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  • Jealousy

    Jealousy


    • Jealousy is an emotion, and the word typically refers to the thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, concern, and anxiety over an anticipated loss of status or something of great personal value, particularly in reference to a human connection. Jealousy often consists of a combination of emotions such as anger, resentment, inadequacy, helplessness and disgust. In its original meaning, jealousy is distinct from envy, though the two terms have popularly become synonymous in the English language, with jealousy now also taking on the definition originally used for envy alone. Jealousy is a typical experience in human relationships. It has been observed in infants five months and older. Some claim that jealousy is seen in every culture; however, others claim jealousy is a culture-specific phenomenon.

      Jealousy can either be suspicious or reactive.

      Jealousy is often reinforced as a series of particularly strong emotions and constructed as a universal human experience; it has been a theme of many artistic works. Psychologists have proposed several models of the processes underlying jealousy and have identified factors that result in jealousy. Sociologists have demonstrated that cultural beliefs and values play an important role in determining what triggers jealousy and what constitutes socially acceptable expressions of jealousy. Biologists have identified factors that may unconsciously influence the expression of jealousy. Artists have explored the theme of jealousy in photographs, paintings, films, songs, plays, poems, and books. Theologians have offered religious views of jealousy based on the scriptures of their respective faiths.

      Sexual jealousy may be triggered when a person's significant other displays sexual interest in another person. The feeling of jealousy may be just as powerful if one partner suspects the other is guilty of infidelity. Fearing that their partner will experience sexual jealousy the person who has been unfaithful may lie about their actions in order to protect their partner. Experts often believe that sexual jealousy is in fact a biological imperative. It may be part of a mechanism by which humans and other animals ensure access to the best reproductive partners.

      It seems that male jealousy in heterosexual relationships may be influenced by their female partner's phase in her menstrual cycle. In the period around and shortly before ovulation, males are found to display more mate-retention tactics, which are linked to jealousy (Burriss & Little, 2006). Furthermore, a male is more likely to employ mate-retention tactics if their partner shows more interest in other males, which is more likely to occur in the pre-ovulation phase (Gangestad, Thornhill & Garver, 2002.)



      • Fear of loss
      • Suspicion of or anger about a perceived betrayal
      • Low self-esteem and sadness over perceived loss
      • Uncertainty and loneliness
      • Fear of losing an important person to another
      • Distrust
      • Feelings of inferiority
      • Longing
      • Resentment of circumstances
      • Ill will towards envied person often accompanied by guilt about these feelings
      • Motivation to improve
      • Desire to possess the attractive rival's qualities
      • Disapproval of feelings
      • "Romantic jealousy is here defined as a complex of thoughts, feelings, and actions which follow threats to self-esteem and/or threats to the existence or quality of the relationship, when those threats are generated by the perception of a real or potential attraction between one's partner and a (perhaps imaginary) rival." (White, 1981, p. 24)
      • "Jealousy, then, is any aversive reaction that occurs as the result of a partner's extradyadic relationship that is real, imagined, or considered likely to occur." (Bringle & Buunk, 1991, page 135)
      • "Jealousy is conceptualized as a cognitive, emotional, and behavioral response to a relationship threat. In the case of sexual jealousy, this threat emanates from knowing or suspecting that one's partner has had (or desires to have) sexual activity with a third party. In the case of emotional jealousy, an individual feels threatened by her or his partner's emotional involvement with and/or love for a third party." (Guerrero, Spitzberg, & Yoshimura, 2004, page 311)
      • "Jealousy is defined as a protective reaction to a perceived threat to a valued relationship, arising from a situation in which the partner's involvement with an activity and/or another person is contrary to the jealous person's definition of their relationship." (Bevan, 2004, page 195)
      • "Jealousy is triggered by the threat of separation from, or loss of, a romantic partner, when that threat is attributed to the possibility of the partner's romantic interest in another person." (Sharpteen & Kirkpatrick, 1997, page 628)
      • Fear of loss
      • Suspicion of or anger about a perceived betrayal
      • Low self-esteem and sadness over perceived loss
      • Uncertainty and loneliness
      • Fear of losing an important person to another
      • Distrust
      • Feelings of inferiority
      • Longing
      • Resentment of circumstances
      • Ill will towards envied person often accompanied by guilt about these feelings
      • Motivation to improve
      • Desire to possess the attractive rival's qualities
      • Disapproval of feelings
      • Pistole, Johthan; Roberts, Carole; Mosko, Amber (2010). "Commitment predictors: Long-distance versus geographically close relationships". Ebsco. 88: 2. 
      • Rydell, Robert, McConnell, Allen, Bringle, Robert (2004). Jealousy & Commitment: Perceived threat & the Effect," Ebsco
      • Lyhda, Belcher (2009). " Different Types of Jealousy" livestrong.com
      • Green, Melanie; Sabin, John. "Gender, Socioeconomic Status, age and jealousy: Emotional responses to infidelity in a national sample". ebsco. 6: 2. 
      • Peter Goldie. The Emotions, A Philosophical Exploration . Oxford University Press, 2000
      • W. Gerrod Parrott. Emotions in Social Psychology . Psychology Press, 2001
      • Jesse J. Prinz. Gut Reactions: A Perceptual Theory of Emotions. Oxford University Press, 2004
      • Staff, P.T. (Jan–Feb 1994), "A devastating difference", Psychology Today, Document ID 1544, archived from the original on April 27, 2006 
      • Jealousy among the Sangha Quoting Jeremy Hayward from his book on Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche Warrior-King of Shambhala: Remembering Chögyam Trungpa
      • Hart, S. L. & Legerstee, M. (Eds.) "Handbook of Jealousy: Theory, Research, and Multidisciplinary Approaches" . Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
      • Pistole, M.; Roberts, A.; Mosko, J. E. (2010). "Commitment Predictors: Long-Distance Versus Geographically Close Relationships". Journal of Counseling & Development. 88 (2): 146. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2010.tb00003.x. 
      • Levy, Kenneth N., Kelly, Kristen M Feb 2010; Sex Differences in Jealousy: A Contribution From Attachment Theory Psychological Science, vol. 21: pp. 168–173
      • Green, M. C.; Sabini, J. (2006). "Gender, socioeconomic status, age, and jealousy: Emotional responses to infidelity in a national sample". Emotion. 6 (2): 330–334. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.6.2.330. 
      • Rauer, A. J.; Volling, B. L. (2007). "Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships". Personal Relationships. 14 (4): 495–511. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2007.00168.x. 
      • Pistole, M.; Roberts, A.; Mosko, J. E. (2010). "Commitment Predictors: Long-Distance Versus Geographically Close Relationships". Journal of Counseling & Development. 88 (2): 146. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2010.tb00003.x. 
      • Tagler, M. J. (2010). "Sex differences in jealousy: Comparing the influence of previous infidelity among college students and adults". Social Psychological and Personality Science. 1: 353–360. doi:10.1177/1948550610374367. 
      • Tagler, M. J.; Gentry, R. H. (2011). "Gender, jealousy, and attachment: A (more) thorough examination across measures and samples". Journal of Research in Personality. 45: 697–701. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.08.006. 
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