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    Jackfruit

    • Jackfruit
      Jackfruit hanging.JPG
      Jackfruit
      Scientific classification
      Kingdom: Plantae
      (unranked): Angiosperms
      (unranked): Eudicots
      (unranked): Rosids
      Order: Rosales
      Family: Moraceae
      Tribe:
      Genus:
      Species: A. heterophyllus
      Binomial name
      Artocarpus heterophyllus
      Lam.
      Synonyms
      • Artocarpus brasiliensis Ortega
      • A. maximus Blanco
      • A. nanca Noronha (nom inval.)
      • A. philippensis Lam.
      Jackfruit, raw
      Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
      Energy 397 kJ (95 kcal)
      Sugars 19.08 g
      Dietary fibre 1.5 g
      0.64 g
      1.72 g
      Vitamins
      Vitamin A equiv.
      (1%)
      5 μg
      (1%)
      61 μg
      157 μg
      Thiamine (B1)
      (9%)
      0.105 mg
      Riboflavin (B2)
      (5%)
      0.055 mg
      Niacin (B3)
      (6%)
      0.92 mg
      Pantothenic acid (B5)
      (5%)
      0.235 mg
      Vitamin B6
      (25%)
      0.329 mg
      Folate (B9)
      (6%)
      24 μg
      Vitamin C
      (17%)
      13.8 mg
      Vitamin E
      (2%)
      0.34 mg
      Minerals
      Calcium
      (2%)
      24 mg
      Iron
      (2%)
      0.23 mg
      Magnesium
      (8%)
      29 mg
      Manganese
      (2%)
      0.043 mg
      Phosphorus
      (3%)
      21 mg
      Potassium
      (10%)
      448 mg
      Sodium
      (0%)
      2 mg
      Zinc
      (1%)
      0.13 mg
      Other constituents
      Water 73.5 g

      Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
      Source: USDA Nutrient Database

      The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry and breadfruit family (Moraceae).

      It is native to parts of South and Southeast Asia and is believed to have originated in the southwestern rain forests of the Western Ghats in the Indian subcontinent. The jackfruit tree is well suited to tropical lowlands, and its fruit is the largest tree-borne fruit, reaching as much as 35 kg (80 lb) in weight, 90 cm (35 in) in length, and 50 cm (20 in) in diameter. The jackfruit tree can produce about 100 to 200 fruits in a year. The jackfruit is a multiple fruit, composed of hundreds to thousands of individual flowers, and it is the fleshy petals that are eaten.

      The jackfruit tree is a widely cultivated and popular food item throughout the tropical regions of the world. Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh.

      The word "jackfruit" comes from Portuguese jaca, which in turn is derived from the Malayalam language term chakka (Malayalam chakka pazham). When the Portuguese arrived in India at Kozhikode (Calicut) on the Malabar Coast (Kerala) in 1498, the Malayalam name chakka was recorded by Hendrik van Rheede (1678–1703) in the Hortus Malabaricus, vol. iii in Latin. Henry Yule translated the book in Jordanus Catalani's (f. 1321–1330) Mirabilia descripta: the wonders of the East.


      Rank Country Production
      (1000 tonnes)
      1  India 1436
      2  Bangladesh 926
      3  Thailand 392
      4  Indonesia 340
      5    Nepal 18.97

      • Artocarpus brasiliensis Ortega
      • A. maximus Blanco
      • A. nanca Noronha (nom inval.)
      • A. philippensis Lam.
      • In Bangladesh, the fruit is consumed on its own. The unripe fruit is used in curry, and the seed is often dried and preserved to be later used in curry.
      • In Kerala, India, two varieties of jackfruit predominate: varikka and koozha. Varikka has a slightly hard inner flesh when ripe, while the inner flesh of the ripe koozha fruit is very soft and almost dissolves. A sweet preparation called chakka varattiyathu (jackfruit jam) is made by seasoning pieces of varikka fruit flesh in jaggery, which can be preserved and used for many months. Huge jackfruits up to four feet in length with a corresponding girth are sometimes seen in Kerala. The young fruit is idichakka or idianchakka in Kerala.
      • In West Bengal, India, the two varieties are called khaja kathal and moja kathal. The fruits are either eaten alone or as a side to rice, roti, chira, or muri. Sometimes the juice is extracted and either drunk straight or as a side with muri. The extract is sometimes condensed and eaten as candies. The seeds are either boiled or roasted and eaten with salt and hot chilies. They are also used to make spicy side dishes with rice or roti.
      • In Mangalore, Karnataka, India, the varieties are called bakke and imba. The pulp of the imba jackfruit is ground and made into a paste, then spread over a mat and allowed to dry in the sun to create a natural chewy candy.
      • In Coorg, Karnataka, India, many culinary items are made with Jackfruit. It is known as Chakke. Jackfruit seeds are fried and a curry is made.
      • In Maharashtra, and Goa, India, jackfruit is called as Fanas and Panas respectively. It's mostly found in Konkan region. There are two varieties. The hard variety is called kaapa and the soft variety is called barka,barkai or rasal. The juice of the barka is extracted and spread on greased metal dishes, which are then kept for sun-drying. Within 2–3 days, a tasty dried pancake-like dried jackfruit juice called phansacha saath or phanas poli results.
      • In Sri Lanka, the young fruit is called polos; ripened fruit is called waraka and wela.
      • Jackfruit is known as Rukh-Katahar (= tree katahar) in Nepal, while Bhui-Katahar (= Ground Katahar) denotes pineapple. The ripe fruit is eaten by itself (sometimes with a pinch of salt sprinkled on) as a delicacy, while the unripe fruit is used to prepare savory curry. The ripe fruit is also used to brew alcoholic beverages in some parts of the country.
      • In Indonesia, jackfruit is called nangka. The ripe fruit is usually sold separately and consumed on its own, or sliced and mixed with shaved ice as a sweet concoction dessert such as es campur and es teler. The ripe fruit might be dried and fried as kripik nangka, or jackfruit cracker. The seeds are boiled and consumed with salt, as it contains edible starchy content; this is called beton. Young (unripe) jackfruit is used in several kinds of curry, such as gulai nangka and gudeg.
      • In the Philippines, jackfruit is called langka in Tagalog and nangkà in Cebuano. The unripe fruit is usually cooked in coconut milk and is eaten as a viand together with rice. The ripe fruit is often an ingredient in local desserts such as halo-halo and the Filipino turon. The ripe fruit, besides also being eaten raw as it is, is also preserved by storing in syrup or by drying. The seeds are also boiled before being eaten.
      • Thailand is a major producer of jackfruit, which are often cut, prepared, and canned in a sugary syrup (or frozen in bags/boxes without syrup) and exported overseas, frequently to North America and Europe.
      • In Vietnam, jackfruit is used to make jackfruit chè (chè is a sweet dessert soup, similar to the Chinese derivative bubur chacha). The Vietnamese also use jackfruit purée as part of pastry fillings or as a topping on xôi ngọt (a sweet version of sticky rice portions).
      • In Brazil, three varieties are recognized: jaca-dura, or the "hard" variety, which has a firm flesh, and the largest fruits that can weigh between 15 and 40 kg each; jaca-mole, or the "soft" variety, which bears smaller fruits with a softer and sweeter flesh; and jaca-manteiga, or the "butter" variety, which bears sweet fruits whose flesh has a consistency intermediate between the "hard" and "soft" varieties. In Indochina, the two varieties are the "hard" version (crunchier, drier, and less sweet, but fleshier), and the "soft" version (softer, moister, and much sweeter, with a darker gold-color flesh than the hard variety).
      • In Réunion Island, the jackfruit tree was imported from India from British Bengal around 1780. From a tree planted for its shade in gardens, it became an ingredient for local recipes using different fruit segments. The seeds are boiled in water or roasted to remove toxic substances and then roasted for a variety of desserts. The flesh of the unripe jackfruit is used to make a savory salty dish with smoked pork called Ti'Jac Boucané. The jackfruit arils are used to make jams, fruits in syrup and can also be eaten raw.
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