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    Political theories

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    • Agrarianism

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    • American exceptionalism

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    • Anti-Federalism

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    • Anti-militarism

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    • Basic income

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    • Centrism

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    • Communalism

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    • Communist theory

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    • Communitarianism

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    • Cosmopolitanism

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    • Dark Enlightenment

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    • Decentralization

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    • Deep politics

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    • Egalitarianism

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    • Eurasianism

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    • Federalism

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    • Political ideologies

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    • Independence

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    • Individualism

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    • Internationalism

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    • Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

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    • Libertarian socialism

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    • Libertarian theory

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    • Makhnovism

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    • Marxism

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    • Marxist schools of thought

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    • Militarism

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    • National syndicalism

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    • Nationalism

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    • Neo-Nazism

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    • New Right (Europe)

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    • New Right (United States)

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    • Objectivism (Ayn Rand)

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    • Pacifism

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    • Phoenicianism

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    • Political science theories

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    • Political theorists

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    • Populism

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    • Public choice theory

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    • Radicalism (historical)

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    • Regionalism (politics)

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    • Social choice theory

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    • Social credit

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    • Socialism

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    • Stoicism

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    • Supremacism

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    • Third Position

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    • Totalitarianism

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    • Transnationalism

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    • Utilitarianism

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    • Zionism

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    • Political philosophy

    • Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and ... Read »


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    • Absolute monarchy

    • Absolute monarchy, or despotic monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority that is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often, but not always, hereditary monarchies. In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and i ... Read »


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    • Agonism

    • Agonism (from Greek ἀγών agon, "struggle") is a political theory that emphasizes the potentially positive aspects of certain (but not all) forms of political conflict. It accepts a permanent place for such conflict, but seeks to show how people might accept and channel this positively. For this reason, ag ... Read »


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    • Agrarian socialism

    • Agrarian socialism is a political ideology which combines an agrarian way of life with a socialist economic system. When compared to standard socialist systems which are generally urban/industrial and more progressive in terms of social orientation, many agrarian socialist movements have tended to be rural (with a ... Read »


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    • American exceptionalism

    • American exceptionalism is one of three related ideas. The first is that the history of the United States is inherently different from other nations. In this view, American exceptionalism stems from its emergence from the American Revolution, thereby becoming what political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset called "the f ... Read »


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    • American Free Press

    • The American Free Press is a weekly newspaper published in the United States. The newspaper's direct ancestor was the publication The Spotlight, which ceased publication in 2001 when its parent organization, Liberty Lobby, was forced into bankruptcy. Like The Spotlight and Liberty Lobby, Willis Carto, one of America's ... Read »


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    • American Redoubt

    • The American Redoubt is a political migration movement first proposed in 2011 by best-selling survivalist novelist and blogger James Wesley Rawles which designates three states in the northwestern United States (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming), and adjoining portions of two other states (eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington ... Read »


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    • Anti-Americanism

    • Anti-Americanism, anti-American sentiment, or sometimes Americanophobia is dislike of or opposition to the United States governmental policies, especially the foreign policy practices of the United States, or American people in general. Criticism largely originates from the perception that the United States military wa ... Read »


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    • Anti-authoritarianism

    • Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government. Anti-authoritarians usually believe in full eq ... Read »


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    • Anti-Federalism

    • Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalis ... Read »


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    • Anti-nationalism

    • Anti-nationalism denotes the sentiments associated with an opposition to nationalism. Some anti-nationalists are humanitarians or humanists who pursue an idealist view of world community, and self-identify as world citizens. They often claim to reject chauvinism, jingoism and militarism, and desire peace rather than pe ... Read »


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    • Anti-patriotism

    • Anti-patriotism is the ideology that opposes patriotism; it usually refers to those with cosmopolitan views and is usually of an anti-nationalist nature as well. Normally, anti-patriotism stems from the belief that patriotism is wrong since people born in a country, whether they like it or not and regardless of their i ... Read »


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    • Anti-Western sentiment

    • Anti-Western sentiment refers to broad opposition or hostility to the people, culture, or policies of the Western World. In many modern cases the United States and the United Kingdom are the subject of discussion or hostility, though for the most part historically it was fueled by anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism. ... Read »


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    • Anti-Zionism

    • Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism. The term is broadly defined in the modern era as the opposition to the ethnonationalist and political movement of Jews and Jewish culture that supports the establishment of a Jewish state as a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (also referred t ... Read »


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    • Antidisestablishmentarianism

    • Antidisestablishmentarianism (i/ˌæn.ti.dɪs.ɪs.tæb.lɪʃ.mənˈtɛə.rɪə.nɪ.zᵊm/, /ˌæn.taɪˌdɪs.ɛsˌtæb.lɪʃ.məntˈɛ.ri.ənˌɪ.zm/) is a political position that developed in 19th-century Britain in opposition to Liberal proposals for the ... Read »


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    • Antiestablishmentarianism

    • Antiestablishmentarianism (or anti-establishmentarianism) is a political philosophy that views a nation's or society's power structure as corrupt, repressive, exploitative, or unjust. ... Read »


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    • Antimilitarism

    • Antimilitarism is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International. Whereas pacifism is the doctrine that disputes (especially between countries) should be settled without recourse to violence, Paul B. Miller defines anti-mil ... Read »


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    • Asian values

    • Asian values was a political ideology of the 1990s, which defined elements of society, culture and history common to the nations of Southeast and East Asia. It aimed to use commonalities – for example, the principle of collectivism – to unify people for their economic and social good and to create a pan-Asian ... Read »


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    • Associationalism

    • Associationalism (also: Associative Democracy) is a political project where "human welfare and liberty are both best served when as many of the affairs of a society as possible are managed by voluntary and democratically self-governing associations." Associationalism "gives priority to freedom in its scale of values, b ... Read »


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    • Atlanticism

    • Atlanticism is a belief in the importance of cooperation between Europe, the United States and Canada regarding political, economic, and defense issues, with the purpose of maintaining the security and prosperity of the participating countries, and to protect the values that unite them. The term can be used in a more l ... Read »


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    • Authoritarianism

    • Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability under an authoritarian regime.Juan Linz's influential 1964 description of authoritarianism characterized authorita ... Read »


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    • Basic income

    • A basic income (also called unconditional basic income, Citizen's Income, basic income guarantee, universal basic income or universal demogrant) is a form of social security in which all citizens or residents of a country regularly receive an unconditional sum of money, either from a government or some other public ins ... Read »


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    • Behavioralism

    • Behavioralism (or behaviouralism in British English) is an approach in political science, which emerged in the 1930s in the United States. It represents a sharp break from previous political science. This is because it emphasized an objective, quantified approach to explain and predict political behavior. It is associa ... Read »


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    • Black populism

    • Following the collapse of Reconstruction, African Americans created a broad-based independent political movement in the South: Black Populism. Between 1886 and 1898 Black farmers, sharecroppers, and agrarian laborers organized their communities to combat the rising tide of Jim Crow laws. As Black Populism asserted ... Read »


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    • Bleeding-heart libertarianism

    • Bleeding-heart libertarianism, sometimes referred to as the Arizona School and neoclassical liberalism, is a libertarian political movement and ideology that focuses on the compatibility of support for civil liberties and free markets on the one hand, and a concern for social justice and the well-being of the worst-off ... Read »


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    • Burmese Way to Socialism

    • Burmese Way to Socialism

      The Burmese Way to Socialism (Burmese: မြန်မာ့နည်းမြန်မာ့ဟန် ဆိုရှယ်လစ်စနစ်; also known as the Burmese Road to Socialism) refers to the ideology ... Read »


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    • Byzantinism

    • Byzantinism, or Byzantism, is the political system and culture of the Byzantine Empire, and its spiritual successors, in particular, the Christian Balkan states (Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia) and Orthodox countries in Eastern Europe (Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus and most importantly, Russia). The term byzantinism itself was c ... Read »


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    • Caesarism

    • Caesarism is a form of political rule that emulates the rule of Roman dictator Julius Caesar over the Roman Republic, in that it is led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon 'a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involv ... Read »


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    • Caesaropapism

    • Caesaropapism /ˌsiːzəroʊˈpeɪpɪzəm/ is the idea of combining the power of secular government with the religious power, or of making secular authority superior to the spiritual authority of the Church; especially concerning the connection of the Church with government. Justus Henning Böhmer (16 ... Read »


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    • Canaanism

    • Canaanism was a cultural and ideological movement founded in 1939 that reached its peak in the 1940s among the Jews of Palestine. It has had significant effect on the course of Israeli art, literature and spiritual and political thought. Its adherents were called Canaanites (Hebrew: כנענים‎‎ ... Read »


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    • Capitalist peace

    • The capitalist peace, or capitalist peace theory, posits that according to a given criterion for economic development (capitalism), developed economies have not engaged in war with each other, and rarely enter into low-level disputes. These theories have been proposed as an explanation for the democratic peace theory b ... Read »


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    • Carneiro's circumscription theory


    • Willis Carto

    • Born Willis Allison Carto
      (1926-07-17)July 17, 1926
      Fort Wayne, Indiana, U.S. Died October 26, 2015(2015-10-26) (aged 89)
      Virginia, U.S. Cause of death Cardiac arrest Known for Holocaust denial, antisemitism, right-wing populism
    • Willis Carto

      Willis Allison Carto (July 17, 1926 – October 26, 2015) was a figure on the American far right. He described himself as Jeffersonian and populist, but was primarily known for his promotion of antisemitic conspiracy theories and Holocaust denial. Carto was considered to be one of America's most influential politic ... Read »


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    • Celine's laws


    • Centrism

    • In politics, centrism or the center is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy; while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right ... Read »


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    • Chinese New Left

    • The New Left (Chinese: 新左派) in the People's Republic of China is a school of intellectual thought that is critical of capitalism and aspects of the Chinese economic reforms and in favour of elements of Maoist-style socialism, which includes significant role for state planning, the preservation of state-o ... Read »


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    • Christian existentialism

    • Christian existentialism is a theo-philosophical movement which takes an existentialist approach to Christian theology. The school of thought is often traced back to the work of the Danish philosopher and theologian Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), who is considered the father of existentialism. Christian ex ... Read »


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    • Clash of Civilizations

    • The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

      The Clash of Civilizations (COC) is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. It was proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington in a 1992 lecture at the American Enterprise Institute, which was then developed in a 1993 Forei ... Read »


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    • Coattail effect

    • The coattail effect or down-ballot effect is the tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election. For example, in the United States, the party of a victorious presidential candidate will often win many seats in Congress as well; these Members of Congr ... Read »


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    • Collaborative e-democracy

    • Collaborative e-democracy or super-democracy is a democratic conception that combines key features of direct democracy, representative democracy, and e-democracy (i.e. the use of ICTs for democratic processes). The concept was first published at two international academic conferences in 2009 (see below). Collaborative ... Read »


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    • Collective responsibility

    • Collective responsibility also known as collective guilt is a concept in which individuals are responsible for other people's actions by tolerating, ignoring, or harboring them, without actively collaborating in these actions. This concept is found in the Old Testament (or Tanakh), some examples include the accoun ... Read »


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    • Collectivism

    • Collectivism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the group and its interests. Collectivism is the opposite of individualism. Collectivists focus on communal, societal, or national interests in various types of political, economic and educational systems. Collectiv ... Read »


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    • Commanding heights of the economy

    • Commanding heights of the economy refers to existing private industry critical to the economy like large banks, insurance firms and mines. This phrase emerged from a branch of modern political philosophy concerned with organizing society, and can be traced back to Karl Marx's idea on socialism, which stresses the comma ... Read »


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    • Communitarianism

    • Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community. Its overriding philosophy is based upon the belief that a person's social identity and personality are largely molded by community relationships, with a smaller degree of development being placed on individualism. ... Read »


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    • Communization

    • Communization (or communisation in British English) mainly refers to a contemporary communist theory in which there is a "mixing-up of insurrectionist anarchism, the communist ultra-left, post-autonomists, anti-political currents, groups like the Invisible Committee, as well as more explicitly ‘communizing’ c ... Read »


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    • Compact theory

    • Compact theory refers to two theories related to the development of federal constitutions. In the United States, it differs from the contract theory in that it favored the rights of states over those of the Federal Government. Regarding the Constitution of the United States, the compact theory holds that the count ... Read »


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    • Compassionate conservatism

    • Compassionate conservatism is a political philosophy that stresses using traditionally conservative techniques and concepts in order to improve the general welfare of society. The term itself is often credited to U.S. historian and politician Doug Wead, who used it as the title of a speech in 1979, although its origins ... Read »


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    • Concurrent majority

    • Concurrent majority is a constitutional method of enabling minorities to block the actions of majorities by allowing minority groups veto power over laws. In the United States, the most vocal proponents of the theory have tended to be minority groups, such as farmers in an industrial society or slave-owning Southerners ... Read »


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    • Conscription

    • Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French ... Read »


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    • Consociationalism

    • Consociationalism (/kənˌsoʊʃiˈeɪʃənəlɪzəm/ kən-SOH-shee-AY-shən-əl-iz-əm) is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing. Consociationalism is often seen as having close affinities with corporatism; some consider ... Read »


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    • Corporate nationalism

    • Corporate nationalism is a phrase that is used to convey various meanings: "Corporate Nationalism" may be used to describe a political philosophy and economic theory whose adherents are corporatists and believe that the basic unit of the society, be it the family or other corporate groups, has the same interests a ... Read »


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    • Corporatism

    • Corporatism, also known as corporativism, is the sociopolitical organization of a society by major interest groups, known as corporate groups, such as agricultural, business, ethnic, labour, military, patronage, or scientific affiliations, on the basis of their common interests. It is theoretically based on the interpr ... Read »


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    • Cosmopolitanism

    • Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. A cosmopolitan community might be based on an inclusive morality, a shared economic relationshi ... Read »


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    • Counterintelligence state

    • Counterintelligence state (sometimes also called intelligence state, securocracy or spookocracy) is a state where state security service penetrates and permeates all societal institutions including the military. The term has been applied by historians and political commentators to the former Soviet Union, the former Ge ... Read »


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    • Dark Enlightenment

    • The Dark Enlightenment, or the neoreactionary movement (also simply neoreaction; abbreviated NRx by proponents), is an anti-democratic and reactionary movement that broadly rejects egalitarianism and Whig historiography. The movement favors a return to older societal constructs and forms of government, including supp ... Read »


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    • Decadence

    • The word decadence, which at first meant simply "decline" in an abstract sense, is now most often used to refer to a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state. By extension, it ... Read »


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    • Deliberative democracy

    • Deliberative democracy or discursive democracy is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision-making. It adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority rule. Deliberative democracy differs from traditional democratic theory in that authentic deliberation, not mere voting, is the pri ... Read »


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    • Democracy in Marxism

    • The role of democracy in Marxist thinking may refer to the role of democratic processes in the transition from capitalism to communism or capitalism to Marxist socialism. It can also refer to the importance ascribed to participatory democracy in a post-capitalist society. Karl Marx is often cited as saying "democracy ... Read »


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    • Democratic peace theory

    • Democratic peace theory is a theory which posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies. In contrast to theories explaining war engagement, it is a "theory of peace" outlining motives that dissuade state-sponsored violence. Some theorists prefer terms such as "mutua ... Read »


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    • Democratic structuring

    • The principles of democratic structuring were defined by Jo Freeman in "The Tyranny of Structurelessness", first delivered as a talk in 1970, later published in the Berkeley Journal of Sociology in 1972. They were influential in power network theories, especially those challenging a single command hierarchy. She was a ... Read »


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    • Democratic transhumanism

    • Democratic transhumanism, a term coined by James Hughes in 2002, refers to the stance of transhumanists (advocates for the development and use of human enhancement technologies) who espouse liberal, social, and/or radical democratic political views. According to Hughes, the ideology "stems from the assertion that ... Read »


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    • Demoicracy

    • Demoicracy (also demoi-cracy) is a polity of multiple distinct people (demoi), polity of polities. The term is derived from demoi (δῆμοι in original Ancient Greek, plural form of δῆμος or demos), meaning "peoples" and kratos (κράτος) meaning "power" (to govern oneself ... Read »


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    • Deviationism

    • A deviationist is a person who expresses a deviation: an abnormality or departure. In Stalinism, deviationism is an expressed belief which is not in accordance with official party doctrine for the time and area. Accusations of deviationism often led to purges. Forms of deviationism included revisionism, dogmatism, bour ... Read »


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    • Digital labor

    • Digital labor or digital labour is a term for a schema of ideas focusing on exploring and understanding the high levels of cognitive and cultural labor associated with the replacement of jobs in the increasingly automated industrial sector, into globalized production systems embedded in high-technology, and into a know ... Read »


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    • Distributism

    • Distributism (also known as distributionism or distributivism) is an economic ideology that developed in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching, especially the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum novarum and Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo anno. ... Read »


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    • Dual federalism

    • Dual federalism, also referred to as divided sovereignty, is a political arrangement in which power is divided between the federal and state governments in clearly defined terms, with state governments exercising those powers accorded to them without interference from the federal government. Dual federalism is defined ... Read »


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    • Dual power

    • Dual power (Russian: Двоевластие, tr. Dvoyevlastiye) was a term first used by Vladimir Lenin, although conceptually first outlined by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, which described a situation in the wake of the February Revolution in which two powers, the workers councils (or Soviets, particu ... Read »


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    • East–West dichotomy


    • Eastern Party in Greece

    • Eastern Party is a concept that has long been used by mainstream historians to define the reaction of a section of the population in the Third World countries against Westernization and the import of Western values in their societies. Rather than a specific political party, the term refers to a current in the public op ... Read »


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    • Eco-communalism

    • Eco-communalism (shorthand for “ecological communalism”) is an environmental philosophy based on ideals of simple living, self-sufficiency, sustainability, and local economies. Eco-communalists envision a future in which the economic system of capitalism is replaced with a global web of economically interdepe ... Read »


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    • Eco-socialism

    • Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of socialism with that of green politics, ecology and alter-globalization or anti-globalization. Eco-socialists generally believe that the expansion of the capitalist system is the cause of social exclusion, poverty, war and environmenta ... Read »


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    • Eliminationism

    • Eliminationism is the belief that one's political opponents are "a cancer on the body politic that must be excised—either by separation from the public at large, through censorship or by outright extermination—in order to protect the purity of the nation". The term eliminationism was coined by American p ... Read »


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    • Enlightened absolutism

    • Enlightened absolutism, also known as enlightened despotism and benevolent absolutism, is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism inspired by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embrace rationality. Most enlightened monarchs fostered education and allowed religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and the right to ho ... Read »


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    • Epistemic democracy

    • Epistemic democracy is the "doctrine of the wisdom of the multitude." Epistemic democracy is: a recent paradigm in democratic theory. Put generally, in the epistemic interpretation, democratic decision-making processes are valued at least in part for their knowledge-producing potential and defended in relation to ... Read »


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    • Equality before the law

    • Equality before the law, also known as equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle under which all people are subject to the same laws of justice (due process). Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice. There is an old sayin ... Read »


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    • Equality of sacrifice

    • Equality of sacrifice is a term used in political theory and political philosophy to refer to the perceived fairness of a coercive policy. John Stuart Mill noticed that citizens often view taxation laws as being fair, as long as taxation is also applied equally to everyone else in society. Political theorist Margaret ... Read »


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    • Ethnopluralism

    • Ethnopluralism or ethno-pluralism is a European New Right theory of multiculturalism which contrasts with liberal multiculturalism. According to ethnomusicologist Benjamin R. Teitelbaum, the term ethnopluralism was coined by German sociologist Henning Eichberg in a 1973 essay and was later assimilated into the European ... Read »


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    • Expansionism

    • In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial or economic expansion. While some have linked the term to promoting economic growth (in contrast to no growth / sustainable policies), more commonly expansionism refers to the doctrine of a state expanding its territorial b ... Read »


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    • Expansionist nationalism

    • Expansionist nationalism is an aggressive and radical form of nationalism that incorporates autonomous, patriotic sentiments with a belief in expansionism. The term was coined during the late nineteenth century as European powers indulged in the 'Scramble for Africa' in the name of national glory, but has been most ass ... Read »


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    • Extremism

    • Extremism means, literally "the quality or state of being extreme" or "advocacy of extreme measures or views". Nowadays, the term is mostly used in a political or religious sense, for an ideology that is considered (by the speaker or by some implied shared social consensus) to be far outside the (acceptable) mainstrea ... Read »


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    • List of fascist movements

    • This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism. It is often a matter of dispute whether a certain government is to be characterized as fascist (radical authoritarian nationalism), authoritarian, totalitarian, or a police state. The term "fascism" itse ... Read »


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    • Federalism

    • Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, Land, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example ... Read »


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    • Fiscal conservatism

    • Fiscal conservatism is a political-economic philosophy regarding fiscal policy and fiscal responsibility advocating low taxes, reduced government spending and minimal government debt.Free trade, deregulation of the economy, lower taxes, and privatization are defining qualities of fiscal conservatism. Fiscal conservatis ... Read »


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    • Founderism

    • Founderism (being a Founderist) is an intellectual outlook that has a strong "Reverence for the founders" of a state. The term is viewed as a pejorative epithet, accusing those so labeled as having a worldview that sacrifices historic accuracy for turning the "Founding into a fetish". The antonym "anti-founderism" is ... Read »


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    • Four-Stage Theory of the Republic of China

    • The Four-Stage Theory of the Republic of China or the Theory of the Four Stages of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國四階段論; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Sì Jiēduàn Lùn; Pe̍h-ōe-jÄ«: Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok Sì Kai-toāⁿ LÅ«n) is a viewpoint ... Read »


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    • Fusionism

    • Fusionism is an American political term for the philosophical and political combination or "fusion" of traditionalist and social conservatism with political and economic right-libertarianism. The philosophy is most closely associated with Frank Meyer. The philosophy of "fusionism" was developed at National Review ... Read »


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    • Greater Middle East

    • Greater Middle East

      The Greater Middle East is a political term that denotes a set of contiguously connected countries. The region stretches from Morocco in the west all the way to the western edge of China in the east. Various countries in the South Caucasus and Central Asia are sometimes also included. According to Andrew Bacevich in hi ... Read »


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    • Green anarchism

    • Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within anarchism which puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues. A green anarchist theory is normally one that extends anarchist ideology beyond a critique of human interactions, and includes a critique of the interactions between humans and non-humans ... Read »


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    • Green liberalism

    • Green liberalism or liberal environmentalism is liberalism that includes green politics into its ideology. Green liberals are usually liberal on social issues and "green" on economic issues. Green liberalism values the Earth very highly, and this philosophy highly values the planet being passed down to the next ge ... Read »


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    • Green syndicalism

    • Green syndicalism or eco-syndicalism is a form of anarcho-syndicalism that focuses on the abolition of capitalism and the establishment of a democratic regime of workers' control as a means of effectively resolving issues surrounding climate change and the destruction of the natural environment, which advocates underst ... Read »


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    • Gyorin

    • Gyorin (lit. "neighborly relations") was a neo-Confucian term developed in Joseon Korea. The term was intended to identify and characterize a diplomatic policy which establishes and maintains amicable relations with neighboring states. It was construed and understood in tandem with a corollary term, which was the sadae ... Read »


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    • Heathian anarchism

    • Spencer Heath (born 1876, Vienna, Virginia – died 1963, Leesburg, Virginia) was an American engineer, attorney, inventor, manufacturer, horticulturist, poet, philosopher of science and social thinker. A dissenter from the prevailing Georgist views, he pioneered the theory of proprietary governance and community in ... Read »


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    • Hellenoturkism

    • Hellenoturkism is a political concept that encompasses two things: a) a fact of civilization i.e. the co-habitation and interdependence, since the 11th century A.D., of the Greek and Turkish peoples and cultures, and b) a political ideology based on the above civilizational phenomenon, which aims at establishing a Gree ... Read »


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    • Historical determinism

    • Historical determinism is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism) assert a histori ... Read »


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    • Homonoia

    • Homonoia (Greek: Ὁμόνοια) is the concept of order and unity, being of one mind together or union of hearts. It was used by the Greeks to create unity in the politics of classical Greece. It saw widespread use when Alexander the Great adopted its principles to govern his vast Empire. The conc ... Read »


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    • Idealism in international relations

    • Idealism in foreign policy holds that a state should make its internal political philosophy the goal of its foreign policy. For example, an idealist might believe that ending poverty at home should be coupled with tackling poverty abroad. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was an early advocate of idealism. Wilson's idealis ... Read »


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    • Immaterial labor

    • Immaterial labor is a term used to describe the affective and cognitive aspects of work that exist outside the traditional Marxian wage-based, labor theory of value, that the price of commodities is determined by the cost of the labor which produced them. Studies of immaterial labor have included analysis of high-tech ... Read »


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    • Imperialism

    • Imperialism is an action where a country (usually an empire or kingdom) extends its power by acquisition of territories. It may also include the exploitation of those territories which is similar to colonialism which is generally regarded as an expression of imperialism. It is different from New Imperialism as the ter ... Read »


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    • Inclusive Management

    • Inclusive management is a pattern of practices by public managers that facilitate the inclusion of public employees, experts, the public, and politicians in collaboratively addressing public problems or concerns of public interest. The management component of the compound idea of inclusive management signifies tha ... Read »


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    • Independence

    • Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory. Independence does not necessarily mean freedom. Whether the attain ... Read »


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    • Individualism

    • Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over ... Read »


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    • Individualist anarchism

    • Individualist anarchism refers to several traditions of thought within the anarchist movement that emphasize the individual and their will over external determinants such as groups, society, traditions, and ideological systems. Individualist anarchism is not a single philosophy but refers to a group of individualistic ... Read »


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    • Infrastructure for Peace

    • Infrastructure for Peace is a new approach in peacebuilding which gained momentum after locally led and participatory peacebuilding practices tended to yield effective results in some countries beset by conflicts. It underpins the ideas of conflict transformation and stresses on under-girding the politically negotiated ... Read »


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    • Integral nationalism

    • Integral nationalism (French: nationalisme intégral) is a type of nationalism originated in 19th century France and opposed to risorgimento nationalism. Whereas risorgimento nationalism applies to a nation seeking to establish a liberal state (for example the Risorgimento in Italy and similar movements in Greece, Ge ... Read »


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    • Inverted totalitarianism

    • Inverted totalitarianism is a term coined by political philosopher Sheldon Wolin in 2003 to describe the emerging form of government of the United States. Wolin believed that the United States is increasingly turning into an illiberal democracy, and uses the term "inverted totalitarianism" to illustrate similarities an ... Read »


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    • Investment theory of party competition

    • The Investment theory of party competition is a political theory developed by Thomas Ferguson, Emeritus Professor of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts Boston. The theory focuses on how business elites, not voters, play the leading part in political systems. The theory offers an alternative to the con ... Read »


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    • Irenicism

    • Irenicism in Christian theology refers to attempts to unify Christian apologetical systems by using reason as an essential attribute. The word is derived from the Greek word ειρήνη (eirene) meaning peace. It is a concept related to natural theology and opposed to polemicism (war-like argumentation) be ... Read »


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    • Islam Hadhari

    • Islam Hadhari (Arabic الإسلام الحضاري) or "Civilisational Islam" is a theory of government based on the principles of Islam as derived from the Qur'an. It was founded in Malaysia by its first prime minister Tunku Abdul Rahman in 1957 (but under a different name), and has been p ... Read »


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    • Jacksonian democracy

    • Jacksonian democracy was a 19th century political philosophy in the United States that espoused greater democracy for the common man, as that term was then defined. Originating with President Andrew Jackson and his supporters, it became the nation's dominant political worldview for a generation. This era, called the J ... Read »


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    • Jacobitism

    • Jacobitism

      Several headquarters: In 1745: Jacobitism (/ˈdʒækəbaɪˌtɪzm/ JAK-ə-beye-TIZ-əm;Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas [ˈʃeːməs̪əxəs̪], Irish: Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuar ... Read »


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    • Juche

    • Juche

      Juche (Chosŏn'gÅ­l: 주체; Hancha: 主體; MR: Chuch'e; Korean pronunciation: [tɕutɕʰe]), usually translated as "self-reliance", is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as Kim Il-sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to natio ... Read »


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    • Kahanism

    • Kahanism

      Kahanism is an extremist Jewish ideology based on the views of Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the Jewish Defense League and the Kach party in Israel. Kahane maintains that the majority of Arabs living in Israel are enemies of Jews and Israel itself, and that a Jewish theocratic state, where non-Jews have no voting right ... Read »


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    • Katarismo

    • Katarism (Spanish: Katarismo) is a political tendency in Bolivia, named after the 18th-century indigenous leader Túpac Katari. The katarista movement began to articulate itself publicly in the early 1970s, recovering a political identity of the Aymara people. The movement was centered on two key understandings, that ... Read »


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    • John Keane (political theorist)

    • John Keane is Professor of Politics at the University of Sydney and at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin In 1989 he founded the Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD) in London. He is the Director of the recently founded Sydney Democracy Network. Keane was born in southern Australia and educated at the Universities of ... Read »


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    • Laissez-faire

    • Laissez-faire (/ˌlɛseɪˈfɛr-/, French: [lɛsefɛʁ]) "live and let live" is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies. The phrase laissez-faire is part of a larger French phrase an ... Read »


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    • Land and liberty (slogan)

    • Land and Liberty (Spanish: "Tierra y Libertad", Russian: Zemlya i Volya) is an anarchist black slogan. It was originally used as a name of the Russian revolutionary organization Zemlya i Volya in 1878, then by the revolutionary leaders of the Mexican Revolution; the revolution was fought over land rights, and the leade ... Read »


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    • Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

    • Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

      Fǎ-Jiā (法家) or Legalism is one of the six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy that developed during the Warring States period. Grouping thinkers with an overriding concern for political reform, the Fa-Jia were crucial in laying the "intellectual and ideological foundations of the traditio ... Read »


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    • Legitimating ideology

    • A legitimating ideology, a term used by sociologists C. Wright Mills and others, refers generally to any ideology which is used to legitimate the actions or policies of states. The legitimating ideology employed may or may not have an apparent connection to the substance or form of the actions or policies being legiti ... Read »


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    • Lesser magistrate

    • The doctrine of the lesser magistrate is a concept in Protestant thought. A lesser magistrate is a ruler such as a prince who is under a greater ruler such as an emperor. According to many figures of the Reformation and Post-Reformation eras, the lesser magistrate has the authority to rebel against the tyranny of a sup ... Read »


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    • Liberal conservatism

    • Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on economic and social issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism. It is a political position which incorporates support for civil liberties and capitalism, along with some s ... Read »


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    • Liberal corporatism

    • Liberal corporatism refers to the application of economic corporatism by liberal political parties and organizations, that recognizes the bargaining interests of multiple groups within society, such as in the business, labour, and agricultural sectors and licenses them to engage in bargaining over economic policy with ... Read »


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    • Libertarian paternalism

    • Libertarian paternalism is the idea that it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice, as well as the implementation of that idea. The term was coined by behavioral economist Richard Thaler and legal scholar Cass Sunstein in a 2003 art ... Read »


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    • Liquidationism

    • Liquidationism is a term in Marxist theory which refers to the ideological liquidation of the revolutionary party program by party members. According to the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, liquidationism "consists ideologically in negation of the revolutionary class struggle of the socialist proletariat in genera ... Read »


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    • Localism (politics)

    • Localism describes a range of political philosophies which prioritize the local. Generally, localism supports local production and consumption of goods, local control of government, and promotion of local history, local culture and local identity. Localism can be contrasted with regionalism and centralized government, ... Read »


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    • Majoritarianism

    • Majoritarianism is a traditional political philosophy or agenda that asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class, or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. ... Read »


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    • Mandala (political model)

    • Maṇḍala is a Sanskrit word that means "circle". The mandala is a model for describing the patterns of diffuse political power distributed among Mueang or Kedatuan (principalities) in early Southeast Asian history, when local power was more important. The concept of a mandala counteracts modern tendencies to l ... Read »


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    • Maoism (Third Worldism)

    • Maoism (Third Worldism) (often stylized as Maoism-Third Worldism or simply MTW), not to be confused with Third Worldism generally, is a broad tendency which is mainly concerned with the infusion and synthesis of Marxism—particularly of the Marxist–Leninist–Maoist persuasion—with concepts of non-Marx ... Read »


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    • Marxist philosophy

    • Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists. Marxist philosophy may be broadly divided into Western Marxism, which drew out of various sources, and the official philosophy in the Soviet Union, which ... Read »


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    • Marxist schools of thought

    • Note: this is a discussion of Marxism-Leninism as a school of thought. For a discussion of its political practice, see subsection Marxism#Marxism as a political practice below. At least in terms of adherents and the impact on the world stage, Marxism–Leninism, also known colloquially as Bolshevism or simply c ... Read »


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    • Maternalism

    • Maternalism is the theoretical viewpoint that incorporates a common idea of femininity and applies it as a support for women’s involvement in society. Maternalism emerged in the late 19th Century, as a companion to progressive reform. The theology followed the idea that women had in-born qualities based on th ... Read »


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    • Mediacracy

    • Mediacracy is a situation in government where the mass media effectively has control over the voting public. Mediacracy is closely related to a theory on the role of media in the United States political system, that argues that media and news outlets have a large level of influence over voting citizens' evaluations of ... Read »


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    • Militarism

    • Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests; examples of militarist states include North Korea, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, as well as most Imperial st ... Read »


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    • Minarchism

    • Minarchism is a libertarian political philosophy which advocates for the State to exist solely to protect citizens from aggression, theft, breach of contract, and fraud. Minarchists generally propose that the only legitimate governmental institutions are the military, police, and courts. However, some advocates propose ... Read »


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    • Minoritarianism

    • Minoritarianism is a neologism for a political structure or process in which a minority segment of a population has a certain degree of primacy in that entity's decision making. Minoritarianism may be contrasted with a Majoritarianism, but with legislative power being held or controlled by a minority group rather than ... Read »


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    • Mobutism

    • Mobutism, also called Mobutuism, was an official party ideology of the Popular Movement of the Revolution (Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution, MPR) as well as the official state ideology in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) during the latter half of the 20th century. Mobutism encompassed and glorified ... Read »


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    • The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels

    • The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels

      The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels is a 2014 book by American energy theorist Alex Epstein, in which Epstein argues that, although sometimes labeled as "immoral," the use of fossil fuels dramatically improves the overall progress of humanity, and improves life expectancy and income. The book was a New York Times and Wall ... Read »


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    • Multi-level governance

    • Multi-level (or multilevel) governance is an approach in political science and public administration theory that originated from studies on European integration. Political scientists Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks developed the concept of multi-level governance in the early 1990s and have continuously been contributing ... Read »


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    • National liberalism

    • National liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining nationalism with some liberal policies, especially regarding education, state-church relations and modern, efficient, bureaucratic management. The roots of national liberalism are to be found in the 19th century, when conservative liberalism was the ideology ... Read »


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    • National Socialist Program

    • The National Socialist Programme (a.k.a. the 25-point Programme or the 25-point Plan) was the party program of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). Originally the name of the party was the German Workers' Party (DAP) but on the same day of the announced party program it was renamed the NSDAP, Nationals ... Read »


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    • Nationalism

    • Nationalism is a complex, multidimensional concept involving a shared communal identification with one's nation. It is a political ideology oriented towards gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over a territory of historical significance to the group (such as its homeland). Nationalism therefor ... Read »


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    • Ethnic nationalism

    • Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the "nation" is defined in terms of ethnicity. The central theme of ethnic nationalists is that "nations are defined by a shared heritage, which usually includes a common language, a common faith, and a common ethnic ancestry". It al ... Read »


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    • Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali

    • Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali is a 1980 book written by anthropologist Clifford Geertz. Geertz argues that the pre-colonial Balinese state was not a "hydraulic bureaucracy" nor an oriental despotism, but rather, an organized spectacle. The noble rulers of the island were less interested in admini ... Read »


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    • Negative income tax

    • In economics, a negative income tax (NIT) is a progressive income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive supplemental pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the government. Such a system has been discussed by economists but never fully implemented. It was described by British politi ... Read »


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    • Neo-Bonapartism

    • Neo-Bonapartism or neo-Bounapartism refers to political movements focusing around a strong leader, who is often a hero to the people, and upholds - or at least seems to uphold - the ideals of the people. With Bonapartism specifically referring to the case of Napoleon I of France, the term neo-Bonapartism first came to ... Read »


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    • Neo-fascism

    • Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism. Neo-fascism usually includes ultranationalism, populism, anti-immigration policies or, where relevant, nativism, anti-communism, anti-socialism, anti-Marxism, anti-anarchism and opposition to the parliamentary system and lib ... Read »


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    • Neo-feudalism

    • Neo-feudalism or new feudalism refers to a theorized contemporary rebirth of policies of governance, economy, and public life reminiscent of those present in many feudal societies, such as unequal rights and legal protections for common people and for nobility. The concept of "neofeudalism" may focus on economics. Amo ... Read »


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    • Neo-Luddism

    • Neo-Luddism or New Luddism is a philosophy opposing or skeptical to many forms of modern technology. The word Luddite is generally used as a derogatory term applied to people showing technophobic leanings. The name is based on the historical legacy of the British Luddites, who were active between 1811 and 1816. Neo-Lu ... Read »


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    • Neo-medievalism

    • Neo-medievalism (or neomedievalism) is a neologism that was first popularized by the Italian medievalist Umberto Eco in his 1986 essay "Dreaming of the Middle Ages". Prior to this the term was used in Isaiah Berlin's "The Hedgehog and the Fox" to refer to a nostalgic romanticism for the simplicity and order of the med ... Read »


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    • Neo-Nazism

    • Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive the far-right-wing tenets of Nazism. The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology of these movements. Neo-Nazism borrows elements from Nazi doctrine, including ultranationalism, racism, ableism, xenophobia, homophobia, antiz ... Read »


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    • Neo-prohibitionism

    • Neo-prohibitionism (also spelled neoprohibitionism and neo-Prohibitionism) is the belief that the influence of alcohol in society should be reduced through legislation and policies which further restrict the sale, possession, and marketing of alcohol in order to reduce average per capita consumption and change social n ... Read »


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    • Neo-Sovietism

    • Neo-Sovietism is a broad term of reference relating both to existing policy decisions in the former Soviet Union and to a small political movement dedicated to reviving the Soviet Union in the modern world or to reviving specific aspects of Soviet life. Some commentators have said that current Russian President Vladimi ... Read »


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    • Neoliberalism

    • Neoliberalism (neo-liberalism) refers primarily to the 20th century resurgence of 19th century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism. These include extensive economic liberalization policies such as privatization, fiscal austerity, deregulation, free trade, and reductions in government spending in ord ... Read »


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    • Neomercantilism

    • Neomercantilism is an economically nationalist trade policy regime based on classical mercantilism. It is predicated on the notion that what naturally evolves, and survives the test of time, is inherently robust and practically beneficial: what has worked, will work. It is observed that mercantile policies have been em ... Read »


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    • Neopatrimonialism

    • Neopatrimonialism is a system of social hierarchy where patrons use state resources in order to secure the loyalty of clients in the general population. It is an informal patron–client relationship that can reach from very high up in state structures down to individuals in small villages. Neopatrimonialism may un ... Read »


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    • New Democracy

    • New Democracy or the New Democratic Revolution is a concept based on Mao Zedong's "Bloc of Four Social Classes" theory in post-revolutionary China which argued originally that democracy in China would take a decisively distinct path, much different from that of the liberal capitalist and parliamentary democratic system ... Read »


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    • New Nationalism

    • New Nationalism may refer to: ... Read »


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    • Non-interventionism

    • Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense. An original, more formal definition is that non-interventionism is a policy characterized by the abs ... Read »


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    • Non-Zionism

    • Non-Zionism is the political stance of Jews who "were [or are] willing to help support depoliticized Jewish settlement in Palestine (...) but will not come on aliyah." The trend began in the United States of America in the first few decades of the 20th century when "an increasingly large section of Americanized Jewish ... Read »


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    • Objectivism (Ayn Rand)

    • Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982). Rand first expressed Objectivism in her fiction, most notably The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957), and later in non-fiction essays and books.Leonard Peikoff, a professional philosopher and Rand's designat ... Read »


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    • Objectivism and libertarianism

    • Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism has been and continues to be a major influence on the libertarian movement, particularly in the United States. Many libertarians justify their political views using aspects of Objectivism. However, the views of Rand and her philosophy among prominent libertarians are mixed and many ... Read »


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    • Objectivist movement

    • The Objectivist movement seeks to study and advance the philosophy of Objectivism. It was founded by novelist, screenwriter, and philosopher Ayn Rand. The movement began informally in the 1950s and consisted of students who were brought together by their mutual interest in Rand's novel, The Fountainhead. The group, iro ... Read »


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    • Omnilateralism

    • Omnilateralism (from in Latin "for all and by all") is used as a term in international relations in order to distinguish movements towards comprehensive global governance from the current multilateral institutions that have evolved since the Congress of Vienna. Historically, the Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant ... Read »


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    • Orangism (Belgium)

    • Orangism was a political current in what is now Belgium that supported its inclusion in the short-lived United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1830). After the secession of Belgium in 1830, Orangist sentiment in Flanders and Wallonia for a time sought a restoration of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was ... Read »


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    • Orangism (Dutch Republic)

    • In the history of the Dutch Republic, Orangism or prinsgezindheid ("pro-prince stance") was a political force opposing the Staatsgezinde (pro-Republic) party. Orangists supported the princes of Oranges as Stadtholders (a position held by members of the House of Orange) and military commanders of the Republic, as a chec ... Read »


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    • Organic theory of the state

    • Geopolitik is the branch of uniquely German geostrategy. It developed as a distinct strain of thought after Otto von Bismarck's unification of the German states but began its development in earnest only under Emperor Wilhelm II. Central concepts concerning the German race regarding economic space demonstrate continuity ... Read »


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    • Pacificism

    • Pacificism is the general ethical opposition to violence or war, except in cases where force is deemed absolutely necessary to advance the cause of peace. It falls between pacifism, which usually states that killing, violence or war is unconditionally wrong in all cases, and defensivism, which accepts all defensive wa ... Read »


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    • Pacifism

    • Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa (to do no harm), which is a core philosophy in Budd ... Read »


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    • Paleoconservatism

    • Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleocon) is a conservative political philosophy found primarily in the United States stressing tradition, limited government and civil society, along with religious, regional, national and Western identity. According to international relations scholar Michael Foley, paleocon ... Read »


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    • Paleolibertarianism

    • Paleolibertarianism is a variety of libertarianism developed by anarcho-capitalist theorists Murray Rothbard and Llewellyn Rockwell that combines conservative cultural values and social philosophy with a libertarian opposition to government intervention. According to Lew Rockwell, the paleolibertarian movement hea ... Read »


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    • Palingenetic ultranationalism

    • Palingenetic ultranationalism is a theory concerning generic fascism formulated by British political theorist Roger Griffin. The key elements are that fascism can be defined by its core myth, namely that of revolution to achieve a "national rebirth" — palingenesis. Griffin argues that the unique synthesis of palin ... Read »


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    • Pan-Slavism

    • Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic peoples. Its main impact occurred in the Balkans, where non-Slavic empires—the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Venice—ha ... Read »


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    • Parity of esteem

    • Parity of esteem is a concept which can be applied in a variety of contexts. Parity of esteem can be used to establish a theory to overcome inter-communal conflict. Promoters of the theory argue that "parity of esteem" "offers a language for negotiation of a post-conflict equilibrium." This negotiation begins with the ... Read »


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    • Participatory politics

    • Participatory politics or parpolity is a theoretical political system proposed by Stephen R. Shalom, professor of political science at William Paterson University in New Jersey. It was developed as a political vision to accompany participatory economics (Parecon). Both Parecon and Parpolity together make up the libert ... Read »


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    • Paternalism

    • Paternalism is behavior by an organization or state that limits some person or group's liberty or autonomy for what is presumed to be that person's or group's own good. Paternalism can also imply that the behavior is against or regardless of the will of a person, or also that the behavior expresses an attitude of super ... Read »


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    • Peripheral nationalism

    • Peripheral nationalism refers to the nationalist sentiments of some regions or territorial entities within a sovereign state, in occasions in conflict with the larger concept of the nation-state in which they reside, and trying to construct a minority social space. Peripheral nationalism is so called because the region ... Read »


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    • Peronism

    • Peronism (Spanish: Peronismo), or Justicialism (Justicialismo), is an Argentine political movement based on the political legacy of former President Juan Domingo Perón and his second wife, Eva Perón. The Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista) derives its name from the concept of social justice (Spanish: justi ... Read »


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    • Person Dignity Theory

    • The Person Dignity Theory (Vietnamese: Thuyết Nhân vị) was a Vietnamese political doctrine and ideology coined by Ngô Đình Nhu in 1954, based on Emmanuel Mounier's works. It was also the official ideology of the Can Lao Party, a former political party. The Can Lao Party's leader Ngô Đà ... Read »


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    • Platformism

    • Platformism is a tendency (or organized school of thought) within the anarchist movement. It stresses the need for tightly organized anarchist organizations that are able to influence working class and peasant movements. "Platformist" groups reject the model of Leninist vanguardism. They aim, instead, to "make anarchi ... Read »


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    • Pluralism (political philosophy)

    • Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles. Political pluralists are not inherently socialists (who put equality as their guiding principle), liberals (who place ... Read »


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    • Pochvennichestvo

    • Pochvennichestvo (Russian: Почвенничество; IPA: [ˈpot͡ɕvʲɪnnʲɪt͡ɕɪstvə], roughly "return to the soil", from "soil") was a late 19th-century Russian movement tied in closely with its contemporary ideology, the Slavophile movement. Both were f ... Read »


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    • Orangism (Luxembourg)

    • Orangism was a movement in the 19th century Grand Duchy of Luxembourg favouring the personal union of the Netherlands and Luxembourg under the House of Orange-Nassau. Made up of many notable figures, mainly nobles and Roman Catholic clergy, they were moderate liberals or conservative-liberals and slightly anti-clerical ... Read »


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    • Political decay

    • Political decay is a political theory, originally described by Samuel P. Huntington, which describes how chaos and disorder can arise from social modernization increasing more rapidly than political and institutional modernization. Huntington provides different definitions for political development and describes the fo ... Read »


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    • Political ponerology

    • The political ponerology is an interdisciplinary study of social issues primarily associated with Polish psychiatrist Andrzej Łobaczewski. As a discipline it makes use of data from psychology, sociology, philosophy, and history to account for such phenomena as aggressive war, ethnic cleansing, genocide, and despotis ... Read »


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    • Political positivism

    • Political positivism is a theory founded by Ljubisa Bojic (Serbian: LjubiÅ¡a Bojić). It includes intensive use of media to promote unity, participation, and positivism in thinking of common men and women. Gradual change of individuals results in a big alteration for the community as a whole. Psychology is the ... Read »


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    • Political radicalism

    • The term political radicalism (or simply, in political science, radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary means and changing value systems in fundamental ways. Derived from the Latin radix (root), the denotation of radical has changed since its eighteenth-centu ... Read »


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    • Elite pact

    • An elite pact, settlement or political settlement is an agreement or understanding between political elites which moderates the violence and winner takes all nature of unrestrained conflict. Such settlements are often understood to transform government from an autocratic mode into more pluralistic, democratic form. How ... Read »


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    • Polycentrism

    • Polycentrism is the principle of organization of a region around several political, social or financial centres. Examples of polycentric cities include the Ruhr area in Germany, Stoke-on-Trent in the UK and the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States. These "cities" have no single centre, but several. Other example ... Read »


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    • Populism

    • Populism is a political style of action that mobilizes a large alienated element of population against a government seen as controlled by an out-of-touch closed elite that acts on behalf of its own interests. The underlying ideology of Populists can be left, right, or middle. Its goal is to unite the uncorrupt and the ... Read »


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    • Post-behavioralism

    • Post-behavioralism (or post-behaviouralism) also known as neo-behavioralism (or neo-behaviouralism) was a reaction against the dominance of behavioralist methods in the study of politics. One of the key figures in post-behaviouralist thinking was David Easton who was originally one of the leading advocates of the "beha ... Read »


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    • Post-Zionism

    • Post-Zionism refers to the opinions of some Israelis, diaspora Jews and others, particularly in academia, that Zionism has fulfilled its ideological mission with the creation of the modern State of Israel in 1948, and that Zionist ideology should therefore be considered at an end. The term is also used by right-wing Je ... Read »


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    • Praetorianism

    • Praetorianism means excessive or abusive political influence of the Armed Forces in a country. Daniel R. Headrick, professor of History and Social Sciences at Roosevelt University, describes praetorianism as a type of militarism oriented to the interior life of a nation, often related to minor countries, that does not ... Read »


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    • Prioritarianism

    • Prioritarianism or the priority view is a view within ethics and political philosophy that holds that the goodness of an outcome is a function of overall well-being across all individuals with extra weight given to worse-off individuals. Prioritarianism thus resembles utilitarianism. Indeed, like utilitarianism, priori ... Read »


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    • Productive forces

    • "Productive forces", "productive powers", or "forces of production" (in German, Produktivkräfte), is a central idea in Marxism and historical materialism. In Karl Marx and Frederick Engels's own critique of political economy, it refers to the combination of the means of labor (tools, machinery, land, infrastructure ... Read »


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    • Prohibitionism

    • Prohibitionism is a legal philosophy and political theory often used in lobbying which holds that citizens will abstain from actions if the actions are typed as unlawful (i.e. prohibited) and the prohibitions are enforced by law enforcement. This philosophy has been the basis for many acts of statutory law throughout h ... Read »


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    • Proletarian internationalism

    • Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is a socialist form of internationalism, based on the view that capitalism is a global system, and therefore the working class must act as a global class if it is to defeat it in class conflict. Workers thus should struggle in solidarity wi ... Read »


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    • Propaganda model

    • The propaganda model is a conceptual model in political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky to explain how propaganda and systemic biases function in mass media. The model seeks to explain how populations are manipulated and how consent for economic, social and political policies is "manufactured" in ... Read »


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    • Propertarianism

    • Propertarianism is an ethical discipline within libertarian philosophy that advocates contractual relationships as replacements for monopolistic bureaucracies organized as states. Propertarian ideals are most commonly cited to advocate for a state or other governance body whose main or only job is to enforce contracts ... Read »


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    • Proto-Zionism

    • Proto-Zionism (or Forerunner of Zionism; Hebrew: מְבַשְרֵי הציונות‎, pronounced: Mevasrei ha-Tzionut) is a term attributed to the ideas of a group of men deeply affected by the idea of modern nationalism spread in Europe in the 19th century as they sought to establis ... Read »


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    • Public Force

    • A Public Force is a force which has a legitimate and legalised use of physical force in order to serve the public interests. The term is broad and loosely defined. Public force could be used to refer to either police or military forces. The first use of the concept of a public force, in French Force Publique, is in t ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Political theories

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