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    Wheat

    • Wheat
      Wheat close-up.JPG
      Scientific classification
      Kingdom: Plantae
      (unranked): Angiosperms
      (unranked): Monocots
      (unranked): Commelinids
      Order: Poales
      Family: Poaceae
      Subfamily: Pooideae
      Tribe: Triticeae
      Genus: Triticum
      L.
      Species

      References:
        Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22

      Wheat, hard red winter
      Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
      Energy 1,368 kJ (327 kcal)
      71.18 g
      Sugars 0.41
      Dietary fiber 12.2 g
      1.54 g
      12.61 g
      Vitamins
      Thiamine (B1)
      (33%)
      0.383. mg
      Riboflavin (B2)
      (10%)
      0.115 mg
      Niacin (B3)
      (36%)
      5.464 mg
      Pantothenic acid (B5)
      (19%)
      0.954 mg
      Vitamin B6
      (23%)
      0.3 mg
      Folate (B9)
      (10%)
      38 μg
      Choline
      (6%)
      31.2 mg
      Vitamin E
      (7%)
      1.01 mg
      Vitamin K
      (2%)
      1.9 μg
      Minerals
      Calcium
      (3%)
      29 mg
      Iron
      (25%)
      3.19 mg
      Magnesium
      (35%)
      126 mg
      Manganese
      (190%)
      3.985 mg
      Phosphorus
      (41%)
      288 mg
      Potassium
      (8%)
      363 mg
      Sodium
      (0%)
      2 mg
      Zinc
      (28%)
      2.65 mg
      Other constituents
      Water 13.1 g
      Selenium 70.7 ug

      Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
      Source: USDA Nutrient Database

      References:
        Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22

      Wheat (Triticum spp., most commonly T. aestivum) is a cereal grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), originally from the Levant region but now cultivated worldwide. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize (1.03 billion tonnes), with more than rice (499 million tonnes). Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st Century.

      This grain is grown on more land area than any other commercial food (220.4 million hectares, 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. Globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals and staple foods. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE.

      When eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber, and is associated with lower risk of several diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer and type 2 diabetes. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.


      Nutrient content of major staple foods per 100g portion
      Nutrient component: Maize / Corn Rice (white) Rice (brown) Wheat Potato Cassava Soybean (Green) Sweet potato Yam Sorghum Plantain RDA
      Water (g) 10 12 10 13 79 60 68 77 70 9 65 3000
      Energy (kJ) 1528 1528 1549 1369 322 670 615 360 494 1419 511 2000–2500
      Protein (g) 9.4 7.1 7.9 12.6 2.0 1.4 13.0 1.6 1.5 11.3 1.3 50
      Fat (g) 4.74 0.66 2.92 1.54 0.09 0.28 6.8 0.05 0.17 3.3 0.37
      Carbohydrates (g) 74 80 77 71 17 38 11 20 28 75 32 130
      Fiber (g) 7.3 1.3 3.5 12.2 2.2 1.8 4.2 3 4.1 6.3 2.3 30
      Sugar (g) 0.64 0.12 0.85 0.41 0.78 1.7 0 4.18 0.5 0 15
      Calcium (mg) 7 28 23 29 12 16 197 30 17 28 3 1000
      Iron (mg) 2.71 0.8 1.47 3.19 0.78 0.27 3.55 0.61 0.54 4.4 0.6 8
      Magnesium (mg) 127 25 143 126 23 21 65 25 21 0 37 400
      Phosphorus (mg) 210 115 333 288 57 27 194 47 55 287 34 700
      Potassium (mg) 287 115 223 363 421 271 620 337 816 350 499 4700
      Sodium (mg) 35 5 7 2 6 14 15 55 9 6 4 1500
      Zinc (mg) 2.21 1.09 2.02 2.65 0.29 0.34 0.99 0.3 0.24 0 0.14 11
      Copper (mg) 0.31 0.22 0.43 0.11 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.18 - 0.08 0.9
      Manganese (mg) 0.49 1.09 3.74 3.99 0.15 0.38 0.55 0.26 0.40 - - 2.3
      Selenium (μg) 15.5 15.1 70.7 0.3 0.7 1.5 0.6 0.7 0 1.5 55
      Vitamin C (mg) 0 0 0 0 19.7 20.6 29 2.4 17.1 0 18.4 90
      Thiamin (B1)(mg) 0.39 0.07 0.40 0.30 0.08 0.09 0.44 0.08 0.11 0.24 0.05 1.2
      Riboflavin (B2)(mg) 0.20 0.05 0.09 0.12 0.03 0.05 0.18 0.06 0.03 0.14 0.05 1.3
      Niacin (B3) (mg) 3.63 1.6 5.09 5.46 1.05 0.85 1.65 0.56 0.55 2.93 0.69 16
      Pantothenic acid (B5) (mg) 0.42 1.01 1.49 0.95 0.30 0.11 0.15 0.80 0.31 - 0.26 5
      Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.62 0.16 0.51 0.3 0.30 0.09 0.07 0.21 0.29 - 0.30 1.3
      Folate Total (B9) (μg) 19 8 20 38 16 27 165 11 23 0 22 400
      Vitamin A (IU) 214 0 0 9 2 13 180 14187 138 0 1127 5000
      Vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol (mg) 0.49 0.11 0.59 1.01 0.01 0.19 0 0.26 0.39 0 0.14 15
      Vitamin K1 (μg) 0.3 0.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 0 1.8 2.6 0 0.7 120
      Beta-carotene (μg) 97 0 5 1 8 0 8509 83 0 457 10500
      Lutein+zeaxanthin (μg) 1355 0 220 8 0 0 0 0 0 30
      Saturated fatty acids (g) 0.67 0.18 0.58 0.26 0.03 0.07 0.79 0.02 0.04 0.46 0.14
      Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 1.25 0.21 1.05 0.2 0.00 0.08 1.28 0.00 0.01 0.99 0.03
      Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 2.16 0.18 1.04 0.63 0.04 0.05 3.20 0.01 0.08 1.37 0.07
      Top wheat producers in 2014
      Country millions of tonnes
       China
      126.2
       India
      95.8
       Russia
      59.7
       United States
      55.1
       France
      39.0
       Canada
      29.3
       Germany
      27.8
       Pakistan
      26.0
       Australia
      25.3
       Ukraine
      24.1
      World
      720
      Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization

      • Einkorn wheat (T. monococcum) is diploid (AA, two complements of seven chromosomes, 2n=14).
      • Most tetraploid wheats (e.g. emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. Wild emmer is itself the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae. speltoides. The unknown grass has never been identified among now surviving wild grasses, but the closest living relative is Aegilops speltoides. The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) occurred in the wild, long before domestication, and was driven by natural selection.
      • Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass (Aegilops tauschii) to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat. These have three sets of paired chromosomes, three times as many as in diploid wheat.
      • Growing season, such as winter wheat vs. spring wheat.
      • Protein content. Bread wheat protein content ranges from 10% in some soft wheats with high starch contents, to 15% in hard wheats.
      • The quality of the wheat protein gluten. This protein can determine the suitability of a wheat to a particular dish. A strong and elastic gluten present in bread wheats enables dough to trap carbon dioxide during leavening, but elastic gluten interferes with the rolling of pasta into thin sheets. The gluten protein in durum wheats used for pasta is strong but not elastic.
      • Grain color (red, white or amber). Many wheat varieties are reddish-brown due to phenolic compounds present in the bran layer which are transformed to pigments by browning enzymes. White wheats have a lower content of phenolics and browning enzymes, and are generally less astringent in taste than red wheats. The yellowish color of durum wheat and semolina flour made from it is due to a carotenoid pigment called lutein, which can be oxidized to a colorless form by enzymes present in the grain.
      • Common wheat or bread wheat (T. aestivum) – A hexaploid species that is the most widely cultivated in the world.
      • Spelt (T. spelta) – Another hexaploid species cultivated in limited quantities. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (T. aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be T. aestivum ssp. spelta.
      • Durum (T. durum) – The only tetraploid form of wheat widely used today, and the second most widely cultivated wheat.
      • Emmer (T. dicoccon) – A tetraploid species, cultivated in ancient times but no longer in widespread use.
      • Khorasan (T. turgidum ssp. turanicum, also called T. turanicum) is a tetraploid wheat species. It is an ancient grain type; Khorasan refers to a historical region in modern-day Afghanistan and the northeast of Iran. This grain is twice the size of modern-day wheat and is known for its rich nutty flavor.
      • Einkorn (T. monococcum) – A diploid species with wild and cultivated variants. Domesticated at the same time as emmer wheat, but never reached the same importance.
      • Durum – Very hard, translucent, light-colored grain used to make semolina flour for pasta & bulghur; high in protein, specifically, gluten protein.
      • Hard Red Spring – Hard, brownish, high-protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high-gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat. It is primarily traded at the Minneapolis Grain Exchange.
      • Hard Red Winter – Hard, brownish, mellow high-protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts. Some brands of unbleached all-purpose flours are commonly made from hard red winter wheat alone. It is primarily traded on the Kansas City Board of Trade. One variety is known as "turkey red wheat", and was brought to Kansas by Mennonite immigrants from Russia.
      • Soft Red Winter – Soft, low-protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins. Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with baking powder and salt added, for example, are made from soft red winter wheat. It is primarily traded on the Chicago Board of Trade.
      • Hard White – Hard, light-colored, opaque, chalky, medium-protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas. Used for bread and brewing.
      • Soft White – Soft, light-colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas. Used for pie crusts and pastry. Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat.
      • Bonjean, A.P., and W.J. Angus (editors). The World Wheat Book: a history of wheat breeding. Lavoisier Publ., Paris. 1131 pp. (2001).
      • Christen, Olaf, ed. (2009), Winterweizen. Das Handbuch für Profis (in German), DLG-Verlags-GmbH, ISBN  
      • Garnsey Peter, Grain for Rome, in Garnsey P., Hopkins K., Whittaker C. R. (editors), Trade in the Ancient Economy, Chatto & Windus, London 1983
      • Head L., Atchison J., and Gates A. Ingrained: A Human Bio-geography of Wheat. Ashgate Publ., Burlington. 246 pp. (2012).
      • Jasny Naum, The daily bread of ancient Greeks and Romans, Ex Officina Templi, Brugis 1950
      • Jasny Naum, The Wheats of Classical Antiquity, J. Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1944
      • Heiser Charles B., Seed to civilisation. The story of food, (Harvard University Press, 1990)
      • Harlan Jack R., Crops and man, American Society of Agronomy, Madison 1975
      • Padulosi, S.; Hammer, K.; Heller, J., eds. (1996). Hulled wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. 
      • Saltini Antonio, I semi della civiltà. Grano, riso e mais nella storia delle società umane, Prefazione di Luigi Bernabò Brea, Avenue Media, Bologna 1996
      • Sauer Jonathan D., Geography of Crop Plants. A Select Roster, CRC Press, Boca Raton
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