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    Nudism


    • Naturism, or nudism, is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending personal and social nudity, most but not all of which takes place on private property. The term may also refer to a lifestyle based on personal, family, or social nudism.

      Naturism may take a number of forms. It may be practiced individually, within a family, socially, or in public. Additionally, there is also militant naturism, including campaigning, and extreme naturism is sometimes considered a separate category.

      The XIV Congress of the International Naturist Federation (Agde, France, 1974) defined naturism as:

      Several other terms ("social nudity", "public nudity", "skinny dipping", "sunning", and "clothes-free") have been proposed as alternative terms for naturism, but none has found the same widespread public acceptance as the older terms "naturism" and (in much of the United States) "nudism".

      People interested in social nudity can attend clothes-free beaches and other types of ad-hoc nudist events. At these venues, participants generally need not belong to a naturist club. An overlapping term to naturist with a similar definition includes birthday suiter.

      Many contemporary naturists and naturist organisations feel that the practice of social nudity should be asexual. For various social, cultural, and historical reasons the lay public, the media, and many contemporary naturists and their organisations often oversimplify the relationship between naturism and sexuality. Current research has begun to explore this complex relationship.

      The International Naturist Federation explains:

      The usage and definition of these terms varies geographically and historically. Though in the United States, naturism and nudism have the same meaning, in Britain there is a clear distinction.

      Nudism is the act of being naked, while naturism is a lifestyle which at various times embraced nature, environment, respect for others, self-respect, crafts, healthy eating, vegetarianism, teetotalism, non-smoking, yoga, physical exercise and pacifism as well as nudity.

      In naturist parlance, or textilist is a non-naturist person, non-naturist behaviour or non-naturist facilities. e.g. the textile beach starts at the flag, they are a mixed couple – he is naturist, she is textile. Textile is the predominant term used in the UK ('textilist' is unknown in British naturist magazines including H&E naturist), although some naturists avoid it due to perceived negative or derogatory connotations. Textilist is said to be used interchangeably, but no dictionary definition to this effect exists, nor are there any equivalent examples of use in mainstream literature such as those for textile.Clothing optional and nude optional (US specific) describe a policy or a venue that allows or encourages nudity but tolerates the wearing of clothes. The opposite is clothing compulsory; that is, prohibiting nudity. Adjectival phrases clothes free and clothing free prescribe where naturism is permitted in an otherwise textile environment, or define the preferred state of a naturist.


      USA: 1983/2000 Gallup poll
      Year 1983 2000
      Question Yes No Yes No
      Do you believe that people who enjoy nude sunbathing should be able to do so without interference from officials as long as they do so at a beach that is accepted for that purpose? 72 24 80 17
      Local and state governments now set aside public land for special types of recreation such as snowmobiling, surfing and hunting. Do you think special and secluded areas should be set aside for people who enjoy nude sunbathing? 39 54 48 48
      Have you, personally, ever gone "skinny dipping" or nude sunbathing in a mixed group of men and women at a beach, at a pool, or somewhere else? 15 83 25 73
      How we (British people) discovered naturism:
      Beach abroad 29%
      Beach in UK 20%
      Newspaper 15%
      Friend 9%
      Parents 8%
      Conviction 6%
      TV/Radio 5%
      The Web 3%
      H&E magazine 3%
      Other 2%
      Ever been member of a club?
      Yes 58.5%
      No 41.5%
      Do you use UK naturist beaches?
      Often 22.4%
      Sometimes 40.1%
      Rarely 18.7%
      Never 18.7%
      If you use a naturist holiday facility abroad:
      Self-catering 58.5%
      Hotel 41.5%
      Own Tent 12.7%
      Hire Caravan 10%
      Own Caravan 8.7%
      Bed and Breakfast 6.6%
      Friends 4.4%
      Motor home 4.2%
      Own accommodation 3.1%
      Hire Tent 2.4%
      Other 3.3%

      a way of life in harmony with nature characterised by the practice of communal nudity with the intention of encouraging self-respect, respect for others and for the environment.
      "Each country has its own kind of naturism, and even each club has its own special character, for we too, human beings, have each our own character which is reflected in our surroundings."
      See also: labels, associations and terminology for an extended discussion and disambiguation.
      a way of life in harmony with nature characterised by the practice of social nudity with the intention of encouraging self-respect, respect for others and for the environment.
      a way of life in harmony with nature characterised by the practice of social nudity with the intention of encouraging self-respect, respect for others and for the environment.
      • Elton Raymond Shaw was a Methodist churchman and publisher who wrote on the Body Taboo.
      • Heinrich Pudor wrote on methods to improve social hygiene in his book Nackende Menchen und Jauchzen der Zukunft (Naked people and the future of Mankind) and then Nacktkultur (Nude Culture). It prescribes an austere lifestyle and nudity.
      • opened the Freilicht Park in Lübeck which was open to those who subscribed to Nacktkultur principles.
      • Richard Ungewitter wrote Die Nacktheit (Nakedness) which sold 90,000 copies, prescribed a similar Utopian lifestyle, where everyone would be nude, eat only vegetables and abstain from alcohol and tobacco. In his Utopia, everyone was to be Germanic with blue eyes and blonde hair.
      • , a left-wing primary-school teacher, sought to use social nudity to free the people from 'authority fixated conditioning which held proletarians in deference of their masters: parental authority, paternalism of the church, the mass media and organs of law and order. He used Organic-Rhythmic exercises in Berlin schools in the 1920s. In 1932 there were about 100,000 Germans involved with Naturism, of which 70,000 were in Koch's Körperschülen schools.
      • taught nude gymnastics to soldiers for five years, and on being forced to leave the army, he wrote in 1924, Mensch und die Sonne (Men and the Sun) which ran to 61 reprints. Later, in 1936, Surén proposed physical exercise and naturism as a means of creating a pure German race and of beauty. In the early 1940s he was out of favour and arrested. By 1945, he had turned full circle and was writing religious texts. Though never a member of any FKK club he was awarded honorary membership of the DFK in 1952.
      • was Swiss. He promoted Progressive education, encouraging naked Physical education to eliminate body guilt and to encourage openness that would lift the repression of the human spirit, which he saw as the cause of sexual deviation. The basic position was that the human body, in and of itself, was neither sinful nor obscene. This was adopted into the emerging philosophy that created the modern Western nudist movement.
      • Ecological or environmental — rapport with the natural world.
      • Health — bathing in the sun, fresh air and water (balneotherapy, thalassotherapy, heliotherapy). Sun is a form of medicine.
      • Diet — Naturism has at times been associated with claims made for moderation with alcohol, meat, tobacco, drugs; leading to a teetotal, vegetarian or vegan lifestyle.
      • Psychologically — rapport with other humans including equality and respect. Being nude in groups makes all feel more accepted – physically, intellectually and emotionally.
      • Spirituality — nudity, well being and direct contact to nature helps feel closer to the Creator.
      • Pedagogy — children should be respected as equals instead of being patronised
      • Equality — clothes build social barriers. Social nudity leads to acceptance in spite of differences in age, body shape, fitness, and health.
      • Liberty — no one has the right to tell others or their children that they must wear clothes.
      • In 1999 the Federation of Canadian Naturists commissioned a national survey on Canadian attitudes towards nudity which found that 8.9% of Canadian have visited or would visit a naturist facility. A further 11.6% have gone or would go skinny dipping in mixed company; that 39% go naked in their own homes; that naturists tend to have above average incomes; that urban dwellers are more likely to be naturist than country dwellers; and that the under 25s are the most likely to be naturists.
      • In 1983 the Naturist Society in the United States sponsored a Gallup poll, which was repeated in 2000, which found the following:
      • In 2005 the British CCBN commissioned a survey of members, which found that, among British people:
      • Naturist club isolation: established clubs excluding new members and rejecting new ideas.
      • A family movement in a time of social change: a change in needs and expectations, away from one of a permanent commitment towards one of change and choice.
      • Multi-gen preferences: each generation is a specific social group which needs to have its own norms that are consistent with common rules.
      • Clubs vs. holiday centres: organizations with different roots find it difficult to establish common rules. The contention between those espousing a year-round commitment to an ideal, and those who see it as summer-only recreation. Club naturism is declining, while the number of people that assume naturist facilities will be available at any holiday resort is rising. The number of users of free beaches may exceed the number of people who wish to join a club.
      • Paid staff and volunteers: many clubs were established as cooperatives, but the values change when a few members put in the capital or work needed. This became more difficult when some members were paid to act as site managers.
      • Infiltration by other groups: for many years clubs had strict "No singles" policies to maintain the family nature of the club. Many other social groups practice non-family nudism, whether it be social singles, gay naturists or swingers.
      • Exhibitionists and voyeurs: as unwelcome in a naturist community as in a clothed community.
      • Sunburn and skin cancer.
      • Large numbers of clothed people visit clothing optional and nudist beaches and make the naturists feel uncomfortable, "like they've become a spectacle".
      • Magazines published by an "official" national organisation, such as BN (British Naturism), Going Natural/Au naturel (FCN/FQN), Nude & Natural Magazine TNS, gonatural (New Zealand Naturist Federation).
      • Independent magazines published for naturists, such as Naturally, H&E naturist and TAN (acronym of The Australian Naturist).
      • Magazines that print photographs only or primarily of young female professional models, which are disapproved of by many naturists and non-naturists alike.
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