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Child Identity is not only a psychological structure, but also a complex subject of contemporary humanitarian science. Identity formation is a complex process that is never completed. When we research the problems of identity we want to answer questions 'Who we are?', 'Do we choose our identity?', 'Is identity given to us or do we create our own?', etc. In a world of change, children are faced with many questions and struggles as they sort out their multiple identities. Children begin to ask identity questions at an early age. Who am I? Who is my family? Where do I belong? Why does my family celebrate some holidays and not others? These are all standard questions children ask to determine how they fit into their world.
Erik Erikson (1902–1994) became one of the earliest psychologists to take an explicit interest in problem of child identity. The child identity is a complex socio-cultural phenomenon, which includes a variety of representations of a child about themselves, about the world, about his place in this world. The Child Identity is a dynamic construct that is rapidly changing under the influence of the environment, education and family. In childhood, identity is a dependent phenomenon, there are a lot of the unconscious factors are affecting to behavior patterns, relationships child with world. Child Identity formed under influence of various factors and stereotypes.
Erik Erikson was one of the first scientists who described the problems of identity of teenagers and crisis identity. The development of identity was one of Erikson's greatest concerns in his theory. When Anna Freud worked with different children, she opened many original forms of their psychological life. For example, she was the first who described phenomenon 'Identification with the Aggressor' (The Ego, 1936). According to her it was a defense mechanism that was used to “protect the self from hurt and disorganization”. Anthropologists have most frequently employed the term ‘identity’ to refer to this idea of selfhood in a loosely Eriksonian way (Erikson 1972) properties based on the uniqueness and individuality which makes a person distinct from others. Identity became of more interest to anthropologists with the emergence of modern concerns with ethnicity and social movements in the 1970s. One of the most interesting research about some elements of ethnic, cultural and gender children's identity was described by Margaret Mead. Jean S. Phinney developed a three stage model of ethnic identity development (1992) based on research with minority adolescents combined with other ego identity and ethnic identity models.
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