• Chronology


    • Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek , chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, ) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time. Consider, for example, the use of a timeline or sequence of events. It is also "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events".

      Chronology is part of periodization. It is also part of the discipline of history, including earth history, the earth sciences, and study of the geologic time scale.

      Chronology is the science of locating historical events in time. It relies upon chronometry, which is also known as timekeeping, and historiography, which examines the writing of history and the use of historical methods. Radiocarbon dating estimates the age of formerly living things by measuring the proportion of carbon-14 isotope in their carbon content. Dendrochronology estimates the age of trees by correlation of the various growth rings in their wood to known year-by-year reference sequences in the region to reflect year-to-year climatic variation. Dendrochronology is used in turn as a calibration reference for radiocarbon dating curves.

      The familiar terms calendar and era (within the meaning of a coherent system of numbered calendar years) concern two complementary fundamental concepts of chronology. For example, during eight centuries the calendar belonging to the Christian era, which era was taken in use in the 8th century by Bede, was the Julian calendar, but after the year 1582 it was the Gregorian calendar. Dionysius Exiguus (about the year 500) was the founder of that era, which is nowadays the most widespread dating system on earth. An epoch is the date (year usually) when an era begins.

      Christian chronology
      Fiction writing
      • Hegewisch, D. H., & Marsh, J. (1837). Introduction to historical chronology. Burlington [Vt.]: C. Goodrich.
      • B. E. Tumanian, “Measurement of Time in Ancient and Medieval Armenia,” Journal for the History of Astronomy 5, 1974, pp. 91–98.
      • Kazarian, K. A., “History of Chronology by B. E. Tumanian,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, 4, 1973, p. 137
      • Porter, T. M., "The Dynamics of Progress: Time, Method, and Measure". The American Historical Review, 1991.
      • Weeks, J. E. (1701). The gentleman's hour glass; or, An introduction to chronology; being a plain and compendious analysis of time. Dublin: James Hoey.
      • Hodgson, J., Hinton, J., & Wallis, J. (1747). An introduction to chronology:: containing an account of time; also of the most remarkable cycles, epoch's, era's, periods, and moveable feasts. To which is added, a brief account of the several methods proposed for the alteration of the style, the reforming the calendar, and fixing the true time of the celebration of Easter. London: Printed for J. Hinton, at the King's Arms in St Paul's Church-yard.
      • Smith, T. (1818). An introduction to chronology. New York: Samuel Wood.
      • Keller, H. R. (1934). The dictionary of dates. New York: The Macmillan company.
      • Poole, R. L., & Poole, A. L. (1934). Studies in chronology and history. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
      • Langer, W. L., & Gatzke, H. W. (1963). An encyclopedia of world history, ancient, medieval and modern, chronologically arranged. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
      • Momigliano, A. "Pagan and Christian Historiography in the Fourth Century A.D." in A. Momigliano, ed., The Conflict Between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century,The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1963, pp. 79–99
      • Williams, N., & Storey, R. L. (1966). Chronology of the modern world: 1763 to the present time. London: Barrie & Rockliffe.
      • Steinberg, S. H. (1967). Historical tables: 58 B.C.-A.D. 1965. London: Macmillan.
      • Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P. (1975). Chronology of world history: a calendar of principal events from 3000 BC to AD 1973. London: Collings.
      • Neugebauer, O. (1975). A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy Springer-Verlag.
      • Bickerman, E. J. (1980). The Chronology of the Ancient World. London: Thames and Hudson.
      • Whitrow, G. J. (1990). Time in history views of time from prehistory to the present day. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press.
      • Aitken, M. (1990). Science-Based Dating in Archaeology. London: Thames and Hudson.
      • Richards, E. G. (1998). Mapping Time: The Calendar and History. Oxford University Press.
      • Koselleck, R. "Time and History." The Practice of Conceptual History. Timing History, Spacing Concepts. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2002.
      • Ronald H. Fritze; et al. (2004). "Chronologies, Calendars, and Lists of Rulers". Reference Sources in History: An Introductory Guide (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 4+. ISBN . 
      • Olena V. Smyntyna (2009). "Chronology". In H. James Birx. Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture. Sage. ISBN . 
      • Daniel Rosenberg; Anthony Grafton (2009). Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN {{inconsistent citations}} 
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    • Chronology