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    Political science

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    • Political science awards

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    • Economics theorems

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    • Political science education

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    • Elite theory

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    • Political communication

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    • Political culture

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    • Politology

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    • Project Camelot

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    • Public policy

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    • Survey methodology

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    • Political science terminology

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    • Political science

    • Political science is a social science which deals with systems of government, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts and political behaviour. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics which is commonly thought of as determining of the distribution of power and resources. Politi ... Read »


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    • History of political science

    • Political science as a separate field is a rather late arrival in terms of social sciences. However, the term "political science" was not always distinguished from political philosophy, and the modern discipline has a clear set of antecedents including also moral philosophy, political economy, political theology, histo ... Read »


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    • Moderation theory

    • Moderation theory is a set of interrelated hypotheses that explain the process through which political groups eschew radical platforms in favor of more moderate policies and prefer electoral, compromising and non-confrontational strategies over non-electoral, exclusive, and confrontational strategies. Moderation can ta ... Read »


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    • Politics of memory

    • Politics of memory is a concept used to describe the organisation of collective memory by political agents. The terminology addresses the political means by which events are remembered and recorded, or discarded. Eventually, politics of memory may determine the way history is written and passed on. Memories are also in ... Read »


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    • Academic studies of the political groups of the European Parliament

    • Academic studies of the political groups of the European Parliament refers to the studies of those groups by academics, the methods that they use and the conclusions that they reach. The political groups of the European Parliament have been around in one form or another since September 1952 and the first meeting o ... Read »


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    • Almond–Lippmann consensus


    • American political development

    • American political development (often abbreviated as APD) is a subfield of political science that studies the historical development of politics in the United States. In American political science departments, it is considered a subfield within American politics and is closely linked to historical institutionalism. Sc ... Read »


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    • Benevolence and the Mandate of Heaven: Transformation of pre-Qin Confucian Classics

    • Benevolence and the Mandate of Heaven: Transformation of pre-Qin Confucian Classics

      Benevolence and the Mandate of Heaven: Transformation of pre-Qin Confucian Classics is a book by a Taiwanese historian Olga Gorodetskaya (Kuo Ching-yun), published in 2010 in Taipei. The book concerns itself with the Confucian philosophical concepts of Benevolence (Ren) and the Mandate of Heaven and their evolution dur ... Read »


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    • Biology and political orientation

    • A number of studies have found that biology may be linked with political orientation. This means that biology is a possible factor in political orientation, but may also mean that the ideology a person identifies with changes a person's ability to perform certain tasks. Recent research points at substantial differ ... Read »


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    • Biology and political science

    • The interdisciplinary study of biology and political science is the application of theories and methods from the biology toward the scientific understanding of political behavior. The field is sometimes called biopolitics, a term that will be used in this article as a synonym although it has other, less related meaning ... Read »


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    • Biopower

    • Biopower (or biopouvoir in French) is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault. It relates to the practice of modern nation states and their regulation of their subjects through "an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the contr ... Read »


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    • The Birth of Biopolitics

    • The Birth of Biopolitics is a part of a lecture series by French philosopher Michel Foucault at the Collège de France between 1978 and 1979 and published posthumously based on audio recordings. In it, Foucault develops further the notion of biopolitics introduced in a previous lecture series, Security, Territory, Po ... Read »


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    • Bureau-shaping model

    • Bureau-shaping is a rational choice model of bureaucracy and a response to the budget-maximization model. It argues that rational officials will not want to maximize their budgets, but instead to shape their agency so as to maximize their personal utilities from their work. For instance, bureaucrats would prefer to wor ... Read »


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    • Bureaucracy

    • A bureaucracy (/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/) is "a body of non-elective government officials" and/or "an administrative policy-making group". Historically, bureaucracy was government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any lar ... Read »


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    • Bureaucratic drift

    • Bureaucratic drift in American political science is a theory that seeks to explain the tendency for bureaucratic agencies to create policy that deviates from the original mandate. The difference between a bureaucracy's enactment of a law and the legislature's intent is called bureaucratic drift. Legislation is produced ... Read »


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    • Bureaucratic inertia

    • Bureaucratic inertia is the inevitable tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate the established procedures and modes, even if they are counterproductive and/or diametrically opposed to established organizational goals. This unchecked growth may continue independently of the organization's success or failure ... Read »


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    • Circulation of elite

    • The circulation of elite is a theory of regime change described by Italian social scientist Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923). Changes of regime, revolutions, and so on occur not when rulers are overthrown from below, but when one elite replaces another. The role of ordinary people in such transformation is not that of ... Read »


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    • CIRI Human Rights Data Project

    • From 2004-2014, the Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project annually rated the level of government respect for a variety of internationally recognized human rights. The final CIRI data set contains quantitative indicators of 15 human rights for 195 countries, annually from 1981-2011. The CIRI data were us ... Read »


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    • Class conflict

    • Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is cent ... Read »


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    • Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1992


    • Contemporary society

    • Contemporary society, according to social and political scientists, is characterised by at least three fundamental directions: These presentations are the result of a number of fundamental changes that are irreversibly transforming our daily lives, our way of thinking and perceiving the world and our way of living tog ... Read »


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    • Colin Crouch

    • Colin Crouch, FBA (born 1944 in Isleworth) is an English sociologist and political scientist. He coined the post-democracy concept in 2000 in his book Coping with Post-Democracy. Colin Crouch is currently Emeritus Professor at the University of Warwick. Crouch's academic career started as a lecturer in sociology a ... Read »


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    • Cultural imperialism

    • Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism. Imperialism here refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilizations, favoring the more powerful civilization. Thus, cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting and imposing a culture, usually that of a political ... Read »


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    • Deliberatorium

    • A deliberatorium or collaboratorium is a form of online collaborative argument mapping. It was first deployed as the MIT Collaboratorium, and directed at the question of climate change. ... Read »


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    • Development Communication and Policy Sciences

    • The notion of "policy sciences" may have different connotations. According to Harold Laswell (1971), “policy sciences are concerned with the knowledge of and in the decision processes of the public and civic order.” Knowledge of decision processes points to the empirical and scientific understanding of the ho ... Read »


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    • Digital era governance

    • The first idea of a digital administrative law was born in Italy in 1978 by Giovanni Duni and was developed in 1991 with the name teleadministration (look). In the public administration debate about New Public Management (NPM), the concept of digital era governance (or DEG) is claimed by Patrick Dunleavy, Helen Margett ... Read »


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    • Dual loyalty

    • In politics, dual loyalty is loyalty to two separate interests that potentially conflict with each other. While nearly all examples of alleged "dual loyalty" are considered highly controversial, these examples point to the inherent difficulty in distinguishing between what constitutes a "danger" of dual loyalty â ... Read »


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    • Effective number of parties

    • The effective number of parties is a concept introduced by Laakso and Taagepera (1979) which provides for an adjusted number of political parties in a country's party system. The idea behind this measure is to count parties and, at the same time, to weight the count by their relative strength. The relative strength ref ... Read »


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    • Elite theory

    • In political science and sociology, elite theory is a theory of the state which seeks to describe and explain the power relationships in contemporary society. The theory posits that a small minority, consisting of members of the economic elite and policy-planning networks, holds the most power and that this power is in ... Read »


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    • Elitism

    • Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite—a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality or worth, high intellect, wealth, specialized training or experience, or other distinctive attributes—are those whose influence or authority is greater than that of others; ... Read »


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    • Environmental politics

    • Environmental politics is an academic field of study focused on three core components: Neil Carter, in his foundational text Politics of the Environment (2009), suggests that environmental politics is distinct in at least two ways: first, "it has a primary concern with the relationship between human society and the na ... Read »


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    • Essex School of discourse analysis

    • The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focus ... Read »


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    • Ethnosymbolism

    • Ethnosymbolism is a school of thought in the study of nationalism that stresses the importance of symbols, myths, values and traditions in the formation and persistence of the modern nation state. It emerges as the critical theory of modernism, which argues the antiquity and la longue durée of nation while modernis ... Read »


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    • Extended order

    • Extended order is an economics and sociology concept introduced by Friedrich Hayek in his book The Fatal Conceit. It is a description of what happens when a system embraces specialization and trade and "constitutes an information gathering process, able to call up, and put to use, widely dispersed information that no c ... Read »


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    • Feminist political theory

    • Feminist political theory is a diverse subfield of feminist theory working towards three main goals: Feminist political theory encompasses a broad scope of approaches. It overlaps with related areas including feminist jurisprudence/feminist legal theory; feminist political philosophy; female-centered empirical researc ... Read »


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    • Forever war

    • The forever war is a political science concept, of an endless war carried on for military and/or political reasons. The War on Terror is often cited as being a forever war, with an unclear or unreachable objective. ... Read »


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    • Foucault's lectures at the Collège de France


    • Foundation for Effective Politics

    • Foundation for Effective Politics (FEP) (Russian: Фонд Эффективной Политики, FEP) is a Moscow-based organization involved in significant parts of Russian public politics by creating numerous printed and online politics-related media. Some consider it ... Read »


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    • Gateway belief model

    • The gateway belief model (GBM) is a theory in the communication sciences and psychology, most commonly applied in the area of science communication. The model suggests that public perception of the degree of normative (expert) agreement – or (scientific) consensus – on societal issues, such as climate change, ... Read »


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    • Genopolitics

    • Genopolitics is the study of the genetic basis of political behavior and attitudes. It combines behavior genetics, psychology, and political science and it is closely related to the emerging fields of neuropolitics (the study of the neural basis of political behavior and attitudes) and political physiology (the study o ... Read »


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    • Gladstone Professor of Government

    • The Gladstone Professorship of Government is located at All Souls College at the University of Oxford. It was instituted in memory of William Ewart Gladstone. The professorship has never been held by a woman. Its past holders have been: ... Read »


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    • Global Environment and Trade Study

    • The Global Environment & Trade Study (GETS) was a non-profit research institute established in 1994 to study the complex linkages between international trade and environmental sustainability. GETS supported numerous research projects on the legal, economic, and ecological aspects of trade and environment. GETS was cen ... Read »


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    • India Quarterly

    • India Quarterly is a peer reviewed journal. This is forum for discussion on matters concerning international relations and national foreign policies. It is published quarterly by SAGE Publications in association with Indian Council of World Affairs. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE ... Read »


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    • Inherent bad faith model

    • The inherent bad faith model of information processing is a theory in political psychology that was first put forth by Ole Holsti to explain the relationship between John Foster Dulles’ beliefs and his model of information processing. It is the most widely studied model of one's opponent. A state is presumed to b ... Read »


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    • Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict

    • The Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict (IFHV) at Ruhr University Bochum (Germany) is one of the leading research institutes on humanitarian law and humanitarian studies in Europe. It was founded in 1988 on the initiative of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Knut Ipsen, then rector of Ruhr University Bo ... Read »


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    • Institutional analysis

    • Institutional analysis is that part of the social sciences which studies how institutions—i.e., structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals—behave and function according to both empirical rules (informal rules-in-use and norms) and also theoretic ... Read »


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    • Institutional analysis and development framework

    • The Institutional Analysis and Development framework (IAD) is a systematic method to collect policy analysis functions similar to analytic technique commonly used in physical and social sciences and understand the ways an institution can operate and change over a period of time. It was developed by Elinor Ostrom, an Am ... Read »


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    • International Centre for Black Sea Studies

    • International Centre for Black Sea Studies

      The International Centre for Black Sea Studies (Greek: Διεθνές Κέντρο Μελετών Ευξείνου Πόντου, English Acronym: ICBSS, Greek Acronym: ΔΙΚΕΜΕΠ) is a think-tank based in Athens, Greece, committed to ... Read »


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    • International institutes on political management

    • This is a list of various international institutes teaching full-time, part-time and short-term programs in political management. Political science, political economics, political history may be used by various institutions to represent similar topics. ... Read »


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    • International studies

    • International Studies (IS) generally refers to the specific university degrees and courses which are concerned with the study of ‘the major political, economic, social, and cultural issues that dominate the international agenda’. The term itself can be more specifically defined as ‘the contemporary and h ... Read »


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    • Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Values Orientation Theory


    • Robert T. Lackey

    • Robert T. Lackey

      Robert T. Lackey (born 1944) is a Canadian born fisheries scientist and political scientist living in the United States. He is best known for his work involving the interplay between science and policy, natural resource management, and assessments of the future of salmon runs. Lackey is a professor of fisheries and wil ... Read »


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    • John Joseph Lalor

    • John Joseph Lalor (1840/1841 to 9 June 1899) political scientist. Translator of work by Ludwig Nohl and Wilhelm Roscher and best known for Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States (1895). In 1885, Lalor taught at East Side High School, Milwaukee. Lalor w ... Read »


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    • Latin American Public Opinion Project

    • Latin American Public Opinion Project

      The Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) is a large, cross-national regional research project specializing in the development, implementation, and analysis of public opinion surveys. Founded by Dr. Mitchell A. Seligson over two decades ago, its principal focus is on governance and democracy in Latin America. T ... Read »


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    • Leadership spill

    • In Australian politics, a leadership spill (or simply spill) is a declaration that the leadership of a parliamentary party is vacant, and open for re-election. A spill may involve all leadership positions (leader and deputy leader in both houses), or just the leader. Where a rival to the existing leader calls for a spi ... Read »


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    • Legal opportunity structure

    • Legal opportunity structure or legal opportunity is a concept found in the study of law and social movements. It was first used in order to distinguish it from political opportunity structure or political opportunity, on the basis that law and the courts deserved to be studied in their own right rather than being lumpe ... Read »


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    • Legitimation crisis

    • Legitimation crisis refers to a decline in the confidence of administrative functions, institutions, or leadership. The term was first introduced in 1973 by Jürgen Habermas, a German sociologist and philosopher. Habermas expanded upon the concept, claiming that with a legitimation crisis, an institution or organizat ... Read »


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    • Level of analysis

    • The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term "unit of observation" in that the former refers to a more or less integrated set of relationships while the latter refers to the distinct unit from whi ... Read »


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    • Mierscheid law

    • The Mierscheid law is a satirical forecasthypothesis, published in the German magazine Vorwärts on 14 July 1983 and attributed to the fictitious politician Jakob Maria Mierscheid. It forecasts the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)'s share of the popular vote based on the size of crude steel production in West ... Read »


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    • Minimal effects hypothesis

    • In political science, the minimal effects hypothesis states that political campaigns only marginally persuade and convert voters. The hypothesis was formulated during early research into voting behavior between the 1940s and the 1960s, and this period formed the initial "minimum effects" era in the United States. The h ... Read »


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    • Moral high ground

    • The moral high ground, in ethical or political parlance, refers to the status of being respected for remaining moral, and adhering to and upholding a universally recognized standard of justice or goodness. Holding the moral high ground can be used to legitimize political movements, notably nonviolent resistance, e ... Read »


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    • Chantal Mouffe

    • Chantal Mouffe

      Chantal Mouffe (French: [muf]; born 17 June 1943) is a Belgian political theorist. Chantal Mouffe studied at the Universities of Louvain, Paris and Essex and has worked in many universities throughout the world (in Europe, North America and Latin America). She has also held visiting positions at Harvard, Cornel ... Read »


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    • Multistakeholder governance model

    • The multistakeholder governance model, sometimes known as a multistakeholder initiative (MSI), is a governance structure that seeks to bring stakeholders together to participate in the dialogue, decision making, and implementation of solutions to common problems or goals. According to Lawrence E. Strickling, U.S. A ... Read »


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    • Neuropolitics

    • Neuropolitics investigates the interplay between the brain and politics. It combines work from a variety of scientific fields including neuroscience, political science, psychology, behavioral genetics, primatology, and ethology. Often, neuropolitics research borrow methods from cognitive neuroscience to investigate cla ... Read »


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    • NOMINATE (scaling method)

    • NOMINATE

      NOMINATE (an acronym for Nominal Three-Step Estimation) is a multidimensional scaling application developed by political scientists Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal in the early 1980s to analyze preferential and choice data, such as legislative roll-call voting behavior. As computing capabilities grew, Poole and Ros ... Read »


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    • Aletta Norval

    • Aletta Norval is a South African born political theorist. A prominent member of the Essex School of discourse analysis, she is mainly known for her deconstructionist analysis of Apartheid discourse, for her methodological contributions to discourse analysis and for her work on democratic and poststructuralist political ... Read »


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    • Notional election results

    • Notional election results are calculations made, usually following boundary changes of electoral districts brought about by population shifts, to determine what election results would have been in previous elections had the newly created boundaries then been in place. Such calculations are used by psephologists and med ... Read »


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    • Nurturant parent model

    • The nurturant parent model is a parenting style which envisions a family model where children are expected to explore their surroundings, while being protected by their parents. This model believes that children inherently know what they need and should be allowed to explore their environment. The parents are responsi ... Read »


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    • Open government

    • Open government is the governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight. In its broadest construction it opposes reason of state and other considerations, which have tended to legitimize extensive state secrecy. ... Read »


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    • Open Philanthropy

    • Open Philanthropy is the doctrine which holds that the programming, operations, governance, effectiveness, and efficiency of nonprofit organizations should be open and visible by the public, donors, and especially, stakeholders in those nonprofits. Among recent developments is the theory of open source governance whic ... Read »


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    • The Oprah Effect

    • The Oprah Effect is the phenomenon in which consuming soft news causes the politically unaware to vote more consistently with their own views, articulated by Matthew A. Baum and Angela S. Jamison in their 2006 study, "The Oprah Effect: How Soft News Helps Inattentive Citizens Vote Consistently". The findings and conclu ... Read »


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    • The Origins of Political Order

    • The Origins of Political Order is a 2011 book by political economist Francis Fukuyama about what makes a state stable. It uses a comparative political history to develop a theory of the stability of a political system. According to Fukuyama, a stable state needs to be modern and strong, to obey the rule of law governin ... Read »


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    • Peace–industrial complex


    • Perestroika Movement (political science)

    • The Perestroika Movement is a loose-knit intellectual tendency in academic political science which seeks to expand methodological pluralism in order to make the discipline more accessible and relevant to laypeople and non-specialist academics. Established in 2000, the movement was organized in response to the perceived ... Read »


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    • Polarization (politics)

    • In the world of politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes. Polarization can refer to such divergence like public opinion or even to such divergence within certain groups. Almost all discussions of polarization in political science consider polari ... Read »


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    • Policy analysis

    • Policy analysis is a technique used in public administration to enable civil servants to examine and evaluate the available options to implement the goals of elected officials. It has been defined as the process of "determining which of various policies will achieve a given set of goals in light of the relations betwee ... Read »


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    • Policy entrepreneur

    • Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who exploit opportunities to influence policy outcomes to increase their self-interests – without having the necessary resources required for achieving this goal alone. They are not satisfied with merely promoting their self-interests within institutions that others have establ ... Read »


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    • Policy Monitoring

    • Policy monitoring comprises a range of activities describing and analyzing the development and implementation of policies, identifying potential gaps in the process, outlining areas for improvement, and holding policy implementers accountable for their activities. Monitoring policy development and implementation i ... Read »


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    • Policy network analysis

    • Policy network analysis is a field of research in political science focusing on the links and interdependence between government's sections and other societal actors, aiming to understand the policy-making process and public policy outcomes. Although the number of definitions is almost as large as the number of ap ... Read »


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    • Policy studies

    • Policy studies is the combination of policy analysis and program evaluation. It "involves systematically studying the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies, with particular emphasis on determining the policies that will achieve given goals." Policy Studies also examines the conflicts and conflict ... Read »


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    • Political alienation

    • Political alienation refers to an individual citizen's relatively enduring sense of estrangement from or rejection of the prevailing political system. Political alienation falls into two broad categories: political incapability and political discontentment. In the first instance, alienation is forced upon the individu ... Read »


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    • Political climate

    • The political climate is the aggregate, current mood and opinions of a populace about political issues that also currently affect that population. It is generally used to describe a state of change in mood and opinions rather than a state of equilibrium. The phrase has origins from both ancient Greece and medieval-era ... Read »


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    • Political communication

    • Political communication(s) is a subfield of communication and political science that is concerned with how information spreads and influences politics and policy makers, the news media and citizens. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, the amount of data to analyze has exploded, and researchers are shifting to compu ... Read »


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    • Political forecasting

    • Political forecasting aims at predicting the outcome of elections. People have long been interested in predicting election outcomes. Quotes of betting odds on papal succession appear as early as 1503, when such wagering was already considered “an old practice.” Political betting also has a long history i ... Read »


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    • Political methodology

    • Political methodology is a subfield of Political science that studies the quantitative methods used to study politics. It combines statistics, mathematics, and formal theory. Political methodology is often used for positive research, in contrast to normative research. It is similar to econometrics. Political methodolo ... Read »


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    • Political opportunity

    • Political opportunity theory, sometimes also known as the political process theory or political opportunity structure, is an approach of social movements heavily influenced by political sociology. It argues that success or failure of social movements is primarily affected by political opportunities. Social theorists Pe ... Read »


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    • Political psychological rationalization

    • Political psychological rationalization (PPR) is a phenomenon seen in political warfare and election campaign rhetoric, meant to displace a perceived fault, short coming, mistake, or problem from one political actor, and attach it to another political actor, generally an opponent. While not truly rationalization in the ... Read »


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    • Political ReviewNet

    • Political ReviewNet is an online database of book reviews from academic journals in the field of international relations and political sciences. ... Read »


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    • Post-democracy

    • The term post-democracy was coined by Warwick University political scientist Colin Crouch in 2000 in his book Coping with Post-Democracy. It designates states that are conducted by fully operating democratic systems (elections are being held, governments fall and there is freedom of speech), but whose application is pr ... Read »


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    • Private defense agency

    • A private defense agency (PDA) is an enterprise which would provide personal protection and military defense services to individuals who would voluntarily contract for its services. PDAs are advocated in anarcho-capitalism and market-based forms of social anarchism, such as mutualism. A PDA is distinguished from a pri ... Read »


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    • Private-collective model of innovation

    • The term private-collective model of innovation was coined by Eric von Hippel and Georg von Krogh in their 2003 publication in Organization Science. This innovation model represents a combination of the private investment model and the collective-action innovation model. In the private investment model innovators appr ... Read »


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    • Process tracing

    • Process tracing is a method used to evaluate and develop theories in psychology,political science, or usability studies. In process tracing studies multiple data points are collected in comparison to simple input-output methods, where only one measurement per task is available. Thinking aloud protocols are a type ... Read »


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    • Project Camelot

    • Project Camelot was a counterinsurgency study begun by the United States Army in 1964. The project was executed by the Special Operations Research Office (SORO) at American University, which assembled an eclectic team of psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and other intellectuals to analyze the so ... Read »


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    • Public comment

    • Public comment is a specific term of art used by various government agencies in the United States, a constitutional democratic republic, in several circumstances. It is sometimes called "vox populi". Generally these circumstances are open public meetings of government bodies which set aside time for oral public comment ... Read »


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    • Public engagement

    • Public engagement is a term that has recently been used, particularly in the UK, to describe "the involvement of specialists listening to, developing their understanding of, and interacting with, non-specialists" (as defined by England's university funding agency, HEFCE, in 2006). The tradition of a decision-makin ... Read »


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    • Public policy

    • Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include ... Read »


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    • Public speaking

    • Public speaking (sometimes termed oratory or oration) is the process, or act of performing a speech to a live audience. This speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade, and to entertain. Closely allied to "presenting," although the latter is more often associated with commerci ... Read »


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    • Regulatory capitalism

    • The term regulatory capitalism suggests that the operation maintenance and development of the global political economy increasingly depends on administrative rules outside the legislatures and the courts. The general trend despite and beyond the process of liberalization is that of growth rather than decline of regulat ... Read »


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    • Relative utilitarianism

    • Let X{\displaystyle X} be a set of possible `states of the world' or `alternatives'; society wishes to choose some state from X{\displaystyle X}. Let I{\displaystyle I} be a finite set, representing a collection of people. For each i∈I{\displaystyle i\in I}, let ui:X⟶R{\displaystyle u_{i}:X\longrightarrow \ma ... Read »


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    • The Rhetorical Presidency

    • The rhetorical presidency is a political communication theory that describes the communication and government style of U.S. presidents in the twentieth century. This theory describes the transition from a presidency that directed rhetoric toward the United States Congress and other government bodies, to one that addres ... Read »


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    • R. A. W. Rhodes

    • Roderick Arthur William Rhodes (born 15 August 1944), usually cited as R. A. W. Rhodes, is a British Professor of Political Science. Rod Rhodes is Professor of Government at the University of Southampton (UK); and Emeritus Professor of Politics at the University of Newcastle (UK). Previously, he was: Professor of Gove ... Read »


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    • Rowman & Littlefield Award in Innovative Teaching


    • Scott Sunken Garden

    • 2016 1977 1930 Scott Sunken Garden is an historical landmark in Lansing, Michigan, United States of America. The outer foundation walls are 51 feet by 79 feet and the center is a 28 feet by 45 feet lawn. There are shorter limestone walls lining the court with raised flower beds. The west side and east sides have li ... Read »


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    • Security, Territory, Population

    • Security, Territory, Population is a part of a lecture series given by French philosopher Michel Foucault at the Collège de France between 1977 and 1978 and published posthumously based on audio recordings. In it, Foucault examines the notion of biopolitics as a new technology of power over populations that is disti ... Read »


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    • Self-expression values

    • Self-expression values are part of a core value dimension in the modernization process. Self-expression is a cluster of values that include social toleration, life satisfaction, public expression and an aspiration to liberty. Ronald Inglehart, the University of Michigan professor who developed the theory of post-materi ... Read »


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    • Serfdom in Tibet controversy

    • The serfdom in Tibet controversy rests on both a political and an academic debate. In the political debate, Chinese sources claim moral authority for governing Tibet, based on narratives that portray Tibet as a "feudal serfdom" and a "hell on earth" prior to the invasion of Tibet in 1950.Tibetologists have presented a ... Read »


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    • Social choice theory

    • Social choice theory or social choice is a theoretical framework for analysis of combining individual opinions, preferences, interests, or welfares to reach a collective decision or social welfare in some sense. A non-theoretical example of a collective decision is enacting a law or set of laws under a constitution. So ... Read »


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    • State formation

    • State formation is the process of the development of a centralized government structure in a situation where one did not exist prior to its development. State formation has been a study of many disciplines of the social sciences for a number of years, so much so that Jonathan Haas writes that "One of the favorite pasti ... Read »


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    • Yannis Stavrakakis

    • Yannis Stavrakakis (Greek: Γιάννης Σταυρακάκης; born 1970) is a Greek–British political theorist. A member of the Essex School of discourse analysis, he is mainly known for his explorations of the importance of psychoanalytic theory (Freud and Lacan) for contem ... Read »


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    • Strategic urban planning

    • The general objectives of strategic urban planning (SUP) include clarifying which city model is desired and working towards that goal, coordinating public and private efforts, channelling energy, adapting to new circumstances and improving the living conditions of the citizens affected. Strategic planning is a techniq ... Read »


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    • Strict father model

    • The strict father model of parenting is one which values strict discipline, particularly by the father, in parenting. Ideas involved in this model include: This model of child-rearing would involve, for example, allowing children to cry themselves to sleep on the grounds that picking up a child when it should be slee ... Read »


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    • Systems theory in political science

    • Systems theory in political science is a highly abstract, partly holistic view of politics, influenced by cybernetics. The adaptation of system theory to political science was first conceived by David Easton in 1953. In simple terms, Easton's behavioral approach to politics, proposed that a political system could be s ... Read »


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    • History of terrorism

    • The history of terrorism is a history of well-known and historically significant individuals, entities, and incidents associated, whether rightly or wrongly, with terrorism. Scholars agree that terrorism is a disputed term, and very few of those labeled terrorists describe themselves as such. It is common for opponents ... Read »


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    • Theatre state

    • In political anthropology, a theatre state is a political state directed towards the performance of drama and ritual rather than more conventional ends such as welfare. Power in a theatre state is exercised through spectacle. The term was coined by Clifford Geertz in 1980 in reference to political practice in the ninet ... Read »


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    • Third Wave Democracy

    • In political science, Third Wave Democracy, also known as Democracy's Third Wave, refers to the third major surge of democracy in history. The term was coined by Samuel P. Huntington, a political scientist at Harvard University in his article published in the Journal of Democracy and further expounded in his 1991 book ... Read »


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    • Tryphé


    • Yaryna Turchyn

    • Yaryna Turchyn

      Yaryna Turchyn (Ukrainian: Турчин Ярина Богданівна, Turchyn Yaryna Bohdanivna, * (1975-10-22)October 22, 1975, Lviv) – Director of the Institute of Humanities and Social Studies of Lviv Polytechnic National University, Doctor of Political Sciences, Pro ... Read »


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    • Turncoat

    • A turncoat is a person who shifts allegiance from one loyalty or ideal to another, betraying or deserting an original cause by switching to the opposing side or party. In political and social history, this is distinct from being a traitor, as the switch mostly takes place under the following circumstances: From a mili ... Read »


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    • Twitter diplomacy

    • Twitter diplomacy, also "Twiplomacy" or "hashtag diplomacy", is the use of social network and microblogging website, Twitter, by heads of state, leaders of intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), and their diplomats to conduct diplomatic outreach and public diplomacy. Twitter has taken on diverse and occasional roles ... Read »


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    • The Use of Knowledge in Society

    • "The Use of Knowledge in Society" is a scholarly article written by economist Friedrich Hayek, first published in the September 1945 issue of The American Economic Review. Written (along with The Meaning of Competition) as a rebuttal to fellow economist Oskar R. Lange and his endorsement of a planned economy, it was in ... Read »


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    • Valence issue

    • A valence issue is a political issue about which voters will usually share a common preference. Prosperity is a common valence issue. All voters will want their community to prosper and so the consideration is not whether to seek prosperity or not but instead the issue is which party is most likely to deliver it. Furt ... Read »


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    • World Values Survey

    • World Values Survey

      The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have. It is carried out by a worldwide network of social scientists who, since 1981, have conducted representative national surveys in almost 100 ... Read »


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    • World-systems theory

    • World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective), is a multidisciplinary, macro-scale approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system (and not nation states) as the primary (but not exclusive) unit of social analysis. "World-system" refers to th ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Political science

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