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    Public health

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    • Public health by country

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    • Antibiotic resistance

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    • Biostatistics

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    • Health disasters

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    • Public health education

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    • Environmental health

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    • Epidemiology

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    • Food safety

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    • Publicly funded health care

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    • Hygiene

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    • Maternal health

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    • Men's health


    • Public health organizations

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    • People in public health

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    • Prevention

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    • Health promotion

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    • Public health ministers

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    • Public health research

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    • Vaccination

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    • Water treatment

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    • Women's health


    • Public health

    • Public health refers to "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The popul ... Read »


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    • 10 Essential Public Health Services

    • The 10 Essential Public Health Services is a US government document which codifies the responsibilities of public health agencies and institutions in the United States. Organized according to the "three fundamental purposes of public health" — assessment, policy development, and assurance — the essential ... Read »


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    • Alliance for Healthy Cities

    • The Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) is a cooperative international alliance aimed at protecting and enhancing the health and health care of city dwellers. It is composed of groups of cities, urban districts and other organizations from countries around the world in exchanging information to achieve the goal through ... Read »


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    • Alliance for Heart Failure

    • The Alliance for Heart Failure is a coalition of charities, patient groups, professional bodies, public sector organisations and corporate members working together to raise the profile of heart failure within the UK Government, the National Health Service, and British media. It was formed in October 2015. The Alliance ... Read »


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    • Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces

    • Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces can prevent frequently touched surfaces from serving as reservoirs for the spread of pathogenic microbes. This is especially true in healthcare facilities, where harmful viruses, bacteria, and fungi colonize and persist on doorknobs, push plates, railings, tray tables, tap (fau ... Read »


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    • Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance

    • Asia Pacific Leaders Malaria Alliance (APLMA), The Alliance and its secretariat were created at the 2013 Brunei East Asia Summit following a Declaration on Regional Responses to Malaria Control and Addressing Resistance to Antimalarial medication meeting of the EAS in 2012. The APLMA Secretariat formally commenced oper ... Read »


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    • Attack rate

    • In epidemiology, the attack rate is the biostatistical measure of frequency of morbidity, or speed of spread, in an at risk population. It is used in hypothetical predictions and during actual outbreaks of disease. An at risk population is defined as one that has no immunity to the attacking pathogen which can be eithe ... Read »


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    • Auxiliary nurse midwife

    • Auxiliary nurse midwife, commonly known as ANM, is a village-level female health worker in India who is known as the first contact person between the community and the health services. ANMs are regarded as the grass-roots workers in the health organisation pyramid. Their services are considered important to provide saf ... Read »


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    • Barefoot doctor

    • Barefoot doctors (Chinese: 赤脚医生; pinyin: chìjiǎo yÄ«shēng) are farmers who received minimal basic medical and paramedical training and worked in rural villages in the People's Republic of China. Their purpose was to bring health care to rural areas where urban-trained doctors would not se ... Read »


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    • Juan Battle

    • Juan Battle

      Juan Jose Battle (born 1968) is an academic, author, activist, and feminist.  He is currently a Professor of sociology,public health, and urban education at The Graduate Center of the City University of New York. He also serves as the Coordinator of the Africana Studies Certificate Program. Battle's research focuses ... Read »


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    • Behavior change (public health)

    • Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions, with an increased focus on prevention prior to onset of disease. This is particularly important in low and middle income countries, where efficiency of health spending and costs and benefits of health interventions has come under increased scrutiny ... Read »


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    • Bhore Committee

    • Bhore Committee was set up by Government of India in 1943. It was a health survey taken by a development committee to assess health condition of India. The development committee worked under Sir Joseph William Bhore, who acted as the chairman of committee. The committee consisted of pioneers in the healthcare field who ... Read »


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    • Biostatistics

    • Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. The science of biostatistics encompasses the design of biological experiments, especially in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture and fishery; the collection, summarization, and analysis of data from those experiments; and the interpretatio ... Read »


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    • Boil-water advisory

    • A boil-water advisory or boil-water order is a public health advisory or directive given by government or health authorities to consumers when a community's drinking water is, or could be, contaminated by pathogens. Under a boil-water advisory (BWA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that water ... Read »


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    • Richard Bonnie

    • Richard J. Bonnie is the Harrison Foundation Professor of Law and Medicine, Professor of Public Policy, Professor of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science, and Director of the Institute of Law, Psychiatry and Public Policy at the University of Virginia and the University of Virginia School of Law. He teaches and write ... Read »


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    • Caribbean Public Health Agency

    • The creation of the new Caribbean Public Health Agency' (CARPHA) was approved by the Caribbean Heads of Government in March 2010. CARPHA will replace and build on the work of the Caribbean Community’s five Regional Health Institutions (RHIs), following a phased transition period commencing in December 2010 and pro ... Read »


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    • Child mortality

    • Child mortality, also known as under-5 mortality or child death, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five or between the age of one month to four years depending on the definition. A child's death is emotionally and physically hard on the parents. Many deaths in the majority of the world go unr ... Read »


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    • Children Without Worms

    • Children Without Worms (CWW) is a global collaborative health programme among two pharmaceutical giants, Johnson & Johnson and GlaxoSmithKline, and a nonprofit organisation, the Task Force for Global Health. The cooperative goal is to support the treatment and prevention of parasitic infection with soil-transmitted hel ... Read »


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    • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee

    • The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Advisory Committee (CFSAC) was formed in response to the use of funds by the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the study of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The CFSAC was charted under the Public Health Service Act of the US and funded by the United States Department ... Read »


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    • Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response

    • Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response (CCOUC). was established jointly by Oxford University and The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) as a non-profit research centre to carry out research, training and community knowledge transfer in the area of disaster ... Read »


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    • Community health

    • Community health is a subject of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on population groups and communities as opposed to individual patients. It is a distinct field of study that may be taught within a separate school of public health or environmental health. It is a discipline which concerns i ... Read »


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    • Compression of morbidity

    • The compression of morbidity in public health is a hypothesis put forth by James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. The hypothesis was confirmed by a 1998 study of 1700 University of Pennsylvania alumni over a period of 20 years. Fries' hypothesis is that the burden of lifetime ill ... Read »


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    • Control banding

    • Control banding is a qualitative or semi-quantitative risk assessment and management approach to promoting occupational health and safety. It is intended to minimize worker exposures to hazardous chemicals and other risk factors in the workplace and to help small businesses by providing an easy-to-understand, practical ... Read »


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    • Cooling center

    • A cooling center is a air-conditioned public space set up by local authorities to temporarily deal with the health effects of a heat wave. Cooling centers are meant to prevent hyperthermia caused by heat, humidity, and poor air quality. Cooling centers provide shade, water, and restrooms; medical attention and referral ... Read »


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    • Counterfeit medications

    • A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness. A counterfeit drug may contain inappropriate quantities of active ingredients, or none, may be improperly processed with ... Read »


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    • Criticism of fast food

    • Criticism of fast food includes claimed negative health effects, alleged animal cruelty, cases of worker exploitation, and claims of cultural degradation via shifts in people's eating patterns away from traditional foods. Fast food chains have come under fire from consumer groups, such as the Center for Science in the ... Read »


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    • CT Value

    • CT Values are an important part of calculating disinfectant dosage for the chlorination of drinking water. A CT value is the product of the concentration of a disinfectant (e.g. free chlorine) and the contact time with the water being disinfected. It is typically expressed in units of mg-min/L. The goal of disinfectio ... Read »


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    • Dental public health

    • Dental public health (DPH) is a non-clinical specialty of dentistry that deals with the prevention and promotion of oral health. Dental public health is involved in the assessment of key dental health needs and coming up with effective solutions to improve the dental health of a population rather than individuals. Pre ... Read »


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    • DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)

    • DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course), also known as TB-DOTS, is the name given to the tuberculosis control strategy recommended by the World Health Organization. According to WHO, "The most cost-effective way to stop the spread of TB in communities with a high incidence is by curing it. The best curative me ... Read »


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    • Dirty Money Project

    • The Dirty Money Project is a scientific research project of New York University, a comprehensive study of the DNA on banknotes which aims to understand the role of banknotes in spreading diseases among humans, especially on those who live in an urban region. NYU's Dirty Money Project is part of a larger project lookin ... Read »


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    • Disease mongering

    • Disease mongering is a pejorative term for the practice of widening the diagnostic boundaries of illnesses and aggressively promoting their public awareness in order to expand the markets for treatment. Among the entities benefiting from selling and delivering treatments are pharmaceutical companies, physicians, altern ... Read »


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    • List of diseases eliminated from the United States

    • This is a list of diseases known (or declared) to have been eliminated from the United States, either permanently or at one time. Most of the diseases listed were eliminated after coordinated public health campaigns. (Since some diseases can be eliminated and then reintroduced at a later time, such diseases are still e ... Read »


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    • Diseases of poverty

    • Diseases of poverty is a term sometimes used to collectively describe diseases, disabilities, and health conditions that are more prevalent among the poor than among wealthier people. In many cases poverty is considered the leading risk factor or determinant for such diseases, and in some cases the diseases themselves ... Read »


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    • Drinking water quality standards

    • Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water. Despite the truism that every human on this planet needs drinking water to survive and that water may contain many harmful constituents, there are no universally recognized and accepted international standards for drinking water. ... Read »


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    • Substance abuse

    • Substance abuse

      Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal j ... Read »


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    • Drug Abuse Warning Network

    • The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) was a public health surveillance system in the United States that monitored drug-related visits to hospital emergency departments and drug-related deaths. DAWN was discontinued in 2011, but its creator, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), continu ... Read »


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    • Early Warning and Response System

    • The Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) for communicable diseases in the European Union was created by the European Commission to "ensure a rapid and effective response by the EU to events (including emergencies) related to communicable diseases". "EWRS is a web-based system linking the Commission, the public he ... Read »


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    • Economic epidemiology

    • Economic epidemiology is a field at the intersection of epidemiology and economics. Its premise is to incorporate incentives for healthy behavior and their attendant behavioral responses into an epidemiological context to better understand how diseases are transmitted. This framework should help improve policy response ... Read »


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    • Ecosystem health

    • Ecosystem health is a metaphor used to describe the condition of an ecosystem. Ecosystem condition can vary as a result of fire, flooding, drought, extinctions, invasive species, climate change, mining, overexploitation in fishing, farming or logging, chemical spills, and a host of other reasons. There is no universall ... Read »


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    • Effects of nuclear explosions on human health

    • The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience promp ... Read »


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    • Electromagnetic radiation and health

    • Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequencies, such as X-rays or gamma rays are ionizing, and these pose the ... Read »


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    • Disease burden

    • Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators. It is often quantified in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), both of which quantify the number of years lost due to disease (YLDs). One DALY can ... Read »


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    • Environmental health

    • Environmental Health is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 2002 and published by BioMed Central. It covers research in all areas of environmental and occupational medicine. The editors-in-chief are Philippe Grandjean (University of Southern Denmark) and David Ozonoff (Boston University School of Public Heal ... Read »


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    • Environmental health officer

    • Environmental Health Officers (also known as Public Health Inspectors or Environmental Health Practitioners) are responsible for carrying out measures for protecting public health, including administering and enforcing legislation related to environmental health and providing support to minimize health and safety hazar ... Read »


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    • Epidemic model

    • An epidemic model is a simplified means of describing the transmission of communicable disease through individuals. The modeling of infectious diseases is a tool which has been used to study the mechanisms by which diseases spread, to predict the future course of an outbreak and to evaluate strategies to control a ... Read »


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    • Epidemiological transition

    • In demography and medical geography, epidemiological transition is a phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in population growth rates brought about by medical innovation in disease or sickness therapy and treatment, followed by a re-leveling of population growth from subsequent declines in ferti ... Read »


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    • Epidemiology

    • Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologi ... Read »


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    • Epidemiology of measles

    • Measles is extremely infectious and its continued circulation in a community depends on the generation of susceptible hosts by birth of children. In communities which generate insufficient new hosts the disease will die out. This concept was first recognized in measles by Bartlett in 1957, who referred to the minimum n ... Read »


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    • Epizootiology

    • Epizootiology, epizoology, or veterinary epidemiology is the study of disease patterns within animal populations. ... Read »


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    • Eradication of infectious diseases

    • Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero. It is sometimes confused with elimination, which describes either the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in a regional population to zero, or the reduction of the global prevalence to a negligible amou ... Read »


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    • Euthenics

    • Euthenics /juːˈθɛnɪks/ is the study of the improvement of human functioning and well-being by improvement of living conditions. Affecting the "improvement" through altering external factors such as education and the controllable environment, including the prevention and removal of contagious disease and ... Read »


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    • Fat tax

    • A fat tax is a tax or surcharge that is placed upon fattening food, beverages or on overweight individuals. An example of a fat tax is Pigovian taxation, a fat tax that aims to discourage unhealthy diets and offset the economic costs of obesity. A fat tax aims to decrease the consumption of foods that are linked to ob ... Read »


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    • Fecal sludge management

    • Fecal sludge management (FSM), also spelled faecal sludge management in British English, is a management system that safely collects, transports, and treats fecal sludge (also called septage) from pit latrines, septic tanks or other onsite sanitation facilities (OSSF). In other words, it deals with the mixture of human ... Read »


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    • Focus of infection

    • A focus of infection is a place containing whatever epidemiological factors are needed for transmission of an infection. Any focus of infection will have a source of infection, and other common traits of such a place include a human community, a vector population, and environmental characteristics adequate for spreadin ... Read »


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    • Four-step impact assessment

    • The Four-Step Impact Assessment is an academic framework initiated and published by Jonathan Mann and colleagues at the François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights at the Harvard School of Public Health. The assessment takes into account the negotiation of objectives between human rights and public he ... Read »


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    • French paradox

    • The French paradox is a catchphrase, first used in the late 1980s, that summarizes the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), while having a diet relatively rich in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely hel ... Read »


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    • Thomas Fresh

    • Thomas Fresh (3 September 1803 – 1861) was a pioneer in British environmental health. In 1844, he became Liverpool's first public health officer. Thomas Fresh was born on 3 September 1803 at the family farm 'Newbarns', in the village of Newbarns, in the Lake District parish of Dalton-in-Furness. The family al ... Read »


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    • From Population Control to Reproductive Health

    • From Population Control to Reproductive Health: Malthusian Arithmetic is a book by Mohan Rao. It is a critique of the post-1990s Indian family planning system. In it, Rao endeavors to critique the family-planning programme in India, its assumptions, unstated bias, and implications. It describes the approach for health ... Read »


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    • Fruit and vegetables for kids

    • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, children are failing to meet the recommended amount of the essential fruits and vegetables that they should eat daily (CDC, 2014). More specifically, The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2010) explained that in 2007, 60% of children did not ... Read »


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    • Gin Craze

    • The Gin Craze was a period in the first half of the 18th century when the consumption of gin increased rapidly in Great Britain, especially in London. Daniel Defoe commented: ".... the Distillers have found out a way to hit the palate of the Poor, by their new fashion'd compound Waters called Geneva, so that the common ... Read »


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    • Global microbial identifier

    • The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disea ... Read »


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    • Harm reduction

    • Harm reduction (or harm minimization) is a range of public health policies designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal. Harm reduction policies are used to manage behaviors such as recreational drug use and sexual activity in numerous settings that range f ... Read »


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    • Health crisis

    • A health crisis or public health crisis is a difficult situation or complex health system that affects humans in one or more geographic areas (mainly occurred in natural hazards), from a particular locality to encompass the entire planet. Health crises generally have significant impacts on community health, loss of lif ... Read »


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    • Health equity

    • Health equity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations. Health equity is different from health equality, as it refers only to the absence of disparities in controllable or remediable aspects of health. It is not possible to work towards complete ... Read »


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    • Health For All

    • Health For All is a programming goal of the World Health Organization (WHO), which envisions securing the health and well being of people around the world that has been popularized since the 1970s. It is the basis for the World Health Organization's primary health care strategy to promote health, human dignity, and enh ... Read »


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    • Health risks from dead bodies

    • The health risks of dead bodies are dangers related to the improper preparation and disposal of cadavers. While normal circumstances allow cadavers to be quickly embalmed, cremated, or buried, natural and man-made disasters can quickly overwhelm and/or interrupt the established protocols for dealing with the dead. Unde ... Read »


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    • Health system

    • A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and ... Read »


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    • Health-related embarrassment

    • Medical help may in some instances be accompanied by embarrassment. The source of this embarrassment or its range can vary from person to person. For some the embarrassment heightens when confronted by specific characteristics, such as a doctor of the opposite sex, while for others, the scope of their embarrassment ma ... Read »


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    • Healthism

    • Healthism, sometimes called public-healthism, is a neologism to describe a variety of ideological constructs concerning health and medicine. The term ‘healthism’ was most likely first used by the political economist Robert Crawford, whose article ‘Healthism and the medicalization of everyday life’ w ... Read »


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    • Healthy city

    • Healthy city is a term used in public health and urban design to stress the impact of policy on human health. Its modern form derives from a World Health Organization (WHO) initiative on Healthy Cities and Villages in 1986, but has a history dating back to the mid 19th century. The term was developed in conjunction wit ... Read »


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    • Healthy development measurement tool

    • The Healthy Development Measurement Tool (HDMT), developed by the San Francisco Department of Public Health, provides an approach for evaluating land use planning and urban development with regards to the achievement of human health needs. The HDMT provides a set of baseline data on community health metrics for San Fra ... Read »


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    • Herd immunity

    • Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immun ... Read »


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    • Hierarchy of hazard control

    • Hierarchy of hazard control is a system used in industry to minimize or eliminate exposure to hazards. It is a widely accepted system promoted by numerous safety organizations. This concept is taught to managers in industry, to be promoted as standard practice in the workplace. Various illustrations are used to depict ... Read »


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    • Hispanic paradox

    • The Hispanic paradox, or Latino paradox, also known as the "epidemiologic paradox," refers to the epidemiological finding that Hispanic and Latino Americans tend to have health outcomes that "paradoxically" are comparable to, or in some cases better than, those of their U.S. non-Hispanic White counterparts, even though ... Read »


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    • Human services

    • Human services is an interdisciplinary discipline with the objective of meeting human needs through an applied knowledge base, focusing on prevention as well as remediation of problems, and maintaining a commitment to improving the overall quality of life of service populations. The process involves the study of social ... Read »


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    • Indices of deprivation 2004

    • The Indices of deprivation 2004 (ID 2004) is a deprivation index at the small area level, created by the British Department for Communities and Local Government(DCLG). It is unusual in its inclusion of a measure of geographical access as an element of deprivation and in its direct measure of poverty (through data on b ... Read »


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    • Indices of deprivation 2007

    • The Indices of deprivation 2007 (ID 2007) is a deprivation index at the small area level, created by the British Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) and released on 12 June 2007. It follows the ID2004 and because much of the datasets are the same or similar between indices allows a comparison of 'rel ... Read »


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    • Indices of deprivation 2010

    • The Indices of Deprivation 2010 (ID 2010) is a deprivation index at the small area level, created by the British Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) and released on 24 March 2011. It follows the ID2007 and because much of the datasets are the same or similar between indices allows a comparison of "re ... Read »


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    • Infant mortality

    • Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age. It is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. The leading causes of infant mortality are birth asphyxia, pneumonia, term birth compl ... Read »


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    • Infection control

    • Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. It is an essential, though often underrecognized and undersupported, part of the infrastructure of health care. Infection control and hospital e ... Read »


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    • Infectious Disease (Notification) Act 1889

    • The Infectious Disease (Notification) Act first appeared on the UK national statute books in 1889. It was compulsory in London and optional in the rest of the country. It later became a mandatory law with the Infectious Diseases Notification (Extension) Act, 1899. These acts required householders and/or general practit ... Read »


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    • Infodemiology

    • Infodemiology (and the closely related term infoveillance) is a term coined by Canadian researcher Gunther Eysenbach. Eysenbach defines "infodemiology" (or information epidemiology) as a "new research discipline and methodology [which deals with] the study of the determinants and distribution of health information [on ... Read »


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    • Injury prevention

    • Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur. Injury prevention is a component of safety and public health, and its goal is to improve the health of the population by preventing injuries and hence improving qualit ... Read »


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    • Insite

    • Insite

      Insite is the first legal supervised drug injection site in North America, located at 139 East Hastings Street, in the Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighbourhood of Vancouver, British Columbia. The DTES had 4700 chronic drug users in 2000 and has been considered to be the centre of an "injection drug epidemic". The site pr ... Read »


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    • Institut national de recherche et de sécurité


    • International Epidemiological Association

    • The International Epidemiological Association (IEA) [2] is a worldwide association with more than 2000 members in over 100 different countries, who follow the aims of the Association to facilitate communication amongst those engaged in research and teaching of epidemiology throughout the world, and to encourage its use ... Read »


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    • International Hygiene Exhibition

    • The International Hygiene Exhibition was a world's fair focusing on medicine and public health, held in Dresden, Germany, in 1911. The leading figure organizing the exhibition was German philanthropist and businessman Karl August Lingner (), who had grown wealthy from his Odol mouthwash brand, and was enthusiastic ... Read »


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    • International Year of Sanitation

    • The year 2008 was declared the International Year of Sanitation by the United Nations in conjunction with the Water for Life Decade. The United Nations General Assembly has declared 2008 the International Year of Sanitation. Worldwide there are roughly 2.6 billion people who do not have access to basic sanitation toda ... Read »


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    • Investor-state dispute settlement

    • Investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) or investment court system (ICS) is a system through which individual companies can sue countries for alleged discriminatory practices. The practice was made widely known through the Philip Morris v. Uruguay case, where the tobacco company Philip Morris sued Uruguay after having ... Read »


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    • Israeli paradox

    • The Israeli paradox is a catchphrase, first used in 1996, to summarize the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that Israeli Jews have a relatively high incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), despite having a diet relatively low in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely held belief th ... Read »


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    • Frederick S. Jaffe

    • Frederick S. Jaffe (1925–1978) was a vice president of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, and founder of what is now the Guttmacher Institute. He was an advocate for increasing the availability of family planning services in the United States. Through his publications and consultations Jaffe argued for birt ... Read »


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    • LGBTI Health Summit

    • The LGBTI Health Summits are an opportunity for individuals working for the health of intersex, trans, bisexual, lesbian and gay people to meet and share ideas. Attendees are mostly health activists, a mix of medical care professionals, alternative and complementary health providers, outreach workers, volunteers, and o ... Read »


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    • List of water supply and sanitation by country

    • This list of water supply and sanitation by country provides information on the status of water supply and sanitation at a national or, in some cases, also regional level. List by country: This list of water resources management by country provides information on the status of water resource management at a national ... Read »


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    • London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases

    • The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases is a collaborative disease eradication programme launched on 30 January 2012 in London. It was inspired by the World Health Organization 2020 roadmap to eradicate or negate transmission for neglected tropical diseases. Officials from WHO, the World Bank, the Bill & ... Read »


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    • Low-threshold treatment programs

    • Low-threshold treatment programs are harm reduction-based health care centers targeted towards drug users. "Low-threshold" programs are programs that make minimal demands on the patient, offering services without attempting to control their intake of drugs, and providing counselling only if requested. Low-threshold pro ... Read »


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    • Eleanor Josephine Macdonald

    • Eleanor Josephine Macdonald (4 March 1906 – 26 July 2007) was a pioneer American cancer epidemiologist and cancer researcher influenced and mentored by Edwin Bidwell Wilson and Shields Warren. One of the earliest proponents of the idea that cancer was a preventable disease. She established the first cancer registr ... Read »


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    • Malnutrition

    • Malnutrition

      Malnutrition or malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while ... Read »


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    • Mass deworming

    • Mass deworming (also called preventive chemotherapy) is the process of treating large numbers of people, particularly children, for helminthiasis (for example soil-transmitted helminths (STH)) and schistosomiasis infections in areas with a high prevalence of these conditions. It involves treating everyone – often ... Read »


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    • Mass drug administration

    • The administration of drugs to whole populations irrespective of disease status is referred to as mass drug administration (MDA). This article describes the administration of antimalarial drugs to whole populations an intervention which has been used as a malaria-control measure for more than 70 years. Recent proposal ... Read »


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    • Medical debt

    • Medical debt refers to debt incurred by individuals due to health care costs and related expenses. Medical debt is different from other forms of debt, because it is usually incurred accidentally or faultlessly. People do not plan to fall ill or hurt themselves, and health care remedies are often unavoidable; medical d ... Read »


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    • Medical Officer for Health

    • Medical Officer of Health, Medical Health Officer or District Medical Officer, is a title commonly used for the senior government official of a health department or agency, usually at a municipal, county/district, state/province, or regional level. The post is held by a physician who serves to advise and lead a team of ... Read »


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    • Medical sociology

    • Medical sociology is the sociological analysis of medical organizations and institutions; the production of knowledge and selection of methods, the actions and interactions of healthcare professionals, and the social or cultural (rather than clinical or bodily) effects of medical practice. The field commonly interacts ... Read »


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    • Medical Technology Group

    • The Medical Technology Group (MTG) is a not for profit organisation in the United Kingdom comprising patient groups, research charities and medical device manufacturers. Its stated aim is to "work together to improve patient access to effective medical technologies". The Group launched in 2000. Current members of ... Read »


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    • Medicine Unboxed

    • Medicine Unboxed

      Medicine Unboxed is a project arising from a view that good medicine demands more than scientific and technical expertise, and that it necessitates ethical judgment, an understanding of human experience, empathy, professionalism and wisdom. Medicine Unboxed is a not-for-profit organisation that has held eight inte ... Read »


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    • MenAfriVac

    • MenAfriVac is a vaccine developed for use in sub-Saharan Africa for children and adults between 9 months and 29 years of age against meningococcal bacterium Neisseria meningitidis group A. The vaccine costs less than US$0.50 per dose. Epidemics of meningococcal A meningitis, which is a bacterial infection of the t ... Read »


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    • Meningitis Vaccine Project

    • The Meningitis Vaccine Project is an effort to eliminate the meningitis epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa by developing a new meningococcal vaccine. The meningitis problem in that area is caused by a strain of meningitis called "meningitis A", which is present only in the African meningitis belt. In June 2010 various sour ... Read »


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    • Menstrual hygiene day

    • Menstrual hygiene day

      Menstrual hygiene day (MHD or MH Day) is an annual awareness day, on 28 May, that aims to break taboos and raise awareness about the importance of good menstrual hygiene management (MHM) for women and adolescent girls worldwide. It was initiated by the German-based NGO WASH United in 2014. The initiative for Menstrual ... Read »


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    • Mexican paradox

    • The Mexican paradox is the observation that the Mexican people exhibit a surprisingly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW), contrary to what would be expected from their socioeconomic status (SES). This appears as an outlier in graphs correlating SES with low-birth-weight rates. It has been proposed that resistance ... Read »


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    • Mobile phone radiation and health

    • The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. As of 2016[update], there were 7.4 billion subscriptions worldwide, though the actual number of users is lower as many users own multiple mo ... Read »


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    • Mobile phones and driving safety

    • Mobile phone use while driving is common, but it is widely considered dangerous due to its potential for causing distracted driving and accidents. Due to the number of accidents that are related to cell phone use while driving, some jurisdictions have made the use of a cell phone while driving illegal. Many jurisdictio ... Read »


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    • Molecular pathological epidemiology

    • Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE, also molecular pathologic epidemiology) is a discipline combining epidemiology and pathology. It is defined as "epidemiology of molecular pathology and heterogeneity of disease". Pathology and epidemiology share the same goal of elucidating etiology of disease, and MPE aims to ... Read »


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    • Pierre M'Pelé


    • Multi-barrier approach

    • The Multi-barrier approach is a key paradigm for ensuring safe drinking water in jurisdictions such as Ontario, elsewhere in Canada, and New Zealand. It is defined as, An integrated system of procedures, processes and tools that collectively prevent or reduce the contamination of drinking water from source to tap in o ... Read »


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    • National Rural Health Mission

    • The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), now under National Health Mission is an initiative undertaken by the government of India to address the health needs of under-served rural areas. Launched in April 2005 by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, the NRHM was initially tasked with addressing the health needs of 18 ... Read »


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    • Non-specific effect of vaccines

    • Non-specific effects of vaccines (also called “heterologous effects" or "off-target effects") are effects which go beyond the specific protective effects against the targeted diseases. Non-specific effects can be strongly beneficial, increasing protection against non-targeted infections, but also at times negative ... Read »


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    • Nutrition transition

    • Nutrition transition is the shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and epidemiological changes. Specifically the term is used for the transition of developing countries from traditional diets high in cereal and fiber to more Western pattern diets high in sugars, f ... Read »


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    • Nutritional epidemiology

    • Nutritional epidemiology is a relatively new field of medical research that studies the relationship between nutrition and health. Diet and physical activity are difficult to measure accurately, which may partly explain why nutrition has received less attention than other risk factors for disease in epidemiology. ... Read »


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    • Obstetric transition

    • In reproductive health, obstetric transition is a concept around the secular trend of countries gradually shifting from a pattern of high maternal mortality to low maternal mortality, from direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality to indirect causes, aging of maternal population, and moving from the natural history ... Read »


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    • Occupational health nursing

    • Occupational health nursing is a specialty nursing practice that provides for and delivers health and safety programs and services to workers, worker populations, and community groups. The practice focuses on promotion, maintenance and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, and protection from workâ ... Read »


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    • Open defecation

    • Open defecation is the practice of people defecating outside and not into a designated toilet. The term is widely used in literature about water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) issues in developing countries. Open defecation causes public health problems in areas where people defecate in fields, urban parks, rivers, an ... Read »


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    • Overnutrition

    • Overnutrition or hyperalimentation is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism. The term can also refer to: For mineral excess, see: Overnutrition may also refers to greater food consump ... Read »


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    • 2012 Pakistan fake medicine crisis

    • During late January 2012, a fake medicine crisis at the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) hospital in the Lahore region of Punjab, Pakistan, claimed the lives of over 100 heart patients. According to various reports, the incident involved patients who had been receiving treatment at the hospital and had been prescri ... Read »


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    • Pentavalent vaccine

    • A pentavalent vaccine is a combined vaccine with five individual vaccines conjugated into one, intended to actively protect people from 5 potentially deadly diseases. The main example is a vaccine that protects against Haemophilus Influenza type B (a bacterium that causes meningitis, pneumonia and otitis), whooping cou ... Read »


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    • Pesticide formulation

    • The biological activity of a pesticide, be it chemical or biological in nature, is determined by its active ingredient (AI - also called the active substance). Pesticide products very rarely consist of pure technical material. The AI is usually formulated with other materials and this is the product as sold, but it may ... Read »


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    • Polizeiwissenschaft

    • Polizeiwissenschaft (German for "Police science", though "Polizei" may in this case be better translated as "Public Policy" or "Politics" in a broad sense) was a discipline born in the first third of the 18th century which lasted until the middle of the 19th century. Considered as the science of the internal order of ... Read »


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    • Harold Pollack

    • Harold Pollack is an American professor at the University of Chicago who has been appointed to two Institute of Medicine committees. His research has focused on public health and health policy. At the University of Chicago, he has chaired the Center for Health Administration Studies. A special correspondent for the New ... Read »


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    • Pooper-scooper

    • A pooper-scooper, or poop scoop, is a device used to pick up animal feces from public places and yards, particularly those of dogs. Pooper-scooper devices often have a bag or bag attachment. 'Poop bags' are alternatives to pooper scoopers, and are simply a bag, usually turned inside out, to carry the feces to a proper ... Read »


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    • Population Impact Measures

    • Population Impact Measures (PIMs) are newly described measures of risk and benefit for use in epidemiology. Traditionally used measures of risk and benefit have been nicely summarised by Jerkel, Katz and Elmore. Described measures include the risk difference (attributable risk), rate difference (often expressed as the ... Read »


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    • Population informatics

    • The field of population informatics is the systematic study of populations via secondary analysis of massive data collections (termed "big data") about people. Scientists in the field refer to this massive data collection as the social genome, denoting the collective digital footprint of our society. Population informa ... Read »


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    • Population, health, and the environment

    • Population, health, and the environment (PHE) is an approach to human development that integrates health or family planning with conservation efforts to seek synergistic successes for greater conservation and human welfare outcomes than single-sector approaches. More than 1 billion people live in ecological hotspo ... Read »


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    • Positive deviance

    • Positive deviance (PD) is an approach to behavioral and social change based on the observation that in any community there are people whose uncommon but successful behaviors or strategies enable them to find better solutions to a problem than their peers, despite facing similar challenges and having no extra resources ... Read »


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    • Precautionary principle

    • The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) to risk management states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public, or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus (that the action or policy is not harmful), the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on ... Read »


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    • Premunity

    • Premunity is a term used to signify progressive development of immunity in individuals exposed to an infective agent, mainly belonging to protozoa and Rickettsia, but not in viruses. After the initial infection, which generally occurs in childhood, the effect in subsequent infections is diminished. Infections thereafte ... Read »


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    • Primary Care Behavioral health

    • Primary Care Behavioral Health Consultation model (PCBH) is a psychological approach to population-based clinical health care that is simultaneously co-located, collaborative, and integrated within the primary care clinic. The goal of PCBH is to improve and promote overall health within the general population. This app ... Read »


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    • Protective sequestration

    • Protective sequestration is a public health term that refers to measures taken to protect a small, defined, and still-healthy population from an epidemic (or pandemic) before the infection reaches that population. Given the extraordinary nature of these measures, they should be considered, if at all, only under except ... Read »


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    • Public analyst

    • Public Analysts are scientists in the United Kingdom and Ireland whose principal task is to ensure the safety and correct description of food by testing for compliance with legislation. Most Public Analysts are also Agricultural Analysts who carry out similar work on animal feedingstuffs and fertilisers. Nowadays this ... Read »


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    • Public Health (London) Act 1891

    • The Public Health (London) Act 1891 (54 & 55 Vict c 76) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which extended access to Metropolitan Asylums Board hospitals to those who were not eligible for poor relief. It was repealed in part by Parts V and VI of the Third Schedule to the Public Health Act 1936. ... Read »


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    • Public health genomics

    • Public Health Genomics is the use of genomics information to benefit public health. This is visualized as more effective personalized preventive care and disease treatments with better specificity, targeted to the genetic makeup of each patient. According to the CDC, Public Health genomics is an emerging field of study ... Read »


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    • Public health informatics

    • Public health informatics has been defined as the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It is one of the subdomains of health informatics. Public health informatics is defined as the use of computers, clinical guidelines, commun ... Read »


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    • Public health law

    • Law is an important public health tool that plays a critical role in reducing illness and premature death. Public health law examines the authority of the government at various jurisdictional levels to improve the health of the general population within societal limits and norms. Public health law focuses on legal iss ... Read »


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    • Public health nursing

    • Public health nursing, a term coined by Lillian Wald of the Henry Street Settlement, or community health nursing, is a nursing specialty focused on public health. Public health nurses (PHNs) or community health nurses "integrate community involvement and knowledge about the entire population with personal, clinical und ... Read »


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    • Public health surveillance

    • Public health surveillance (also epidemiological surveillance, clinical surveillance or syndromic surveillance) is, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), "the continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health-related data needed for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of publ ... Read »


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    • Radiobiology

    • Radiobiology (also known as radiation biology) is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things. Ionizing radiation is generally harmful and potentially lethal to living things but can have health benefits in radiation therapy for the tr ... Read »


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    • Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance

    • Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system (RODS) is a syndromic surveillance system developed by the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics. It is "prototype developed at the University of Pittsburgh where real-time clinical data from emergency departments within a geographic region can ... Read »


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    • Reproductive health

    • Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of ... Read »


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    • Ellen Swallow Richards

    • Ellen Swallow Richards

      Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (December 3, 1842 – March 30, 1911) was an industrial and environmental chemist in the United States during the 19th century. Her pioneering work in sanitary engineering, and experimental research in domestic science, laid a foundation for the new science of home economics. She was ... Read »


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    • Robert Koch Institute

    • As part of the Federal Government of Germany, the Robert Koch Institute (abbreviated RKI) is an organization responsible for disease control and prevention. It is located in Berlin and Wernigerode, and is a part of the Federal Ministry of Health. The Institute was formed by Robert Koch in 1891 as The Royal Prussia ... Read »


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    • Safe bottle lamp

    • The Safe bottle lamp, called sudeepa or sudipa for good lamp, is a safer kerosene lamp designed by Wijaya Godakumbura of Sri Lanka. The safety comes from heavier glass, a secure screw-on metal lid, and two flat sides which prevent it from rolling if knocked over. As surgeon Dr. Godakumbura saw many burn cases caus ... Read »


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    • Sanitary engineering

    • Sanitary engineering is the application of engineering methods to improve sanitation of human communities, primarily by providing the removal and disposal of human waste, and in addition to the supply of safe potable water. Traditionally a branch of civil engineering, in the mid-19th century, the discipline concentrate ... Read »


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    • Sanitary sewer overflow

    • Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) is a condition in which untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities. When caused by rainfall it is also known as wet weather overflow. It is primarily meaningful in developed countries, which have extensive treatme ... Read »


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    • Sanitation

    • Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems inclu ... Read »


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    • School health and nutrition services

    • School health and nutrition services are services provided through the school system to improve the health and well-being of children and in some cases whole families and the broader community. These services have been developed in different ways around the globe but the fundamentals are constant: the early detection, ... Read »


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    • Schooliosis

    • Schooliosis, a pun on "school" and "scoliosis", is a term for a type of medical misdiagnosis. The word was coined by Petr Skrabanek and James McCormick. The authors asserted that there is some degree of overdiagnosis of scoliosis in school, which causes ethical, social, and economic damage to the welfare of children. ... Read »


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    • Self-report sexual risk behaviors

    • Self-report sexual risk behaviors are a cornerstone of reproductive health-related research, particularly when related to assessing risk-related outcomes such as pregnancy or acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV. Despite their frequency of use, the utility of self-report measures to provide a ... Read »


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    • David Sleet

    • David A. Sleet is an American scientist recognized for championing the application of behavioral science to unintentional injury prevention and helping to establish injury prevention as a global public health concern. He has published hundreds of articles and book chapters and was co-editor of the Handbook of Injury an ... Read »


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    • Smart Chair

    • Smart Chair

      Smart Chair (also known as KD Smart Chair) is a motorized wheelchair or an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) created in 2014 by KD Healthcare Company USA, a company based in Miami, Florida. It is notable for featuring on CBS's The Doctors show and presented as an option for seniors and people with disabilities. KD ... Read »


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    • Smoking ban

    • Smoking bans (or smoke-free laws) are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces. Legislation may also define smoking as more generally being the carrying or possessing of any lit tobacco product. The rati ... Read »


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    • Smoking bans in private vehicles

    • Smoking bans in private vehicles are enacted to protect passengers from secondhand smoke and to increase road traffic safety, e.g. by preventing the driver from being distracted by the act of smoking. Private vehicles are used by individuals for personal transportation; smoking bans in private vehicles are less common ... Read »


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    • Social determinants of health

    • The social determinants of health (SDOH) are the economic and social conditions and their distribution among the population that influence individual and group differences in health status. They are health promoting factors found in one's living and working conditions (such as the distribution of income, wealth, influe ... Read »


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    • Social Emergency Medicine

    • Social Emergency Medicine is an emerging branch of Emergency Medicine that explores the interplay of social forces and the emergency care system, and how these act together to affect the health of individuals and their communities. Organized in 2009, the field has gained wider acceptance within the larger specialty of ... Read »


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    • Social medicine

    • The field of social medicine seeks to: This type of study began formally in the early 19th century. The Industrial Revolution and the subsequent increase in poverty and disease among workers raised concerns about the effect of social processes on the health of the poor. Prominent figures in the history of social medi ... Read »


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    • Spectrum Youth and Family Services

    • Spectrum Youth and Family Services

      The Spectrum Youth and Family Services has been offering shelter and support services to at-risk and homeless youth since 1970. The organization is located in Burlington, Vermont and serves youth ages 14–21. In 1970 the Burlington Ecumenical Action Ministry founded SHAC, which stood for Shelter Action and lat ... Read »


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    • Stachybotrys

    • ~ 50, see text Stachybotrys (Stak-ē-bot′ris) is a genus of molds, hyphomycetes or asexually reproducing, filamentous fungi. Historically, it was considered closely related to the genus Memnoniella, because the spores are produced in slimy heads rather than in dry chains. Recently, the synonymy of the two gener ... Read »


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    • Start School Later movement

    • The Start School Later movement is a series of efforts by health care professionals, sleep scientists, educators, economists, legislators, parents, students, and other concerned citizens to restore a later start to the school day, based on a growing body of evidence that starting middle and high schools too early in th ... Read »


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    • The Story of John M'Neil


    • Stroke Belt

    • Stroke Belt or Stroke Alley is a name given to a region in the southeastern United States that has been recognized by public health authorities for having an unusually high incidence of stroke and other forms of cardiovascular disease. It is typically defined as an 11-state region consisting of Alabama, Arkansas, Georg ... Read »


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    • Sugary drinks tax

    • A sugary drinks tax or soda tax is a tax or surcharge designed to reduce consumption of drinks with added sugar. Drinks covered under a soda tax often include, carbonated drinks, uncarbonated drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks. The tax is a matter of public debate in many countries and beverage producers like Coc ... Read »


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    • Ta'ang National Liberation Army


    • Tallstick

    • The Tallstick is a yardstick-like device for field measurement of childhood stunting based on age and sex norms. Its simplicity, portability, and low-cost have made it a popular tool for aide workers and community volunteers in remote areas. Shaped like a yardstick, the Tallstick is marked in ages from birth to five y ... Read »


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    • Targeted immunization strategies

    • Targeted immunization strategies are approaches designed to increase the immunization level of populations and decrease the chances of epidemic outbreaks. Though often in regards to use in healthcare practices and the administration of vaccines to prevent biological epidemic outbreaks, these strategies refer in general ... Read »


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    • TEDMED

    • TEDMED

      Richard Saul Wurman TEDMED is an annual conference focusing on health and medicine, with a year-round web based community. TEDMED is an independent event operating under license from the nonprofit TED conference. As of 2014[update], TEDMED staff operates from Stamford, Connecticut. Talks given at TEDMED combine ... Read »


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    • Tobacco control

    • Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality it causes. Tobacco control is a priority area for the World Health Organization (WHO), through the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Referenc ... Read »


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    • Total Worker Health

    • Total Worker Health is a trademarked strategy defined as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related safety and health hazards with promotion of injury and illness prevention efforts to advance worker well-being. It was conceived and is funded by the National Institute for Occupational ... Read »


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    • Toxic waste

    • Toxic waste is any material in liquid, solid, or gas form that can cause harm by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin. Many of today’s household products such as televisions, computers and phones contain toxic chemicals that can pollute the air and contaminate soils and water. Disposing of such w ... Read »


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    • Tradable smoking pollution permits

    • Tradable smoking pollution permits were proposed by the economists Robert Haveman and John Mullahy of the University of Wisconsin–Madison as an alternative to smoking bans to solve the problem of cigarette-smoking "externalities" in public bars and restaurants. The tradable smoking pollution permit systems work si ... Read »


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    • Transmission-based precautions

    • Transmission-based precautions are additional infection control precautions in health care, and the latest routine infection prevention and control practices applied for patients who are known or suspected to be infected or colonized with infectious agents, including certain epidemiologically important pathogens. The l ... Read »


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    • Transtheoretical model

    • The transtheoretical model of behavior change assesses an individual's readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or processes of change to guide the individual through the stages of change to Action and Maintenance. It is composed of the following constructs: stages of change, processes of ... Read »


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    • Unnatural Causes: Is Inequality Making Us Sick?


    • Unwarranted variation

    • Unwarranted variation (or geographic variation) in health care service delivery, first so termed by Dr. John Wennberg, refers to differences that cannot be explained by illness, medical need, or the dictates of evidence-based medicine. It can be caused by shortfalls in three areas: In 1967, while working in the Re ... Read »


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    • Verified-Accredited Wholesale Distributors

    • The Verified-Accredited Wholesale Distributors (VAWD) program was established in 2004 to help protect the public from the threat of counterfeit drugs. The VAWD program was developed and is administered by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP). The program offers an accreditation to wholesale distributio ... Read »


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    • Veterinary public health

    • Veterinary public health (VPH) is a component of public health that focuses on the application of veterinary science to protect and improve the physical, mental and social well-being of humans. Conventionally veterinary public health as a topic covers the following areas: It is desirable to consider food producti ... Read »


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    • VistA imaging

    • VistA Imaging is an FDA-listed Image Management system used in the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare facilities nationwide. It is one of the most widely used image management systems in routine healthcare use, and is used to manage many different varieties of images associated with a patient's medical record. ... Read »


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    • VistA Web

    • VistAWeb is a portal accessible through CPRS (Computerized Patient Recordkeeping System), the graphical user interface for the Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture (VistA), the electronic health record used throughout the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical system (known ... Read »


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    • West Virginia University School of Public Health

    • The West Virginia University School of Public Health is a school of public health located in the United States city of Morgantown in the state of West Virginia; the WVU School of Public Health is the only School of Public Health in the state of West Virginia. The WVU School of Public Health offers the following degree ... Read »


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    • White hat bias

    • White hat bias (WHB) is a phrase coined by public health researchers David Allison and Mark Cope (2010) to describe a purported "bias leading to the distortion of information in the service of what may be perceived to be righteous ends", which consist of both cherry picking the evidence and publication bias. Allison an ... Read »


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    • Wireless electronic devices and health

    • The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged the "anxiety and speculation" regarding electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and their alleged effects on public health. In response to public concern, the WHO established the International EMF Project in 1996 to assess the scientific evidence of possible health effects of ... Read »


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    • Workplace health promotion

    • Workplace health promotion is the combined efforts of employers, employees, and society to improve the mental and physical health and well-being of people at work. The term workplace health promotion denotes a comprehensive analysis and design of human and organizational work levels with the strategic aim of developing ... Read »


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    • World Federation Against Drugs

    • World Federation Against Drugs (WFAD) is a group of individuals and non-governmental organizations from different parts of the world (139 organizations in 47 countries in July 2015). The 1st World Forum Against Drugs was hosted in Sweden in 2008 by a group of Swedish non-Government organizations. An outcome of the firs ... Read »


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    • World Immunization Week

    • World Immunization Week

      World Immunization Week is a global public health campaign to raise awareness and increase rates of immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases around the world. It takes place each year during last week of April. Immunization can protect against 25 different infectious agents or diseases, from infancy to old ag ... Read »


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    • World Malaria Day

    • World Malaria Day

      World Malaria Day (WMD) is an international observance commemorated every year on 25 April and recognizes global efforts to control malaria. Globally, 3.3 billion people in 106 countries are at risk of malaria. In 2012, malaria caused an estimated 627,000 deaths, mostly among African children. Asia, Latin America, and ... Read »


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    • World Toilet Day

    • World Toilet Day

      World Toilet Day (WTD) is an annual event celebrated on 19 November. The day focuses on the importance of proper sanitation and advocates for access to clean and safe toilets for all. Originally established by the World Toilet Organization in 2001, the day is set aside to draw attention to the global sanitation crisis. ... Read »


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    • Stanley Zlotkin

    • Stanley Howard Zlotkin, CM OOnt is a Canadian Professor of Paediatrics, Public Health Sciences and Nutritional Sciences at the University of Toronto. Zlotkin holds an undergraduate degree in Ecology from the University of Toronto, a M.D. from McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario), and a Ph.D. in Nutritional Scie ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Public health

Extras