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  • Educology

    Educology


    • The term educology means the fund of knowledge about the educational process. Educology consists of discourse about education. The discourse is made up of warranted assertions, valid explanatory theories and sound justificatory arguments about the educational process. This conception of educology derives from the common usage of the term by educologists in articles, journals and books published since the 1950s.

      The term educology has been in use in the English language since the seminal work in educology by Professor Lowry W. Harding at Ohio State University in the 1950s and Professor Elizabeth Steiner [Maccia] and her husband, Professor George Maccia, at Indiana University in the 1960s. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, John B. Biggs and Rachel Elder coined the term independently of Harding, Steiner and Maccia. Other researchers in the English speaking world who worked on clarifying the implications of the concept of educology in the 1970s and 1980s included James E. Christensen, James E. Fisher, David E. Denton, Diana Buell Hiatt, Charles M. Reigeluth and M. David Merrill, James F. Perry, Marian Reinhart, Edmund C. Short, John Walton, Catherine O. Ameh, Laurie Brady, Berdine F. Nel, Maryann J. Ehle and others.

      In Europe, important work on clarification of the concept of the term educology in the 1980s and 1990s was done by Anton Monshouwer, Theo Oudkerk Pool,Wolfgang Brezinka, Carlos E. Olivera, Nikola Pastuovic and in the 2000s by Birgitta Qvarsell, Kestutis Pukelis and Izabela Savickiene and Sharon Link. Three of the most important recent contributions to educology have been by Theodore W. Frick of Indiana University, Bloomington, Kenneth R. Thompson and James E. Christensen. The International Journal of Educology (initially published in Australia, later in the USA and most recently in Lithuania) commenced publication in 1987, and it continues in electronic form into the present. The IJE has been an important forum for the clarification and extension of educology, with the publication of over 100 refereed articles in educology over a period exceeding 20 years. Some universities have adopted the term for their publications, e.g. the University of Illinois and Indiana University. Other universities have used the concept of educology for institutional organization and curriculum arrangements. Since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, some universities in the Baltic countries and elsewhere in Europe have established departments and faculties of educology and offer courses and degrees in educology. They include Vilnius University [1] (Lithuania), Siauliai University (Lithuania), Vilnius Pedagogical University (Lithuania), Vytautas Magnus University (Lithuania), Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania), Kaunas University of Medicine (Lithuania), Klaipėda University (Lithuania), Tallinn University (Estonia), (Sweden), University of Presov (Slovakia) and Comenius University in Bratislava (Slovakia). In addition to academic institutions, some proprietary concerns have adopted the term in either the name of their businesses or in their publications.


      Example of discourse in education

      (educational discourse)

      Example of discourse about education

      (educological discourse)

      The scenario is that Mark is a single parent who lives in Los Angeles. He works as an insurance adjuster. He has one child, a daughter, Bronwyn, who is just over two years old. Here is a conversation between them. This is an educological analysis of the conversation between Mark and Bronwyn.
      • Bronwyn: Cat! Cat!
      • Mark: Did you see the cat? Daddy doesn't see the cat. Where is it?
      • Bronwyn: Cat gone. All gone.
      • Mark: Daddy doesn't see the cat. Did the cat go away?
      • Bronwyn: See cat!
      • Mark: Where did the cat go? Drink your juice now.
      • Bronwyn: Juice!
      • Mark: That's right, drink your juice.
      • Bronwyn: Drink? Cat! Cat!
      • Mark: Finish your juice.
      • Bronwyn: Finish. Juice all gone.
      • Mark: Good. You've finished your juice. Your juice is all gone.
      From an educological viewpoint, the conversation between Bronwyn and Mark is typical of the educational process. The episode has all of the distinguishing characteristics of an educational event or episode.
      1. Bronwyn is playing the role of student.
      2. Mark is playing the role of teacher.
      3. The content which Bronwyn is studying under guidance and Mark is teaching is the syntax (order), semantics (meaning) and grammar (inflections) of the English language.
      4. The setting is the physical milieu of the home, the social milieu of the single parent family, and the cultural milieu of urban America.
      5. The teaching methods which Mark uses include modeling, asking questions and giving directives. Bronwyn's sentences are much shorter than Mark's – one, two or three words. Mark extends the sentences and puts in all of the words required for correct grammatical, syntactical and semantic use of the language. This provides a model for Bronwyn to imitate, reduce, reconstruct and transform into new sentences.
      6. Bronwyn's study methods include imitation, practice, reduction, reconstruction and transformation.
      7. Mark's teaching style is fatherly, caring and supportive.
      8. Bronwyn's study style is natural, unselfconscious and spontaneous.

      The activities of teaching. Mark does his teaching as a matter of course, without being selfconscious of his teaching. Educologically, this is significant because it illustrates that it is possible to act intentionally without being fully selfconscious the whole time of the intentionality. This occurs especially when the intentional action has become integrated into a person's patterns of conduct and thought in the form of habits.

      The activities of studying. The same is true of Bronwyn's studying under guidance. Intentional, unselfconscious performances are what Bronwyn and Mark are undertaking with each other in the studying and teaching of language.

      Methods and intentions in teaching. It is part of Mark's set of habits to expand what Bronwyn says into full, syntactically, grammatically and semantically correct sentences. His intention is to help Bronwyn to develop her ability to make such sentences, even though he may not be selfconscious of his intentionality because it has become habit.

      Methods and intentions in studying. In turn, Bronwyn accepts his guidance and uses it, sometimes unselfconsciously and sometimes consciously, to signify meaning with her words. All of the elements for an educational transaction are present: teacher, student, content and setting, including physical, social and cultural.

      Unofficial vs. official education. Mark and Bronwyn are engaged in unofficial (vs. official) education. There is no written lesson plan, instructional program, syllabus, curriculum, assessment or certification of achievement. There are no licensed teachers, principals or superintendents. The conversation is an unofficial educational episode involving a parent and child.

      Educational process Levels of the educational process Basic components of education Derivative components of education Basic processes in education Processes closely related to education
      Official education:

      Conducted in schools, academies, colleges, institutes & universities with written lesson plans, instructional programs, syllabii, curricula, assessments or certifications of achievement, licensed teachers, enrolled students, principals, superintendents, boards of trustees or governors

      1. Early childhood
      2. Primary
      3. Secondary
      4. Adult, further, tertiary
      1. Teacher
      2. Student
      3. Content
      4. Milieu
      1. Intentions
      2. Strategies
      3. Methods
      4. Styles
      5. Resources
      6. Language
      7. Curriculum
      1. Teaching
      2. Studying
      3. Learning
      1. Human development
      2. Socialization
      3. Enculturation
      4. Counseling
      Unofficial education:

      Conducted in families, peer groups, work places, recreational events, etc. (outside of schools, academies, colleges, institutes & universities and without written lesson plans, instructional programs, syllabii, curricula, assessments or certifications of achievement, licensed teachers, enrolled students, principals, superintendents, boards of trustees or governors)

      1. Early childhood
      2. Middle childhood
      3. Adolescence
      4. Early adulthood
      5. Middle adulthood
      6. Senescence
      1. Teacher
      2. Student
      3. Content
      4. Milieu
      1. Intentions
      2. Strategies
      3. Methods
      4. Styles
      5. Resources
      6. Language
      1. Teaching
      2. Studying
      3. Learning
      1. Human development
      2. Socialization
      3. Enculturation
      4. Counseling
      Kind of inquiry Logic of inquiry Product of inquiry Techniques of inquiry
      Analytic educological inquiry Principle of necessity reasoning Warranted analytic assertions (analytic educology) Conceptual analysis, propositional analysis, definition, explication, illustration, model case, contrary case, borderline case, invented case, related concept, unrelated concept, practical consequences, term substitutions, subscripts, invented terms, statistical analyses (analysis of variance, correlation, etc.)
      Normative educological inquiry Principle of normative reasoning Warranted normative assertions (normative educology) Value clarification, value validation, value vindication, rational value choice
      Empirical educological inquiry Principle of observation (extrospection and introspection) Warranted empirical assertions (empirical educology) Survey, experimentation, quasi-experimentation, analogy, unobtrusive measures, case studies, participant observation, systematic observation, simulations, ethnographies, naturalistic studies
      Subfund of educology Phenomena of inquiry (phenomena inquired about or object of inquiry) Purpose of inquiry
      Analytic philosophical educology All discourse within education Characterization, description, explanation, prediction, prescription, evaluation, justification of discourse within education,
      Normative philosophical educology Intrinsically and extrinsically good and bad states of affairs for and within education Characterization, description, explanation, prediction, prescription, evaluation, justification of intrinsically and extrinsically good states of affairs for and within education
      Historical educology Education of past times and ages Characterization, description, explanation, evaluation, justification of education in past times and ages
      Jurisprudential educology Legal discourse which guides and regulates education Characterization, description, explanation, prescription, evaluation and justification of legal discourse which guides and regulates education
      Scientific educology Extant educational phenomena Characterization, description, explanation, prediction of educational phenomena
      Praxiological educology Effective educational practices Characterization, description, explanation, prediction, prescription, evaluation, justification of effective educational practices
      Political praxiological educology Effective administration, leadership and governance practices for education Characterization, description, explanation, prediction, prescription, evaluation, justification of effective administration, leadership and governance practices for education
      Critical category Category details for analytic meta-educology Category details for normative meta-educology Category details for empirical meta-educology
      Kind of inquiry Analytic meta-educological inquiry Normative meta-educological inquiry Empirical meta-educological inquiry
      Logic of inquiry Principle of necessity reasoning Principle of normative reasoning Principle of observation (extrospection)
      Product of inquiry Analytic meta-educology, i.e. warranted analytic meta-assertions, which are the same as verified analytic meta-statements Normative meta-educology, i.e. warranted normative meta-assertions, which are the same as verified normative meta-statements (evaluations and prescriptions) Empirical meta-educology, i.e. warranted empirical meta-assertions, which are the same as verified empirical meta-statements
      Techniques of inquiry Concept isolation, propositional isolation, definition (classificatory, synonymy, equivalent expression), definitional function (reportive, stipulative, programmatic), explication, model case, contrary case, borderline case, invented case, related concept, unrelated concept, term substitution, subscripts, invented terms, social context technique, results in language technique, practical results technique Value clarification, value validation, value vindication, rational value choice Location, authentication & citation of recorded texts consisting of educological statements
      Phenomena of inquiry (phenomena inquired about or object of inquiry) All discourse about the educational process Intrinsically and extrinsically good and bad states of affairs for and within discourse about the educational process Recorded text containing statements about the educational process
      Purpose of inquiry Characterization, description, explanation of the necessary implications of discourse about the educational process Characterization, description, explanation, prediction, evaluation, prescription and justification of intrinsically and extrinsically good states of affairs for and within discourse about the educational process Description, attribution and provenance of recorded statements about the educational process
      Subfund of educology None (not a part of educology): analytic meta-educology is a fund of knowledge at a second level of discourse, above and outside of educology None (not a part of educology): normative meta-educology is a fund of knowledge at a second level of discourse, above and outside of educology None (not a part of educology): empirical meta-educology is a fund of knowledge at a second level of discourse, above and outside of educology
      Level of discourse Distinguishing characteristics of the level
      Level 2 discourse

      (discourse about educology)

      Fund of knowledge: meta-educology (warranted assertions about statements about the educational process)
      Level 1 discourse

      (discourse about education)

      Fund of knowledge: educology (warranted assertions about the educational process)
      Level 0

      (no discourse)

      Phenomena: education (the phenomena of teaching, studying and learning under guidance some content in some physical, social and cultural milieu)
      Levels of knowing Kinds of knowing Forms of knowing

      (ways in which knowing is manifested)

      Third level: postconventional knowing
      1. Knowing-that-one
      2. Knowing-that
      3. Knowing-how
      4. Knowing-to
      1. Linguistic
      2. Emotional
      3. Imaginal
      4. Physical
      5. Physiological
      Second level: conventional knowing
      1. Knowing-that-one
      2. Knowing-that
      3. Knowing-how
      4. Knowing-to
      1. Linguistic
      2. Emotional
      3. Imaginal
      4. Physical
      5. Physiological
      First level: preconventional knowing
      1. Knowing-that-one
      2. Knowing-that
      3. Knowing-how
      4. Knowing-to
      1. Linguistic
      2. Emotional
      3. Imaginal
      4. Physical
      5. Physiological
      Roles Activities Products
      Educologist

      Research about the educational process

      Educology, i.e. warranted assertions about education

      Teacher of educology

      Management of guided study of educology

      Students with an extended range of educological knowing

      User of educology

      Use of educological understanding in addressing problems & issues in the educational process

      Achievement of a desired state of affairs in relation to the educational process

      Meta-educologist

      Research about discourse about the educational process

      Meta-educology, i.e. warranted assertions about warranted assertions about the educational process

      Teacher of meta-educology

      Management of guided study of meta-educology

      Students with an extended range of meta-educological knowing

      User of meta-educology

      Use of meta-educological understanding in addressing problems & issues in discourse about the educational process

      Achievement of a desired state of affairs in relation to discourse about the educational process


      (a) the educational process with
      (b) recorded propositional knowledge about that process.
      (a) the educational process with
      (b) recorded propositional knowledge about that process.
      • Bronwyn: Cat! Cat!
      • Mark: Did you see the cat? Daddy doesn't see the cat. Where is it?
      • Bronwyn: Cat gone. All gone.
      • Mark: Daddy doesn't see the cat. Did the cat go away?
      • Bronwyn: See cat!
      • Mark: Where did the cat go? Drink your juice now.
      • Bronwyn: Juice!
      • Mark: That's right, drink your juice.
      • Bronwyn: Drink? Cat! Cat!
      • Mark: Finish your juice.
      • Bronwyn: Finish. Juice all gone.
      • Mark: Good. You've finished your juice. Your juice is all gone.
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