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  • Sociology of culture

    Sociology of culture

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    • Sociology of culture

    • The sociology of culture and, the related, cultural sociology concerns the systematic analysis of culture, usually understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a members of a society, as it is manifested in the society. For Georg Simmel, culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of ... Read »


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    • Art cluster

    • Art Cluster, in global contemporary art scene, refers a group of artists that work through Internet to promote the free culture and many artistic values. The emerging telecommunications have developed a new form of communication, much faster and more direct. This allows people to work from anywhere in the world. People ... Read »


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    • Art world

    • The art world comprises everyone involved in producing, commissioning, presenting, preserving, promoting, chronicling, criticizing, and selling fine art. It is a wider term than art market, though that is a large part of it. Howard S. Becker describes it as "the network of people whose cooperative activity, organized v ... Read »


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    • Auto-segregation

    • Auto-segregation

      Auto-segregation or self-segregation is the separation of a religious or ethnic group from the rest of society in a state by the group itself. This could also mean inability for a normal social interaction and a form of social exclusion. Through auto-segregation, the members of the separate group can establish their o ... Read »


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    • Bourgeoisie

    • The bourgeoisie (Eng.: /bʊərʒwɑːˈziː/; French pronunciation: ​[buʁʒwazi]) is a polysemous French term that can mean: The "bourgeoisie", in its original sense, is intimately linked to the existence of cities recognized as such by their urban charters (e.g. municipal charter, town priv ... Read »


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    • Ceremonial pole

    • A ceremonial pole symbolizes a variety of concepts in several different cultures. For example, in the Miao culture in Yunnan China. In The Evolution of the Idea of God, Grant Allen notes that Samoyeds of Siberia, and Damara of South Africa plant stakes at the graves of ancestors. According to Zelia Nuttall in The Funda ... Read »


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    • Collectivism

    • Collectivism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the group and its interests. Collectivism is the opposite of individualism. Collectivists focus on communal, societal, or national interests in various types of political, economic and educational systems. Collectiv ... Read »


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    • Corporate group (sociology)

    • A corporate group is two or more individuals, usually in the form of a family, clan, organization, or company. A major distinction between different political cultures is whether they believe the individual is the basic unit of their society, in which case they are individualistic, or whether corporate groups are the b ... Read »


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    • Cultural critic

    • A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis. There is significant overlap with social and cultural theory. Contemporary usage has tended to include all types of criticism directed at culture. The term cultural criticism itself has been claimed by Jacques B ... Read »


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    • Cultural identity

    • Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. In this way, cultural identity is both ... Read »


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    • Cultural identity theory

    • Cultural identity refers to a person's sense of belonging to a particular culture or group. This process involves learning about and accepting traditions, heritage, language, religion, ancestry, aesthetics, thinking patterns, and social structures of a culture. Normally, people internalize the beliefs, values, norms, a ... Read »


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    • Cultural jet lag

    • The expression cultural jet lag (or cultural jetlag) was first coined by Marc Perraud during his research into cross-cultural psychology. He describes the expression as the phenomenon of partial socialization in adults born from bi-cultural/national unions and whose childhood was characterized by nomadic displacement d ... Read »


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    • Culture

    • Culture (/ˈkʌltʃər/) can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E.B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Cult ... Read »


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    • Culture gap

    • A culture gap is any systematic difference between two cultures which hinders mutual understanding or relations. Such differences include the values, behavior, education, and customs of the respective cultures. The term was originally used to describe the difficulties encountered in interactions between early 20th cent ... Read »


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    • Culture of capitalism

    • The culture of capitalism or capitalist culture is the set of social practices, social norms, values and patterns of behavior that are attributed to the capitalist economic system in a capitalist society. Capitalist culture promotes the accumulation of capital and the sale of commodities, where individuals are primaril ... Read »


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    • Culture shock

    • Culture shock is an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own; it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country, a move between social environments, or simply ... Read »


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    • Diffusion of innovations

    • Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread. Everett Rogers, a professor of communication studies, popularized the theory in his book Diffusion of Innovations; the book was first published in 1962, and is now in its fifth edition (2003). Rogers a ... Read »


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    • Mustafa Emirbayer

    • Mustafa Emirbayer is an American sociologist and professor of sociology at University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is known for his theoretical contributions to social network analysis, and is "one of the most vocal advocates of the relational approach in the social sciences." In 2009 he won the Lewis A. Coser Award for Th ... Read »


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    • Korean ethnic nationalism

    • Korean ethnic nationalism, or racial nationalism, is a political ideology and a form of ethnic identity that is widely prevalent in modern North and South Korea. It is based on the belief that Koreans form a nation, a "race", and an ethnic group that shares a unified bloodline and a distinct culture. It is centered on ... Read »


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    • Ethnocentrism

    • Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture. Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define e ... Read »


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    • Ethnology

    • Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology). Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups t ... Read »


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    • Ethnopluralism

    • Ethnopluralism or ethno-pluralism is a European New Right theory of multiculturalism which contrasts with liberal multiculturalism. According to ethnomusicologist Benjamin R. Teitelbaum, the term ethnopluralism was coined by German sociologist Henning Eichberg in a 1973 essay and was later assimilated into the European ... Read »


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    • Feminization (sociology)

    • In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine. This is the opposite of a cultural focus upon masculinity. Scholar Ann Douglas chronicled the rise of what she describes as sentimental "feminization" of American mass culture i ... Read »


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    • Hybridity

    • Hybridity refers in its most basic sense to mixture. The term originates from biology and was subsequently employed in linguistics and in racial theory in the nineteenth century. Its contemporary uses are scattered across numerous academic disciplines and is salient in popular culture. This article explains the history ... Read »


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    • Intellectual

    • An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about the reality of society, and proposes solutions for the normative problems of society, and thus he or she gains authority as a public intellectual. Coming from the world of culture, either as a creator or as a mediator, the inte ... Read »


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    • The Invention of Art

    • The Invention of Art: A Cultural History

      The Invention of Art: A Cultural History (2001) is an art history book by Dr. Larry Shiner (1934- ), Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, History, and Visual Arts at the University of Illinois, Springfield Shiner spent over a decade to finish the work of this book. The book sees fine art as a modern invention due to ... Read »


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    • Sociology of literature

    • The sociology of literature is a subfield of the sociology of culture. It studies the social production of literature and its social implications. A notable example is Pierre Bourdieu's 1992 Les Règles de L'Art: Genèse et Structure du Champ Littéraire, translated by Susan Emanuel as Rules of Art: Genesis and S ... Read »


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    • Omar Lizardo

    • Omar Lizardo (born c. 1974) is a sociologist, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and the co-editor, with Rory McVeigh and Sarah Mustillo, of the American Sociological Review, the flagship journal for the American Sociological Association. According to one commentator, he "has a history of grappling ... Read »


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    • Magical Negro

    • The Magical Negro is a supporting in American cinema who is portrayed as coming to the aid of a film's white protagonists. Magical Negro characters, who often possess special insight or mystical powers, have long been a tradition in American fiction. The term was popularized in 2001 by film director Spike Lee, while ... Read »


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    • Monoculturalism

    • Monoculturalism is the practice of actively preserving a national culture via the exclusion of external influences. Japan, China, South Korea, and North Korea are examples of monoculturalism. Usually a monocultural society exists by racial homogeneity, nationalistic tendencies, geographic isolation, or political isolat ... Read »


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    • Multiculturalism

    • Multiculturalism is the existence of multiple cultural traditions within a single country, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an aboriginal ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups. This can happen when a jurisdiction is created or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultur ... Read »


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    • Multiracism

    • Multiracism is the conflict between the various ethnic communities that conform a state, based on the belief that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race. The term focuses upon the social and economic life of the ethnicities, demonstrating that while some have found economic success, ot ... Read »


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    • Nouvelles Mythologies

    • Nouvelles Mythologies is a collection of 57 texts written by authors, journalists and editorialists under the direction of Jérôme Garcin and published in 2007 at Éditions du Seuil to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the essay Mythologies by Roland Barthes. ... Read »


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    • Official culture

    • Official culture is the culture that receives social legitimation or institutional support in a given society. Official culture is usually identified with bourgeoisie culture. For revolutionary Guy Debord, official culture is a "rigged game", where conservative powers forbid subversive ideas to have direct access to th ... Read »


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    • Pluriculturalism

    • Pluriculturalism is an approach to the self and others as complex rich beings which act and react from the perspective of multiple identifications. In this case, identity or identities are the by-products of experiences in different cultures. As an effect, multiple identifications create a unique personality instead of ... Read »


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    • Ritualcide

    • Ritualcide is the systematic destruction or alteration of traditional ritual practices and their sequencing. Rituals have a prescribed form, source, and sequence that include sacred objects, places, times and seasons, music, dance, texts, songs and words, and mediators (such as monks, spirit mediums, religious leaders, ... Read »


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    • Roseto effect

    • The Roseto effect is the phenomenon by which a close-knit community experiences a reduced rate of heart disease. The effect is named for Roseto, Pennsylvania. The Roseto effect was first noticed in 1961 when the local Roseto doctor encountered Dr. Stewart Wolf, then head of Medicine of the University of Oklahoma, and t ... Read »


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    • Sanankuya

    • Sanankuya (also sanankou(n)ya, sinankun, senenkun,senankuya) refers to a social characteristic present especially among the Mande peoples of Mali, Guinea and Gambia as well as many West African societies in general, often described in English with terms such as "cousinage" or "joking relationship". In addition to sana ... Read »


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    • Social osmosis

    • Social osmosis is the indirect infusion of social/cultural knowledge. Effectively, social content is diffused, and by happenstance authentic experience is displaced by degrees of mediated separation before a subject acquires knowledge of a social phenomenon. An example of social osmosis would be knowing a show exists ... Read »


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    • Sociological art

    • Sociological Art is an artistic movement and approach to aesthetics that emerged in France in the early 1970s and became the basis for the Sociological Art Collective formed by , Fred Forest, and Jean-Paul Thénot in 1974. As early as 1968, art critics Pierre Restany and François Pluchart used the term “ ... Read »


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    • Superdiversity

    • Superdiversity, or super-diversity, is a social science term and concept often said to have been coined by sociologist Steven Vertovec in a 2007 article in Ethnic and Racial Studies, but which he first used in a BBC article in 2005. The term superdiversity is used to refer to some current levels of population dive ... Read »


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    • Ann Swidler

    • Ann Swidler (born December 11, 1944) is an American sociologist and Professor of Sociology at University of California-Berkeley. Swidler is most commonly known as a cultural sociologist and authored one of the most-cited articles in sociology, Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. Swidler graduated from Harvard U ... Read »


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    • Symbolic boundaries

    • Symbolic boundaries are a theory of how people form social groups proposed by cultural sociologists. Symbolic boundaries are “conceptual distinctions made by social actors…that separate people into groups and generate feelings of similarity and group membership.” Symbolic boundaries are a necessary but ... Read »


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    • Tick-box culture

    • Tick-box culture is described as bureaucratic and external impositions on professional working conditions, which can be found in many organizations around the world. In social work, tick-box culture means there is too much emphasis on following rules instead of actually helping children. Tick-box culture is also studie ... Read »


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    • Volksgeist

    • Volksgeist is a German loanword (literally meaning "spirit of the people" or "National character") for a unique "spirit" possessed collectively by each people or nation. The idea is often attributed to the philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder, but he never actually used the word. Hegel coined the term Volksgeist in 1801 ... Read »


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    • White savior narrative in film

    • In film, the white savior is a cinematic trope portraying a white character rescuing people of color from their plight. Certain critics have observed this narrative in an array of genres of movies in American cinema, wherein a white protagonist is portrayed as a messianic figure who often learns something about him- or ... Read »


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