• Coping (psychology)

    Coping (psychology)

    • In psychology, coping means to invest own conscious effort, to solve personal and interpersonal problems, in order to try to master, minimize or tolerate stress and conflict.

      The psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping skills. The term coping generally refers to adaptive (constructive) coping strategies. That is strategies which reduce stress. In contrast, other coping strategies may be coined as maladaptive, if they increase stress. Maladaptive coping is therefore also described, when looking at the outcome, as non-coping. Furthermore, the term coping generally refers to reactive coping, i.e. the coping response which follows the stressor. This differs from proactive coping, in which a coping response aims to neutralize a future stressor. Subconscious or non-conscious strategies (e.g. defense mechanisms) are generally excluded from the area of coping.

      The effectiveness of the coping effort depends on: the type of stress, the individual and the circumstances. Coping responses are partly controlled by personality (habitual traits), but also partly by the social environment, particularly the nature of the stressful environment.

      Hundreds of coping strategies have been identified. Classification of these strategies into a broader architecture has not about been agreed upon. Common distinctions are often made between various contrasting strategies, for example: problem-focused versus emotion-focused; engagement versus disengagement; cognitive versus behavioral. Weiten for instance, identifies four types of coping strategies:

      Appraisal-focused strategies occur when the person modifies the way they think, for example: employing denial, or distancing oneself from the problem. People may alter the way they think about a problem by altering their goals and values, such as by seeing the humor in a situation: "some have suggested that humor may play a greater role as a stress moderator among women than men".

      • Appraisal-Focused (adaptive cognitive): directed towards challenging personal assumptions.
      • Problem-Focused (adaptive behavioral): reducing or eliminating stressors.
      • Emotion-Focused: changing personal emotional reactions.
      • Occupation-Focused: directed towards lasting occupation(s), which generates positive feedback
      • releasing pent-up emotions
      • distracting oneself
      • managing hostile feelings
      • meditating
      • using systematic relaxation procedures.
      • disclaiming
      • escape-avoidance
      • accepting responsibility or blame
      • exercising self-control
      • and positive reappraisal.
      • seeking social support
      • reappraising the stressor in a positive light
      • accepting responsibility
      • using avoidance
      • exercising self-control
      • and distancing.
      • Susan Folkman and Richard S. Lazarus, "Coping and Emotion", in Nancy Stein et al. eds., Psychological and Biological Approaches to Emotion (1990)
      • Brougham, Ruby R.; Zail, Christy M.; Mendoza, Celeste M.; Miller, Janine R. (2009). "Stress, Sex Differences, and Coping Strategies Among College Students". Current Psychology. 28 (2): 85–97. doi:10.1007/s12144-009-9047-0. 
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    • Coping (psychology)