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    Vacuum

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Vacuum

    • Vacuum gauges

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Vacuum gauges


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    • Vacuum pumps

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Vacuum pumps


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    • Vacuum systems

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Vacuum systems


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    • Vacuum tubes

    • This piglix contains articles or sub-piglix about Vacuum tubes


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    • Vacuum

    • Vacuum is space void of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure. Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply ca ... Read »


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    • Aether theories

    • Aether theories in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθήρ), meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air"), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitatio ... Read »


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    • Beamline

    • In accelerator physics, a beamline refers to the trajectory of the beam of accelerated particles, including the overall construction of the path segment (vacuum tube, magnets, diagnostic devices) along a specific path of an accelerator facility. This part is either Beamlines usually end in experimental stations that u ... Read »


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    • Chemical vapor deposition

    • Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials. The process is often used in the semiconductor industry to produce thin films. In typical CVD, the wafer (substrate) is exposed to one or more volatile , which react and/or decompose on the substrate s ... Read »


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    • Cold cathode

    • A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament. A cathode may be considered "cold" if it emits more electrons than can be supplied by thermionic emission alone. It is used in gas-discharge lamps, such as neon lamps, discharge tubes, and some types of vacuum tube. The other type of cathode is ... Read »


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    • Dirac sea

    • The Dirac sea is a theoretical model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles with negative energy. It was first postulated by the British physicist Paul Dirac in 1930 to explain the anomalous negative-energy quantum states predicted by the Dirac equation for relativistic electrons. The positron, the antimatter co ... Read »


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    • Foreline

    • A foreline is a vacuum line between the pumps of a vacuum system. No longer exclusively used by scientists in research, vacuum systems are used in numerous industries that include food production and the manufacturing of electronic components. A classic foreline is a hose or tube that connects a rotary vane pump to th ... Read »


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    • Helium mass spectrometer

    • A helium mass spectrometer is an instrument commonly used to detect and locate small leaks. It was initially developed in the Manhattan Project during World War II to find extremely small leaks in the gas diffusion process of uranium enrichment plants. It typically uses a vacuum chamber in which a sealed container fill ... Read »


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    • Hot-filament ionization gauge

    • Hot-filament ionization gauge

      The hot-filament ionization gauge, sometimes called a hot-filament gauge or hot-cathode gauge, is the most widely used low-pressure (vacuum) measuring device for the region from 10−3 to 10−10Torr. It is a triode, with the filament being the cathode. Note: Principles are mostly the same for hot-cathode ion so ... Read »


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    • Manifold vacuum

    • Manifold vacuum, or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engine's intake manifold and Earth's atmosphere. Manifold vacuum is an effect of a piston's movement on the induction stroke and the choked flow through a throttle in the intake manifold of an engine. It is ... Read »


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    • McLeod gauge

    • A McLeod gauge is a scientific instrument used to measure very low pressures, down to 10−6Torr. It was invented in 1874 by Herbert McLeod (1841–1923). McLeod gauges were once commonly found attached to equipment that operates under vacuum, such as a lyophilizer. Today, however, these gauges have largely been ... Read »


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    • Metal vapor synthesis

    • In chemistry, metal vapor synthesis (MVS) is a method for preparing metal complexes by combining freshly produced metal atoms or small particles with ligands. In contrast to the high reactivity of such freshly produced metal atoms, bulk metals typically are unreactive toward neutral ligands. The method has been used to ... Read »


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    • Molecular sieve

    • A molecular sieve is a material with pores (very small holes) of uniform size. These pore diameters are similar in size to small molecules, and thus large molecules cannot enter or be absorbed, while smaller molecules can. As a mixture of molecules migrate through the stationary bed of porous, semi-solid substance refe ... Read »


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    • Non-Evaporable Getter

    • Non evaporable getters (NEG), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are mostly porous alloys or powder mixtures of Al, Zr, Ti, V and Fe. They help to establish and maintain vacuums by soaking up or bonding to gas molecules that remain within a partial vacuum. This is done through the use ... Read »


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    • Outer space

    • Outer space, deep space, or just space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including Earth. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust ... Read »


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    • Outgassing

    • Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material. Outgassing can include sublimation and evaporation which are phase transitions of a substance into a gas, as well as desorption, seepag ... Read »


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    • Frans Michel Penning

    • Frans Michel Penning

      Frans Michel Penning (12 September 1894 – 6 December 1953) was a Dutch experimental physicist. He received his PhD from the University of Leiden in 1923, and studied low pressure gas discharges at the Philips Laboratory in Eindhoven, developing new electron tubes during World War II. Many detailed observations of ... Read »


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    • Pressure measurement

    • Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure. Likewise the widely used Bo ... Read »


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    • Vacuum pump

    • A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. The first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke, and was preceded by the suction pump, which dates to antiquity. The predecessor to the vacuum pump was the suction pump, which was kn ... Read »


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    • QCD vacuum

    • The QCD vacuum is the vacuum state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is an example of a non-perturbative vacuum state, characterized by non-vanishing condensates such as the gluon condensate and the quark condensate in the complete theory which includes quarks. The presence of these condensates characterizes the conf ... Read »


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    • QED vacuum

    • The quantum electrodynamic vacuum or QED vacuum is the field-theoretic vacuum of quantum electrodynamics. It is the lowest energy state (the ground state) of the electromagnetic field when the fields are quantized. When Planck's constant is hypothetically allowed to approach zero, QED vacuum is converted to classical v ... Read »


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    • Suction

    • Suction is the flow of a fluid into a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. The pressure gradient between this region and the ambient pressure will propel matter toward the low pressure area. Suction is popularly thought of as an attractive effect, which is incorrect since vacuums do not innately attract matter. D ... Read »


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    • Suction cup

    • A suction cup, also known as a sucker, is an object that uses the negative fluid pressure of air or water to adhere to nonporous surfaces, creating a partial vacuum. Suction cups are peripherial traits of some animals such as octopuses and squids, and have been reproduced artificially for numerous purposes. The w ... Read »


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    • Thin-film thickness monitor

    • Thin-film thickness monitors, deposition rate controllers, and so on, are a family of instruments used in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. They can measure the thickness of a thin film, not only after it has been made, but while it is still being deposited, and some can control either the final thickness of the film ... Read »


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    • Ultra-high vacuum

    • Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) is the vacuum regime characterised by pressures lower than about 10−7pascal or 100 nanopascals (10−9mbar, ~10−9torr). UHV conditions are created by pumping the gas out of a UHV chamber. At these low pressures the mean free path of a gas molecule is approximately 40 km, so gas m ... Read »


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    • Vacuum cementing

    • Vacuum cementing or vacuum welding is the natural process of solidifying small objects in a hard vacuum. The most notable example is dust on the surface of the Moon. This effect was reported to be a problem with the first American and Soviet satellites, as small moving parts would seize together. In 2009 the European ... Read »


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    • Vacuum coffee maker

    • A vacuum coffee maker brews coffee using two chambers where vapor pressure and vacuum produce coffee. This type of coffee maker is also known as vac pot, siphon or syphon coffee maker, and was invented by Loeff of Berlin in the 1830s. These devices have since been used for more than a century in many parts of the world ... Read »


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    • Vacuum consolidation

    • Vacuum consolidation (or vacuum preloading) is a soft soil improvement method that has been successfully used by geotechnical engineers and specialists of ground improvement companies in countries such as Australia, China, Korea, Thailand and France for soil improvement or land reclamation (Chu et al., 2005). It does n ... Read »


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    • Vacuum deposition

    • Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule on a solid surface. These processes operate at pressures well below atmospheric pressure (i.e., vacuum). The deposited layers can range from a thickness of one atom up to millimeters, forming freestanding ... Read »


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    • Vacuum energy

    • Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. One contribution to the vacuum energy may be from virtual particles which are thought to be particle pairs that blink into existence and then annihilate in a timespan too short to observe. Their behavior is codified in ... Read »


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    • Vacuum evaporation

    • Vacuum evaporation is the process of causing the pressure in a liquid-filled container to be reduced below the vapor pressure of the liquid, causing the liquid to evaporate at a lower temperature than normal. Although the process can be applied to any type of liquid at any vapor pressure, it is generally used to descri ... Read »


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    • Vacuum flask

    • A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings. Invented by Sir James Dewar in 1892, the vacuum flask consists of two , placed one within the other and joi ... Read »


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    • Vacuum packing

    • Vacuum packing is a method of packaging that removes air from the package prior to sealing. This method involves (manually or automatically) placing items in a plastic film package, removing air from inside, and sealing the package.Shrink film is sometimes used to have a tight fit to the contents. The intent of vacuum ... Read »


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    • Vacuum state

    • In quantum field theory, the vacuum state (also called the vacuum) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Generally, it contains no physical particles. Zero-point field is sometimes used as a synonym for the vacuum state of an individual quantized field. According to present-day understanding of what is ... Read »


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    • Vacuum tube

    • In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions), is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a cathode heated by the ... Read »


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    • Work function

    • In solid-state physics, the work function (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface. Here "immediately" means that the final electron position is far from the surface on the at ... Read »


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