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  • Monounsaturated fat

    Monounsaturated fat


    • In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded. By contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have more than one double bond.

      Fatty acids are long-chained molecules having an alkyl group at one end and a carboxylic acid group at the other end. Fatty acid viscosity (thickness) and melting temperature increases with decreasing number of double bonds; therefore, monounsaturated fatty acids have a higher melting point than polyunsaturated fatty acids (more double bonds) and a lower melting point than saturated fatty acids (no double bonds). Monounsaturated fatty acids are liquids at room temperature and semisolid or solid when refrigerated.

      Common monounsaturated fatty acids are palmitoleic acid (16:1 n−7), cis-vaccenic acid (18:1 n−7) and oleic acid (18:1 n−9). Palmitoleic acid has 16 carbon atoms with the first double bond occurring 7 carbon atoms away from the methyl group (and 9 carbons from the carboxyl end). It can be lengthened to the 18-carbon cis-vaccenic acid. Oleic acid has 18 carbon atoms with the first double bond occurring 9 carbon atoms away from the carboxylic acid group. The illustrations below show a molecule of oleic acid in Lewis formula and as a space-filling model.

      Polyunsaturated fats protect against cardiovascular disease by providing more membrane fluidity than monounsaturated fats, but they are more vulnerable to lipid peroxidation (rancidity). On the other hand, some monounsaturated fatty acids (in the same way as saturated fats) may promote insulin resistance, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids may be protective against insulin resistance. Furthermore, the large scale KANWU study found that increasing monounsaturated fat and decreasing saturated fat intake could improve insulin sensitivity, but only when the overall fat intake of the diet was low. Studies have shown that substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure. More physical activity was associated with a higher-oleic acid diet than one of a palmitic acid diet. From the study, it is shown that more monounsaturated fats lead to less anger and irritability.


      Food Saturated Mono-
      unsaturated
      Poly-
      unsaturated
      As weight percent (%) of total fat
      Cooking oils
      Canola oil 08 64 28
      Corn oil 13 24 59
      Olive oil 14 73 11
      Sunflower oil 11 20 69
      Soybean oil 15 24 58
      Peanut oil 17 46 32
      Rice bran oil 25 38 37
      Coconut oil 87 13 01
      Dairy products
      Cheese, regular 64 29 03
      Cheese, light 60 30 00
      Milk, whole 62 28 04
      Milk, 2% 62 30 00
      Ice cream, gourmet 62 29 04
      Ice cream, light 62 29 04
      *Whipping cream 66 26 05
      Meats
      Beef 33 38 05
      Ground sirloin 38 44 04
      Pork chop 35 44 08
      Ham 35 49 16
      Chicken breast 29 34 21
      Chicken 34 23 30
      Turkey breast 30 20 30
      Turkey drumstick 32 22 30
      Fish, orange roughy 23 15 46
      Salmon 28 33 28
      Hot dog, beef 42 48 05
      Hot dog, turkey 28 40 22
      Burger, fast food 36 44 06
      Cheeseburger, fast food 43 40 07
      Breaded chicken sandwich 20 39 32
      Grilled chicken sandwich 26 42 20
      Sausage, Polish 37 46 11
      Sausage, turkey 28 40 22
      Pizza, sausage 41 32 20
      Pizza, cheese 60 28 05
      Nuts
      Almonds dry roasted 09 65 21
      Cashews dry roasted 20 59 17
      Macadamia dry roasted 15 79 02
      Peanut dry roasted 14 50 31
      Pecans dry roasted 08 62 25
      Flaxseeds, ground 08 23 65
      Sesame seeds 14 38 44
      Soybeans 14 22 57
      Sunflower seeds 11 19 66
      Walnuts dry roasted 09 23 63
      Sweets and baked goods
      Candy, chocolate bar 59 33 03
      Candy, fruit chews 14 44 38
      Cookie, oatmeal raisin 22 47 27
      Cookie, chocolate chip 35 42 18
      Cake, yellow 60 25 10
      Pastry, Danish 50 31 14
      Fats added during cooking or at the table
      Butter, stick 63 29 03
      Butter, whipped 62 29 04
      Margarine, stick 18 39 39
      Margarine, tub 16 33 49
      Margarine, light tub 19 46 33
      Lard 39 45 11
      Shortening 25 45 26
      Chicken fat 30 45 21
      Beef fat 41 43 03
      Dressing, blue cheese 16 54 25
      Dressing, light Italian 14 24 58
      Other
      Egg yolk fat 36 44 16
      Avocado 16 71 13
      Unless else specified in boxes, then reference is:
      * 3% is trans fats

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