and practice of neocolonialism with examples drawn from history, political science, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and human geography. It also examines the effects of colonial rule on the cultural aspects of the colony and its treatment of women, language, literature, and humanity.

As an epistemology (the study of knowledge, its nature and verifiability), as an ethics (moral philosophy), and as a politics (affairs of the citizenry), the field of postcolonialism address the politics of knowledge—the matters that constitute the postcolonial identity of a decolonised people, which derives from: (i) the coloniser's generation of cultural knowledge about the colonised people; and (ii) how that Western cultural knowledge was applied to subjugate a non–European people into a colony of the European Mother Country, which, after initial invasion, was effected by means of the cultural identities of 'coloniser' and 'colonised'.



Foundation works
contemporary works
Important works
  • The Myth of the Lazy Native (1977), by Syed Hussein Alatas.
  • Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (1983, 1991), by Benedict Anderson. London: Verso. .
  • Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations, by G. Ankerl. Geneva INU PRESS; 2000 .
  • The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literature (1990), by B. Ashcroft, G. Griffiths, and H. Tiffin.
  • The Post-Colonial Studies Reader (1995), B. Ashcroft, G. Griffiths, and H. Tiffin, Eds. London: Routledge .
  • Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies (1998), B. Ashcroft, G. Griffiths, and H. Tiffin, Eds. London: Routledge.
  • L'eurocentrisme (Eurocentrism, 1988), by Samir Amin.
  • The Heathen in his Blindness. . ." Asia, the West, and the Dynamic of Religion. (1994, 2005), by S. N. Balagangadhara. .
  • The Location of Culture (1994), H.K. Bhabha.
  • ‘’Cahiers du CEDREF’’ on ‘’Decolonial Feminist and Queer Theories’’ (2012), by Paola Bachetta.
  • The Post-Colonial Question (1996), I. Chambers and L. Curti, Eds. Routledge.
  • Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories, P. Chatterjee, Princeton University Press.
  • Iran: A People Interrupted (2007), by Hamid Dabashi.
  • At the Risk of Being Heard: Indigenous Rights, Identity, and Postcolonial States (2003), B. Dean and J. Levi, Eds. University of Michigan Press. .
  • Postcolonial Theory: A Critical Introduction (1998), by Leela Gandhi, Columbia University Press: .
  • "Postkolonial Theorie. Eine kritische Einführung" (Postcolonial Theory: A Critical Enquiry, 2005), by N. Dhawan.
  • Colonialism is Doomed, by Ernesto Guevara.
  • The Commonwealth, Comparative Literature and the World: Two Lectures (1998), by Alamgir Hashmi. Islamabad: Gulmohar.
  • Postcolonial Theory and the Arab–Israeli Conflict (2008), Ph. C. Salzman and D. Robinson Divine, Eds. Routledge.
  • African Philosophy: Myth & Reality (1983), Paulin J. Hountondji.
  • Manichean Aesthetics: The Politics of Literature in Colonial Africa (1988), A. JanMohamed.
  • Inventing Ireland (1995), by Declan Kiberd.
  • Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" (1916), by Lenin.
  • Prospero and Caliban, the Psychology of Colonization Octave Mannoni and P. Powesland.
  • The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self Under Colonialism (1983), by Ashis Nandy.
  • Traditions, Tyranny, and Utopias: Essays in the Politics of Awareness (1987), by Ashis Nandy.
  • On the Postcolony (2000), by Achille Mbembe. The Regents of the University of California.
  • "The Angel of Progress: Pitfalls of the Term 'Postcolonialism' " (1994), by , in Colonial Discourse/Postcolonial Theory (1994), M. Baker, P. Hulme, and M. Iverson, Eds.
  • Beginning Postcolonialism (2010), by J. McLeod, second edition, Manchester University Press.
  • The Idea of Latin América" (2005), by Walter Mignolo.
  • Local Histories/Global designs: Coloniality (1999), by Walter Mignolo.
  • ** "New Orientations:Post Colonial Literature in English" by Jaydeep Sarangi, Authorspress,New Delhi
  • Infinite Layers/Third World? (1989), by Trinh T. Minh-ha.
  • Under Western Eyes (1986), by Chandra Talpade Mohanty.
  • The Invention of Africa (1988), by V. Y. Mudimbe.
  • Dislocating Cultures (1997), by Uma Narayan.
  • Contesting Cultures(1997), by Uma Narayan.
  • "The Postcolonial Ghetto" (2010), by L Paperson.
  • Delusions and Discoveries (1983), B. Parry.
  • The Disappointed Bridge: Ireland and the Post-Colonial World (2014), by Richard Pine
  • Prem Poddar and David Johnson, ed. (2008). A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures in English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN . 
  • Postcolonial Student: Learning the Ethics of Global Solidarity in an English Classroom, by Masood Ashraf Raja.
  • "Coloniality and Modernity/Rationality" (1991), in Globalizations and Modernities (1999), by Aníbal Quijano.
  • "Calibán: Apuntes sobre la cultura de Nuestra América" (Caliban: Notes About the Culture of Our America, 1971), in Calibán and Other Essays (1989), by Roberto Fernández Retamar
  • Culture and Imperialism (1993), by Edward Said
  • Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World (1986), by Kumari Jayawardena.
  • Can the Subaltern Speak? (1988), by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.
  • The Postcolonial Critic (1990), by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.
  • Selected Subaltern Studies (1988), by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.
  • A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Towards a History of the Vanishing Present (1999), by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.
  • Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature (1986), by Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o.
  • White Mythologies: Writing History and the West (1990), by Robert J.C. Young.
  • Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race (1995), by Robert J.C. Young.
  • Postcolonialism: An Historical Introduction (2001), by Robert J.C. Young.
  • "Presentations of Postcolonialism: New Orientations" (2007),Jaydeep Sarangi,Authorspress,New Delhi
  • Gregory, Derek (2009). Dictionary of Human Geography. Hoboken,NJ.: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. 
  • Fanon, Frantz (1963). The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press. ISBN . 
  • Fischer-Tiné, Harald (2011). "Postcolonial Studies". European History Online. 
  • Hart, Jonathan; Goldie, Terrie (1993). "Post-colonial Theory". In Makaryk, Irene Rima; Hutcheon, Linda; Perron, Paul. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theory: Approaches, Scholars, Terms. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN . 
  • Kumaraswamy, P. R. (March 2006). "Who am I?: The Identity Crisis in the Middle East". The Middle East Review of International Affairs. 10 (1, Article 5) 
  • Quayson, Ato (2000). Postcolonialism: Theory, Practice, or Process?. Polity Press, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. ISBN . 
  • Sadiki, Larbi (2004). The Search for Arab Democracy: Discourses and Counter-Discourses. India: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd. ISBN . 
  • Said, Edward (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon. ISBN . 
  • Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty (1990). "Can the Subaltern Speak?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2012. 
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