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  • Dicopper chloride trihydroxide

    Dicopper chloride trihydroxide

    • Dicopper chloride trihydroxide
      Alpha crystal form
      Names
      IUPAC name
      Dicopper chloride trihydroxide
      Other names
      Tribasic copper chloride (TBCC)

      Micronutrients TBCC Intellibond C Copper Hydroxychloride

      Copper trihydroxyl chloride
      Identifiers
      1332-65-6 YesY
      ECHA InfoCard 100.014.158
      Properties
      Cu2(OH)3Cl
      Molar mass 213.56
      Appearance Green crystalline solid
      Density 3.5 g/cm3
      Melting point 250 °C; 482 °F; 523 K
      Insoluble in water,
      pH 6.9 measured by EPA method SW846-9045
      
      Solubility Insoluble in organic solvents
      Structure
      Atacamite: orthorhombic

      Paratacamite: rhombohedral

      Clinoatacamite: monoclinic

      Botallackite: monoclinic

      Distorted octahedral
      Hazards
      Safety data sheet
      NFPA 704
      Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
      Flash point Non-flammable
      US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
      PEL (Permissible)
      TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)
      REL (Recommended)
      TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)
      IDLH (Immediate danger)
      TWA 100 mg/m3 (as Cu)
      Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
      YesY  (what is YesYN ?)
      Infobox references

      Micronutrients TBCC Intellibond C Copper Hydroxychloride

      Paratacamite: rhombohedral

      Clinoatacamite: monoclinic

      Botallackite: monoclinic

      Dicopper chloride trihydroxide is the chemical compound with the formula Cu2(OH)3Cl. It is often referred to as tribasic copper chloride (TBCC), copper trihydroxyl chloride or copper hydroxychloride. It is a greenish crystalline solid encountered in mineral deposits, metal corrosion products, industrial products, art and archeological objects, and some living systems. It was originally manufactured on an industrial scale as a precipitated material used as either a chemical intermediate or a fungicide. Since 1994, a purified, crystallized product has been produced at the scale of thousands of tons per year, and used extensively as a nutritional supplement for animals.

      Cu2(OH)3Cl occurs as natural minerals in four polymorphic crystal forms: atacamite, paratacamite, clinoatacamite, and botallackite. Atacamite is orthorhombic, paratacamite is rhombohedral, and the other two polymorphs are monoclinic. Atacamite and paratacamite are common secondary minerals in areas of copper mineralization and frequently form as corrosion products of Cu-bearing metals.

      The most common Cu2(OH)3Cl polymorph is atacamite. It is an oxidation product of other copper minerals, especially under arid, saline conditions. It was found in fumarolic deposits, and a weathering product of sulfides in subsea black smoker deposits. It was named for the Atacama Desert in Chile. Its color varies from blackish to emerald green. It is the sugar-like coating of dark green glistening crystals found on many bronze objects from Egypt and Mesopotamia. It has also been found in living systems such as the jaws of the marine bloodworm Glycera dibranchiate. The stability of atacamite is evidenced by its ability to endure dynamic regimes in its natural geologic environment.



      Cu2(OH)3Cl + 3 HCl → 2 CuCl2 + 3 H2O (eq.1)
      Cu2(OH)3Cl + 3 NaOH → 2Cu(OH)2 + NaCl (eq.2)
      2CuCl2 + 3 NaOH → Cu2(OH)3Cl + 3 NaCl (eq.3)
      CuCl2 + 3 CuO + 3 H2O → 2 Cu2(OH)3Cl (eq.4)
      2 CuSO4 + 3 NaOH + NaCl → Cu2(OH)3Cl + 2 Na2SO4 (eq.5)
      CuCl2 + Cu + 2 NaCl → 2 NaCuCl2 (eq.6)
      6 NaCuCl2 + 3/2 O2 + H2O → 2 Cu2(OH)3Cl + 2 CuCl2 + 6 NaCl (eq.7)
      2 [Cu(NH3)4Cl2] + 5 HCl + 3 H2O → Cu2(OH)3Cl + 8 NH4Cl (eq. 8)
      3 [Cu(NH3)4Cl2] + 5 CuCl2 + 12 H2O → 4 Cu2(OH)3Cl + 12 NH4Cl (eq. 9)
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    • Dicopper chloride trihydroxide

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