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  • Political philosophy

    Political philosophy

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    • Political ideologies

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    • Political ideologies

    • Ideology (from Greek ιδεολογία) is a collection of beliefs held by an individual, group or society. It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's beliefs, goals, expectations, and motivations. An ideology is a comprehensive normative vision that is follow ... Read »


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    • Political theories

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    • Political systems

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    • Political systems

    • A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. However, this is a very simplified view of a much more complex system of categories involving the questions of who should have authority and what the governm ... Political systems


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    • Political culture

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    • Political culture

    • Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as the "set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system". It encompasses both the politica ... Read »


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    • Political movements

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    • Abolitionism

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    • American political philosophy

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    • Anarchism

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    • Anarchist theory

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    • Ancient Greek political philosophy

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    • Biopolitics

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    • British political philosophy

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    • Community building

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    • Confucianism

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    • Corporatism

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    • Critical theory

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    • Criticisms of political philosophy

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    • Direct democracy

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    • Eponymous political ideologies

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    • Forms of government

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    • History of political thought

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    • Idealism

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    • Imperialism

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    • Indian political philosophy

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    • Individualism

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    • Interregnums

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    • Law enforcement theory

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    • Liberalism

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    • Libertarian socialism

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    • Machiavellianism

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    • New Right (Europe)

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    • New Right (United States)

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    • Old Right (United States)

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    • Philosophy of law

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    • Political concepts

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    • Political philosophers

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    • Political philosophy in medieval Islam

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    • Political philosophy literature

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    • Political positions by person

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    • Political realism

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    • Political science

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    • Political systems

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    • Political theories

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    • Populism

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    • Positivism

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    • Postcolonialism

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    • Progressivism

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    • Radicalism (historical)

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    • Right of asylum

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    • Political satire

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    • Secularism

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    • Social democracy

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    • Social justice

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    • Socialism

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    • Truth

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    • Whiggism

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    • World government

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    • Index of social and political philosophy articles

    • Articles in social and political philosophy include: ... Read »


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    • Omnilateralism

    • Omnilateralism (from in Latin "for all and by all") is used as a term in international relations in order to distinguish movements towards comprehensive global governance from the current multilateral institutions that have evolved since the Congress of Vienna. Historically, the Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant ... Read »


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    • Political philosophy

    • Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and ... Read »


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    • Aggressive legalism

    • In the context of globalization and the subsequent proliferation of free trade agreements (FTAs), legal scholars generally refer to the political strategy used by a sovereign state to leverage a trade agreement’s substantive rules to counter behavior it deems unreasonable by its trading partners, as aggressive leg ... Read »


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    • Agorism

    • Agorism is a libertarian social philosophy that advocates creating a society in which all relations between people are voluntary exchanges by means of counter-economics, thus engaging with aspects of peaceful revolution. It was first proposed by libertarian philosopher Samuel Edward Konkin III. The term was coined ... Read »


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    • American Redoubt

    • The American Redoubt is a political migration movement first proposed in 2011 by best-selling survivalist novelist and blogger James Wesley Rawles which designates three states in the northwestern United States (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming), and adjoining portions of two other states (eastern Oregon, and eastern Washington ... Read »


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    • Archon

    • Archon (Gr. ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meaning "to rule", derived from the same root as monarch and hierarchy. In ... Read »


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    • Authority

    • The word authority (derived from the Latin word auctoritas) can be used to mean the right to exercise power given by the State (in the form of government, judges, police officers, etc.), or by academic knowledge of an area (someone that can be an authority on a subject). When the word authority is used in the name of ... Read »


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    • Authority problem

    • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting at least six months". Unlike children with conduct disorder (CD), children with oppositional defiant disorder are not aggressive towards people or animals, do not ... Read »


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    • Avodah

    • Avoda, or Avodah (Hebrew: עֲבוֹדָה‎‎), is a Hebrew word, literally meaning "work". In a modern context, usually refers to business-type activities, it can also mean agricultural work and, more traditionally, serving God. In its original, traditional sense, "avodah" was applied to sac ... Read »


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    • Beerwolf

    • A Beerwolf, (Bärwolf, Werwolf ) is a German folk-tale monster commonly known as a Werewolf. Beerwolf is a concept introduced by Martin Luther (in a 1539 debate) that Luther uses to describe the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In the context of resistance theory, a "Beerwolf", "in contrast to a mere tyrant, n ... Read »


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    • Between Past and Future

    • Between Past and Future is book written by the German-born Jewish American political theorist, Hannah Arendt. It was published for the first time in 1961 by The Viking Press in the United States and by Faber and Faber in Great Britain. The first edition consisted of six essays, and two more were added to a 1968 revisio ... Read »


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    • Biopower

    • Biopower (or biopouvoir in French) is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault. It relates to the practice of modern nation states and their regulation of their subjects through "an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the contr ... Read »


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    • The Birth of Biopolitics

    • The Birth of Biopolitics is a part of a lecture series by French philosopher Michel Foucault at the Collège de France between 1978 and 1979 and published posthumously based on audio recordings. In it, Foucault develops further the notion of biopolitics introduced in a previous lecture series, Security, Territory, Po ... Read »


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    • The Broken Compass

    • The Broken Compass: How British Politics Lost its Way

      The Broken Compass: How British Politics Lost its Way is the fourth book by British traditionalist conservative writer Peter Hitchens, published in May 2009. Polemical and partly autobiographical, the book contends that the British political right and left no longer hold firm, adversarial beliefs, but vie for position ... Read »


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    • Budapest School (Lukács)


    • Budget theory

    • Budget theory is the academic study of political and social motivations behind government and civil society budgeting. Classic theorists in Public Budgeting include Henry Adams, William F. Willoughby, V. O. Key, Jr., and, more recently, Aaron Wildavsky. Notable recent theorists include Baumgartner and Jones--Frank R. B ... Read »


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    • Catonism

    • Barrington Moore defines Catonism in his book Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy as "advocacy of the sterner virtues, militarism, contempt for 'decadent' foreigners and anti-intellectualism". Moore coined the word "Catonism" with a nod towards Cato the Elder (234-149 BCE). He characterized the Catonist attitu ... Read »


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    • Celine's laws


    • Choice architecture

    • Choice architecture is the design of different ways in which choices can be presented to consumers, and the impact of that presentation on consumer decision-making. For example, the number of choices presented, the manner in which attributes are described, and the presence of a "default" can all influence consumer choi ... Read »


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    • Civic nationalism

    • Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a kind of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in a non-xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.Ernest Renan and John Stuart Mill are often thought to be early civic nati ... Read »


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    • Classical liberalism

    • Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy under the rule of law, and emphasizes economic freedoms found in economic liberalism which is also called free market capitalism. Classical liberalism was first ca ... Read »


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    • Communalism (political philosophy)

    • Communalism (spelled with a capital C to differentiate it from other forms) is a libertarian socialist political philosophy developed by author and activist Murray Bookchin as a political system to complement his environmental philosophy of social ecology. Communalism proposes that markets be abolished and that land an ... Read »


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    • Communitas Perfecta

    • Communitas Perfecta ("Perfect Community") or Societas Perfecta ("Perfect Society") is the Latin name given to one of several ecclesiological, canonical, and political theories of the Catholic Church. The doctrine teaches that the Church is a self-sufficient or independent group which already has all the necessary resou ... Read »


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    • Consent of the governed

    • In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and legal when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised. This theory of consent is historically contrasted to the d ... Read »


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    • Consent theory

    • Consent theory is a term for the idea in social philosophy that individuals primarily make decisions as free agents entering into consensual relationships with other free agents, and that this becomes the basis for political governance. An early elaborator of this idea was John Locke, from whom the expression "all men ... Read »


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    • Consequentialist justifications of the state

    • Consequentialist justifications of the state are philosophical arguments which contend that the state is justified by the good results it produces. The justification of the state is the source of legitimate authority for the state or government. Typically, a justification of the state explains why the state should exi ... Read »


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    • Cooperative federalism

    • Cooperative federalism (1930s-1970s) is a concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally (such as the dual federalism of the 19th century United States) or clashing ov ... Read »


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    • Cosmopolitanism

    • Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality. A person who adheres to the idea of cosmopolitanism in any of its forms is called a cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. A cosmopolitan community might be based on an inclusive morality, a shared economic relationshi ... Read »


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    • Counterintelligence state

    • Counterintelligence state (sometimes also called intelligence state, securocracy or spookocracy) is a state where state security service penetrates and permeates all societal institutions including the military. The term has been applied by historians and political commentators to the former Soviet Union, the former Ge ... Read »


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    • Country Party (Britain)

    • In Britain in the era 1680–1740, especially in the days of Robert Walpole (1720s to 1740s), the Country Party was a coalition of Tories and disaffected Whigs. It was a movement rather than an organized party and had no formal structure or leaders. It claimed to be a nonpartisan force fighting for the nation’s ... Read »


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    • Critical theory

    • Critical theory stresses the reflective assessments and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. As a term, critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and political philosophy, while the second origi ... Read »


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    • Defeatism

    • Defeatism is the acceptance of defeat without struggle, often with negative connotations. It can be linked to pessimism in psychology. The term defeatism commonly is used in politics as a descriptor for an ideological stance that considers co-operation with the opposition party. In the military context, in wartime, an ... Read »


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    • Defensor minor

    • The Defensor minor is a work by Marsilius of Padua written around 1342. The Defensor minor is a restatement and defense of Marsilius's best known work, the Defensor pacis. The text discusses civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the confession, penance, indulgences, the Crusades, pilgrimages, plenitudo potestatis, le ... Read »


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    • Deference

    • Deference (also called submission or passivity) is the condition of submitting to the espoused, legitimate influence of one's superior or superiors. Deference implies a yielding or submitting to the judgment of a recognized superior out of respect or reverence. Deference has been studied extensively by political scient ... Read »


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    • Delegate model of representation

    • The delegate model of representation is a model of a representative democracy. In this model, constituents elect their representatives as delegates for their constituency. These delegates act only as a mouthpiece for the wishes of their constituency, and have no from the constituency. This model does not provide repre ... Read »


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    • Deliberation

    • Deliberation is a process of thoughtfully weighing options, usually prior to voting. Deliberation emphasizes the use of logic and reason as opposed to power-struggle, creativity, or dialog. Group decisions are generally made after deliberation through a vote or consensus of those involved. In legal settings a jury fam ... Read »


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    • Dignitas (Roman concept)

    • Dignitas is a Latin word referring to a unique, intangible, and culturally subjective social concept in the ancient Roman mindset. The word does not have a direct translation in English. Some interpretations include "dignity", which is a derivation from "dignitas", and "" or "charisma". With respect to ancient Rome, d ... Read »


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    • Direct democracy

    • Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of modern democracies, which are representative democracies. Direct democracy is similar to, but distinct from, representative ... Read »


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    • Dirty hands

    • Dirty Hands (French: Les Mains sales) is a play by Jean-Paul Sartre. It was first performed on 2 April 1948 at the Theatre Antoine in Paris, directed by Pierre Valde and starring François Périer, Marie Olivier and André Luguet. A political drama set in the fictional country of Illyria between 1943 and 1945, t ... Read »


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    • Disability studies

    • Disability studies is an academic discipline that examines the meaning, nature, and consequences of disability as a social construct. Initially the field focused on the division between "impairment" and "disability", where impairment was an impairment of an individual's mind or body, while disability was considered a s ... Read »


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    • Disciplinary institution

    • Disciplinary institutions (French: institution disciplinaire) is a concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975). School, prison, barracks, or the hospital are examples of historical disciplinary institutions, all created in their modern form in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution. Dis ... Read »


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    • Divine right of kings

    • The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the , or any ... Read »


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    • Ecogovernmentality

    • Ecogovernmentality, (or environmentality), is the application of Foucault’s concepts of biopower and governmentality to the analysis of the regulation of social interactions with the natural world. The concept of Ecogovernmentality expands on Foucault’s genealogical examination of the state to include ecologi ... Read »


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    • Economic freedom

    • Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of members of a society to undertake economic actions. This is a term used in economic and policy debates as well as in the philosophy of economics. One approach to economic freedom comes from classical liberal and libertarian traditions emphasizing free markets, free ... Read »


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    • Emperor

    • An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin: 'imperator') is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). ... Read »


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    • Entrepreneurial leadership

    • Entrepreneurial leadership is organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal using proactive entrepreneurial behavior by optimising risk, innovating to take advantage of opportunities, taking personal responsibility and managing change within a dynamic environment for the benefit of an organisation. Its aim is ... Read »


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    • Equity of condition

    • Equity of condition in tax law and governmental spending is the economic condition, often arbitrary, that political leaders believe a person should be in after governmental social engineering and redistribution of wealth. The award or redistribution of wealth to the recipients overrides, substantially, any natural righ ... Read »


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    • Essex School of discourse analysis

    • The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focus ... Read »


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    • Everything which is not forbidden is allowed

    • "Everything which is not forbidden is allowed" is a constitutional principle of English law—an essential freedom of the ordinary citizen or subject. The converse principle—"everything which is not allowed is forbidden"—used to apply to public authorities, whose actions were limited to the powers explicit ... Read »


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    • Family as a model for the state

    • The family as a model for the organization of the state is a theory of political philosophy. It either explains the structure of certain kinds of state in terms of the structure of the family (as a model or as a claim about the historical growth of the state), or it attempts to justify certain types of state by appeal ... Read »


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    • Foucault's lectures at the Collège de France


    • Founderism

    • Founderism (being a Founderist) is an intellectual outlook that has a strong "Reverence for the founders" of a state. The term is viewed as a pejorative epithet, accusing those so labeled as having a worldview that sacrifices historic accuracy for turning the "Founding into a fetish". The antonym "anti-founderism" is ... Read »


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    • Fourier complex

    • Fourier complex is an extreme form of egalitarianism in which the believer is prepared to accept, or actually wishes for, widespread poverty, possibly even starvation, as the consequence or means of making the material wellbeing of every member of society equal. In aggravated or more candid instances, this ethic is ad ... Read »


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    • Frankfurt School

    • The Frankfurt School (German: Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt. Founded during the interwar period, the School consisted of dissidents who felt at home neither in the existent capitalist, fascist, ... Read »


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    • Free association (communism and anarchism)

    • Free association (also called free association of producers or, as Marx often called it, a community of freely associated individuals) is a relationship among individuals where there is no state, social class or authority, and private property of means of production. Once private property is abolished, individuals are ... Read »


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    • Free Market Fairness

    • Free Market Fairness is a 2012 book of political philosophy written by John Tomasi, a Professor of Political Philosophy at Brown University. Tomasi presents the concept of "free market fairness" or "market democracy," a middle ground between Friedrich Hayek and John Rawls's ideas. The book was widely reviewed. Tomasi ... Read »


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    • French and Raven's bases of power


    • Führerprinzip


    • General will

    • In political philosophy, the general will (French: volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole. The term was made famous by 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The phrase "general will," as Rousseau used it, occurs in Article Six of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and th ... Read »


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    • Global citizenship

    • Global citizenship is the rights, responsibilities and duties that come with being a member of the global entity as a citizen of a particular nation or place. The idea is that one’s identity transcends geography or political borders and that responsibilities or rights are or can be derived from membership in a bro ... Read »


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    • Global feminism

    • Global feminism is a feminist theory closely aligned with post-colonial theory and postcolonial feminism. It concerns itself primarily with the forward movement of women's rights on a global scale. Using different historical lenses from the legacy of colonialism, global feminists adopt global causes and start movements ... Read »


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    • Global justice

    • Global justice is an issue in political philosophy arising from the concern that the world at large is unjust. Global justice should basically be various of forms of justice that protect the point of the ground which term as internationalism. Henrik Syse says that the main theory of global ethics and internationa ... Read »


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    • Global justice movement

    • The global justice movement is a network of globalized social movements opposing what is often known as the “corporate globalization” and promoting equal distribution of economic resources. The global justice movement describes the loose collection of individuals and groups—often referred to as a â ... Read »


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    • The God of the Machine

    • The God of the Machine is a book written by Isabel Paterson and published in 1943 in the United States. At the time of its release, it was considered a cornerstone to the philosophy of individualism. Her biographer, Stephen D. Cox, in 2004 described Paterson as the "earliest progenitor of libertarianism as we know it t ... Read »


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    • Governance

    • Governance refers to "all of processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, market or network, whether over a family, tribe, formal or informal organization or territory and whether through the laws, norms, power or language." It relates to "the processes of interaction and decision-making among the actors ... Read »


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    • Governmentality

    • Governmentality is a concept first developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1977 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time. The concept has been elaborated further from an "Anglo-Neo Foucauldian" perspecti ... Read »


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    • Hate speech

    • Hate speech is speech which attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as gender, ethnic origin, religion, race, disability, or sexual orientation. In the law of some countries, hate speech is described as speech, gesture or conduct, writing, or display which is forbidden because it incites violence or p ... Read »


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    • Hebrew republic

    • The Hebrew Republic, also “De Republica Hebraeorum”, and also “Respublica Hebraeorum”, is an early modern concept in political theory in which Christian scholars regarded the Hebrew Bible as a political constitution framing a perfect and republican government designed by God for the children of Isra ... Read »


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    • Historical subject

    • Nietzsche's critique of the historical subject is based in the rejection of an existing substance in favor of forces and wills combining to form combinations, sometimes in the form of a consciousness. Heidegger later traced the concept of subject to the metaphysical concept of ousia to demonstrate the impossibility of ... Read »


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    • History of Political Philosophy

    • History of Political Philosophy

      History of Political Philosophy (1963; second edition 1972; third edition 1987) is a philosophy and political sciences textbook published by the University of Chicago Press, edited by American philosophers Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey. The volume is currently in its third edition. Some of the notable contributors in ... Read »


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    • Holism

    • Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that thei ... Read »


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    • Hybrid institutions and governance

    • The term ‘hybrid institution’ is not yet well-established or clearly defined in academic literature. This article therefore begins by offering a definition of the term and a brief discussion of its origins. The article thereafter is structured as a series of examples which demonstrate some of the key characte ... Read »


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    • Ideal theory

    • In mathematics, ideal theory is the theory of ideals in commutative rings; and is the precursor name for the contemporary subject of commutative algebra. The name grew out of the central considerations, such as the Lasker–Noether theorem in algebraic geometry, and the ideal class group in algebraic number theory, ... Read »


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    • Ideological repression

    • Ideological repression refers to forceful activities against competing ideologies and philosophies. Alan Wolfe defines ideological repression as "the attempt to manipulate people's consciousness so they accept the ruling ideology, and distrust and refuse to be moved by competing ideologies". Among instruments of ideo ... Read »


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    • Ideology

    • Ideology is a collection of beliefs held by an individual, group or society. It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's beliefs, goals, expectations, and motivations. An ideology is a comprehensive normative vision that is followed by people, governments, or other groups that is ... Read »


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    • Imagined community

    • An imagined community is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson to analyze nationalism. Anderson depicts a nation as a socially constructed community, imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group. Anderson's book, Imagined Communities, in which he explains the concept in depth, was first publish ... Read »


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    • Imperative mandate

    • Imperative mandate is a political system in which parliamentary deputies can only enact policies in accordance with concretely transmitted preference by their electors. The institution of imperative mandate has been rarely applied. Some political scientists have argued an imperative mandate would limit the freedom of p ... Read »


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    • Imperium

    • Imperium is a Latin word which, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'. In ancient Rome, different kinds of power or authority were distinguished by different terms. Imperium referred to the ability of an individual to command the military. It is not to be confused with auctoritas or potestas, diffe ... Read »


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    • Imputed income

    • Imputed income is the accession to wealth that can be attributed, or imputed, to a person when they avoid paying for services by providing the services to themselves, or when the person avoids paying rent for durable goods by owning the durable goods, as in the case of imputed rent. Many countries, such as the Uni ... Read »


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    • Inclusive Democracy

    • Inclusive Democracy (ID) is a project that aims for direct democracy; economic democracy in a stateless, moneyless and marketless economy; self-management (democracy in the social realm); and ecological democracy. The theoretical project of Inclusive Democracy—as distinguished from the political project on which ... Read »


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    • Individualism

    • Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualists promote the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance and advocate that interests of the individual should achieve precedence over ... Read »


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    • Interpellation (philosophy)

    • Interpellation is associated in particular with the work of French philosopher Louis Althusser. In Marxist theory, interpellation is an important concept regarding the notion of ideology. According to Althusser, every society is made up of Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs) and Repressive State Apparatuses (RSAs) whi ... Read »


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    • Interregnum

    • An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin inter-, "between" and rēgnum, "reign" [from rex, rēgis, "king"]), and th ... Read »


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    • Inverted totalitarianism

    • Inverted totalitarianism is a term coined by political philosopher Sheldon Wolin in 2003 to describe the emerging form of government of the United States. Wolin believed that the United States is increasingly turning into an illiberal democracy, and uses the term "inverted totalitarianism" to illustrate similarities an ... Read »


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    • Invisible dictatorship

    • An invisible dictatorship was a term coined by Mikhail Bakunin to describe clandestine revolutionary leadership. Bakunin also used the terms invisible legion and invisible network to describe his concept of invisible dictatorship. In nineteenth century Europe the discussion of how a transitional revolutionary gove ... Read »


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    • Italian Association for Political Philosophy

    • The Società Italiana di Filosofia Politica (English: Italian Association for Political Philosophy) is an association of academic and non-academic practitioners of political philosophy in Italy. The association's aim is to further the study of political philosophy in its various orientations and to promote dialogue a ... Read »


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    • Joseph Priestley and Dissent

    • Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 (old style) – 8 February 1804) was a British natural philosopher, political theorist, clergyman, theologian, and educator. He was one of the most influential Dissenters of the late 18th-century. A member of marginalized religious groups throughout his life and a proponent of what w ... Read »


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    • Justice

    • Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture. An early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 17th cent ... Read »


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    • Justification for the state

    • The justification of the state refers to the source of legitimate authority for the state or government. Typically, such a justification explains why the state should exist, and to some degree scopes the role of government - what a legitimate state should or should not be able to do. There is no single, universally ac ... Read »


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    • Justitium

    • Justitium is a concept of Roman law, equivalent to the declaration of the state of emergency. It was usually declared following a sovereign's death, during the troubled period of interregnum, but also in case of invasions. However, in this last case, it was not as much the physical danger of invasion that justified the ... Read »


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    • Political philosophy of Immanuel Kant

    • The political philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) favoured a classical republican approach. In Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795), Kant listed several conditions that he thought necessary for ending wars and creating a lasting peace. They included a world of constitutional republics by establishmen ... Read »


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    • Kyklos

    • The Kyklos (Ancient Greek: κύκλος, IPA: [kýklos], "cycle") is a term used by some classical Greek authors to describe what they saw as the political cycle of governments in a society. It was roughly based on the history of Greek city-states in the same period. The concept of "The Kyklos" is f ... Read »


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    • Landscapes of power

    • The Landscapes of power is a political philosophy term defined as features of the built environment that perform political functions — including establishing the hegemony of a governing entity or an ideological creed in a particular territory and cultivating a sense of pride in place in residents of a territory. A ... Read »


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    • Leadership

    • Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. The literature debates various viewpoints: contrasting Eastern and Western approaches to leadership, and also (within the West) US vs. ... Read »


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    • League of peace

    • League of peace (Latin: foedus pacificum) is an expression coined by Immanuel Kant in his work "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch". The league of peace should be distinguished from a peace treaty (pactum pacis) because a peace treaty prevents or terminates only one war, while the league of peace seeks to end all ... Read »


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    • Left-libertarianism

    • Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) names several related but distinct approaches to political and social theory, which stresses both individual freedom and social equality. In its classical usage, left-libertarianism is a synonym for anti-authoritarian varieties of left-wing politics, either anarchism in ... Read »


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    • Liberal Catholicism

    • Liberal Catholicism was a current of thought within the Catholic Church. It was influential in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, especially in France. Being predominantly political in nature, Liberal Catholicism was distinct from the contemporary theological movement of Modernism. It is also distinct fr ... Read »


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    • Liberal socialism

    • Liberal socialism is a socialist political philosophy that includes liberal principles within it. Liberal socialism does not have the goal of completely abolishing capitalism and replacing it with socialism; instead, it supports a mixed economy that includes both private property and social ownership in capital goods. ... Read »


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    • Liberalism

    • Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Whereas classical liberalism emphasises the role of liberty, social liberalism stresses the importance of equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they ... Read »


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    • Libertarian anarchism

    • Libertarian anarchism may refer to: ... Read »


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    • Libertarian paternalism

    • Libertarian paternalism is the idea that it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice, as well as the implementation of that idea. The term was coined by behavioral economist Richard Thaler and legal scholar Cass Sunstein in a 2003 art ... Read »


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    • Libertarian socialism

    • Libertarian socialism (sometimes dubbed socialist libertarianism, or left-libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy, as well as the state itself. It criticizes wage labour relatio ... Read »


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    • Libertarianism

    • Libertarianism (Latin: liber, "free") is a collection of political philosophies that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize political freedom and autonomy, emphasizing the values of freedom of choice, voluntary association, self-ownership, and the rule of law. Libertarians share a skepticism ... Read »


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    • Managerialism

    • Managerialism is a belief in the value of professional managers and of the concepts and methods they use. Contemporary management writers such as Thomas Diefenbach associate managerialism with hierarchy. But managerialism is also linked to control, accountability and measurement, and an ideologically determined belief ... Read »


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    • Mandate (politics)

    • In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative. The concept of a government having a legitimate mandate to govern via the fair winning of a democratic election is a central idea of representative democracy. New governments who attempt to introduce policies that they did ... Read »


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    • Pierre Manent

    • Pierre Manent

      Pierre Manent (French: [manɑ̃]; born 6 May 1949, Toulouse) is a French political scientist and academic. He teaches political philosophy at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, in the Centre de recherches politiques Raymond Aron. Every autumn, he is also a visiting teacher in Boston College at the ... Read »


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    • Marxist philosophy

    • Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists. Marxist philosophy may be broadly divided into Western Marxism, which drew out of various sources, and the official philosophy in the Soviet Union, which ... Read »


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    • Master–slave dialectic


    • Meta-rights

    • In philosophy, meta-rights are the entitlements of individuals to their rights, including the possibility to waive, transfer or sell their rights. When we talk of the rights of individuals, we do not always distinguish between rights which can be waived or sold and rights which are non-negotiable. Yet that distinction ... Read »


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    • Minority (philosophy)

    • Minority, and the related concept of "becoming-minor," is a philosophical concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their books Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature (1975), A Thousand Plateaus (1980), and elsewhere. In these texts, they criticize the concept of "majority". For Deleuze and Guattari, "bec ... Read »


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    • Mixed economy

    • A mixed economy is defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or markets and economic interventionism. However, in most cases, "mixed economy" refers to market economies with strong regulatory oversight and governmental provisio ... Read »


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    • Monarchomachs

    • The Monarchomachs (French: Monarchomaques) were originally French Huguenot theorists who opposed monarchy at the end of the 16th century, known in particular for having theoretically justified tyrannicide. The term was originally a pejorative word coined in 1600 by the Scottish royalist and Catholic William Barclay (15 ... Read »


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    • Negarchy

    • Negarchy was a term coined by Daniel Deudney to mean a form of status quo maintained by the interrelations of the power structure and authority that modern states hold in relation to one another, which negate one another because of their respective influence. The situation of this kind of power compromise results in pu ... Read »


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    • Neutrality (philosophy)

    • Neutrality is the tendency not to side in a conflict (physical or ideological), which may not suggest neutral parties do not have a side or are not a side themselves. In colloquial use "neutral" can be synonymous with "unbiased." However, bias is a favoritism for some side, distinct of the tendency to act on that favor ... Read »


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    • New Man (utopian concept)

    • The New Man is a utopian concept that involves the creation of a new ideal human being or citizen replacing un-ideal human beings or citizens. The meaning of a New Man has widely varied and various alternatives have been suggested by a variety of religions and political ideologies, including communism, liberalism, fasc ... Read »


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    • Non-simultaneity

    • Non-simultaneity or nonsynchronism (German: Ungleichzeitigkeit, sometimes also translated as non-synchronicity) is a concept in the writings of Ernst Bloch which denotes the time lag, or uneven temporal development, produced in the social sphere by the processes of capitalist modernization and/or the incomplete nature ... Read »


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    • Objectivity (philosophy)

    • Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside of a subject's individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. A proposition is generally considered objec ... Read »


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    • Obstructionism

    • Obstructionism is the practice of deliberately delaying or preventing a process or change, especially in politics. An obstructionist causes problems. Neuman and Baron (1998) identify obstructionism as one of the three dimensions that encompass the range of workplace aggression. In this context obstructionism is "b ... Read »


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    • Oligarchy

    • Oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία (oligarkhía); from ὀλίγος (olígos), meaning "few", and ἄρχω (arkho), meaning "to rule or to command") is a form of power structure in which power actually rests with a small number of people. These people might be disti ... Read »


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    • Open government

    • Open government is the governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight. In its broadest construction it opposes reason of state and other considerations, which have tended to legitimize extensive state secrecy. ... Read »


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    • Open Philanthropy

    • Open Philanthropy is the doctrine which holds that the programming, operations, governance, effectiveness, and efficiency of nonprofit organizations should be open and visible by the public, donors, and especially, stakeholders in those nonprofits. Among recent developments is the theory of open source governance whic ... Read »


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    • Organic work

    • Organic work (Polish: praca organiczna) was a term adopted from Herbert Spencer by the 19th century Polish positivists, denoting an ideology demanding that the vital powers of the nation be spent on labour (i.e. work at the foundations) rather than fruitless national uprisings against the overwhelming military presence ... Read »


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    • Organicism

    • Organicism is the philosophical perspective which views the universe and its parts as organic wholes and - either by analogy or literally - as living organisms. It can be synonymous with holism. Organicism is an important tradition within the history of natural philosophy where it has remained as a vital current alongs ... Read »


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    • Other

    • In phenomenology, the terms the Other and the Constitutive Other identify the other human being, in his and her differences from the Self, as being a cumulative, constituting factor in the self-image of a person; as his or her acknowledgement of being real; hence, the Other is dissimilar to and the opposite of the Self ... Read »


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    • Otium

    • Otium, a Latin abstract term, has a variety of meanings, including leisure time in which a person can enjoy eating, playing, resting, contemplation and academic endeavors. It sometimes, but not always, relates to a time in a person's retirement after previous service to the public or private sector, opposing "active pu ... Read »


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    • Panarchism

    • Paul Émile de Puydt (6 March 1810 – 20 May 1891), a writer whose contributions included work in botany and economics, was born and died in Mons, Belgium. His father's name was Jean Ambroise de Puydt (1758–1836), who was governor of the province Hainaut in the early days of Belgium from 1830 till 1834. In t ... Read »


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    • Participism

    • Participism is a libertarian socialist political philosophy consisting of two independently created economic and political systems: participatory economics or "parecon" and participatory politics or "parpolity". Participism is intended as an alternative to both capitalism and centrally-planned state socialism. Particip ... Read »


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    • Patriarchalism

    • Patriarchalism is a political theory that arose in England in the seventeenth century that defended the concept of absolute power for the monarchy, through language that emphasized the "paternal" power of the king over the state and his subjects. Due to divisive religious policy, controversial political strategy at ho ... Read »


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    • Perfectionist liberalism

    • Perfectionist liberalism has been defined by Charles Larmore (1987) as the "family of views that base political principles on 'ideals claiming to shape our overall conception of the good life, and not just our role as citizens.'"Joseph Raz popularised those ideas. For Raz, at the centre of his perfectionist liberalism ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of history

    • The term philosophy of history refers to the theoretical aspect of history, in two senses. It is customary to distinguish critical philosophy of history from speculative philosophy of history. Critical philosophy of history is the "theory" aspect of the discipline of academic history, and deals with questions such as t ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of human rights

    • The philosophy of human rights attempts to examine the underlying basis of the concept of human rights and critically looks at its content and justification. Several theoretical approaches have been advanced to explain how and why the concept of human rights developed. One of the oldest Western philosophies on human r ... Read »


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    • Pirate haven

    • Pirate havens are ports or harbors that are a safe place for pirates to repair their vessels, resupply, recruit, spend their plunder, avoid capture, and/or lie in wait for merchant ships to pass by. The areas have governments that are unable or unwilling to enforce maritime laws. This creates favorable conditions for p ... Read »


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    • Pirate utopia

    • Pirate utopias were described by anarchist writer Peter Lamborn Wilson, who coined the term, in his 1995 book Pirate Utopias: Moorish Corsairs & European Renegadoes as secret islands once used for supply purposes by pirates. Wilson's concept is largely based on speculation, although even he admits a bit of fantasy. In ... Read »


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    • Pluralist commonwealth

    • The term pluralist commonwealth refers to a model of wealth democratization supported and facilitated by a variety of different institutional forms. Political economist and historian Gar Alperovitz is generally credited for the development this model as a way to resolve socio-economic problems associated with corporat ... Read »


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    • Political appointments in the United States

    • According to the United States Office of Government Ethics, a political appointee is "any employee who is appointed by the President, the Vice President, or agency head". As of 2016, an incoming administration needs to appoint around 4,000 new employees, of which about 1,000 require Senate approval. There are four ... Read »


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    • Political Catholicism

    • Political Catholicism is a political and cultural conception which promotes the ideas and social teaching of the Catholic Church (Catholic social teaching) in public life through government action. According to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, "the separation of church and state does not require d ... Read »


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    • Political consciousness

    • Following the work of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx outlined the workings of a political consciousness. Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. It is a distinction often reserved for human beings. This remains the original and most common usage of the term. For Marx, co ... Read »


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    • Political ethics

    • Political ethics (also known as political morality or public ethics) is the practice of making moral judgements about political action and political agents. It covers two areas. The first is the ethics of process (or the ethics of office), which deals with public officials and the methods they use. The second area, the ... Read »


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    • Political opportunism

    • Political opportunism refers to the attempt to maintain political support, or increase political influence, in a way which disregards relevant ethical or political principles. The political philosophy of Niccolò Machiavelli as described in The Prince is often regarded as a classic manual of opportunist scheming ... Read »


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    • Political positivism

    • Political positivism is a theory founded by Ljubisa Bojic (Serbian: LjubiÅ¡a Bojić). It includes intensive use of media to promote unity, participation, and positivism in thinking of common men and women. Gradual change of individuals results in a big alteration for the community as a whole. Psychology is the ... Read »


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    • Political radicalism

    • The term political radicalism (or simply, in political science, radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary means and changing value systems in fundamental ways. Derived from the Latin radix (root), the denotation of radical has changed since its eighteenth-centu ... Read »


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    • Political subjectivity

    • Political subjectivity is a term used to indicate the deeply embedded nature of subjectivity and subjective experience in a socially constructed system of power and meaning. The notion of political subjectivity is an emerging idea in social sciences and humanities. In some sense the term political subjectivity reflects ... Read »


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    • Political theology

    • Political theology investigates the ways in which theological concepts or ways of thinking relate to politics, society, and economics. Though the relationship between Christianity and politics has been debated since the time of Jesus, political theology has been an academic discipline since the 20th century. The t ... Read »


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    • Post-politics

    • Post-politics refers to the critique of the emergence, in the post-Cold War period, of a politics of consensus on a global scale: the dissolution of the Eastern Communist bloc following the collapse of the Berlin Wall instituted a post-ideological consensus based on the acceptance of the capitalist market and the liber ... Read »


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    • Posthegemony

    • Posthegemony or post-hegemony is a concept which designates a period or a situation in which hegemony is no longer said to function as the organizing principle of a national or post-national social order, or of the relationships between and amongst nation-states within the global order. The concept has different meanin ... Read »


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    • Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

    • Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

      Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism is a 1991 book by Fredric Jameson, in which Jameson offers a critique of modernism and postmodernism from a Marxist perspective. The book began as a 1984 article in the New Left Review. ... Read »


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    • Postsecularism

    • Postsecularism refers to a range of theories regarding the persistence or resurgence of religious beliefs or practices in the present. The "post-" may refer to after the end of secularism or after the beginning of secularism. The term “postsecular” has been used in sociology, political theory, religious ... Read »


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    • Present age

    • The term "present age" is a concept in the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard. A formulation of the modern age can be found in Kierkegaard's work Two Ages: A Literary Review: Our age is essentially one of understanding and reflection, without passion, momentarily bursting into enthusiasm, and shrewdly relapsing into r ... Read »


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    • Principled Distance

    • Principled Distance is a new model of secularism given by Rajeev Bhargava. It is different from western model of secularism which is the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. He says that Indian secularism did not erect a ... Read »


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    • Psychoanalysis and Politics

    • Psychoanalysis and Politics is a conference series, founded by the philosopher Lene Auestad in 2010. It aims to address how contemporary political issues may be analyzed through psychoanalytic theory and vice versa – how political phenomena may reflect back on psychoanalytic thinking. The series is internatio ... Read »


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    • Public Affairs Quarterly

    • Public Affairs Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers current issues in social and political philosophy. The current editor is Rebecca Kukla (Georgetown University). ... Read »


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    • Public reason

    • Public reason refers to a common mode of deliberation that individuals may use for issues of public concern. The concept implicitly excludes certain assumptions or motivations that are considered improper as a basis for public decision making, even as a person may apply them in personal decisions that do not have a sig ... Read »


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    • Radical centrism

    • The terms radical centrism, radical center (or radical centre), and radical middle refer to a political philosophy that arose in the Western nations, predominantly the United States and the United Kingdom, in the late 20th century. At first it was defined in a variety of ways, but at the beginning of the 21st century a ... Read »


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    • Radical egalitarianism

    • Radical Egalitarianism is a political theory associated with the ideas of optimistic tendencies, the suggestions that Americans must work in a multiracial society, and that citizens must use activism to achieve the ultimate goal of satisfactory conditions for the entire population. ... Read »


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    • Rational economic exchange

    • Rational economic exchange also called goods exchange economy is an economic transaction where goods or services are transferred from the provider for a return of relative value (compensation) from the receiver in a manner that advances the economic interests of both parties. Rational economic exchange is implied in vo ... Read »


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    • Real freedom

    • Real freedom is a term coined by the political philosopher and economist Philippe Van Parijs. It expands upon notions of negative freedom by incorporating not simply institutional or other constraints on a person's choices, but also the requirements of physical reality, resources and personal capacity. To have real fre ... Read »


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    • Redistribution of income and wealth

    • Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law. ... Read »


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    • Republicanism

    • Republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are "republics" in the sense that they are not monarchies. However, this article covers only the ideology of republicanism. The word, republic, derives from the Latin, res publica, w ... Read »


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    • Right Hegelians

    • The Right Hegelians (German: Rechtshegelianer), Old Hegelians (Althegelianer), or the Hegelian Right (die Hegelsche Rechte), were those followers of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the early 19th century who took his philosophy in a politically and religiously conservative direction. They are typica ... Read »


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    • Right to the city

    • The right to the city is an idea and a slogan that was first proposed by Henri Lefebvre in his 1968 book Le Droit à la ville. Le Febvre summarizes the idea as a "demand...[for] a transformed and renewed access to urban life".David Harvey described it as follows: The right to the city is far more than the indiv ... Read »


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    • School of Diplomacy

    • The School of Diplomacy (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zōng héng Jiā), or the School of Vertical and Horizontal Alliances was a political and diplomatic clique during the Warring States period of Chinese history (476-220 BCE). According to the Book of Han, the school was one of the Nine ... Read »


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    • Secular liberalism

    • Secular liberalism is the separation of culture and politics from religion. A subcategory of liberalism and secularism, it supports the separation of religion and state particularly from the ideas of the Christian Church. Christian ideals are usually to be found on the opposite end of the spectrum from secular liberali ... Read »


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    • Secularism

    • Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity). One manifestation of secularism is asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, o ... Read »


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    • Secularization

    • External video

      Secularization is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions. The secularization thesis refers to the belief that as societies progress, particularly through modernization and rationalization, religion loses its au ... Read »


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    • Security, Territory, Population

    • Security, Territory, Population is a part of a lecture series given by French philosopher Michel Foucault at the Collège de France between 1977 and 1978 and published posthumously based on audio recordings. In it, Foucault examines the notion of biopolitics as a new technology of power over populations that is disti ... Read »


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    • Seniority

    • Seniority is the concept of a person or group of people taking precedence over another person or group because the former is either older than the latter or has occupied a particular position longer than the latter. Seniority is present between parents and children and may be present in other common relationships, such ... Read »


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    • Seventeen-article constitution

    • The Seventeen-article constitution (十七条憲法, jÅ«shichijō kenpō?) is, according to the Nihon Shoki of 720, a document authored by Prince Shōtoku in 604. It was adopted in the reign of Empress Suiko. The emphasis of the document is not so much on the basic laws by which the state was to ... Read »


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    • Social credit

    • Social credit is an interdisciplinary distributive philosophy developed by C. H. Douglas (1879–1952), a British engineer, who published a book by that name in 1924. It encompasses economics, political science, history, and accounting. Its policies are designed, according to Douglas, to disperse economic and politi ... Read »


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    • Social exclusion

    • Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term used widely in Europe and was first used in France. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics. Social exclusion is the process in which in ... Read »


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    • Society of the Friends of Truth

    • The Society of the Friends of Truth (Amis de la Verité), also known as the Social Club, was a French revolutionary organization founded in 1790. It was "a mixture of revolutionary political club, the Masonic Lodge, and a literary salon". It also published an influential revolutionary newspaper, the Mouth of Iron. ... Read »


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    • Sofocracy

    • Sofocracy (from the Greek σοφια - wisdom and κρατία - government, i. E. "Wise government") is a form of government in which a leading position in society occupied philosophers, then those educated and wise individuals regardless of any affiliation. This is Plato's idea of an ideal form ... Read »


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    • Soft tyranny

    • Soft tyranny is an idea first coined by in his 1835 work titled Democracy in America. In effect, soft tyranny occurs whenever the social conditions of a particular community hinder any prospect of hope among its members. For Tocqueville, hope is the driving force behind all democratic institutions. As such, whenever t ... Read »


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    • Spatial justice

    • Spatial justice links together social justice and space, most notably in the works of geographers David Harvey and Edward W. Soja. The organization of space is a crucial dimension of human societies and reflects social facts and influences social relations (Henri Lefebvre, 1968, 1972). Consequently, both justice and in ... Read »


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    • State of exception

    • A state of exception (German: Ausnahmezustand) is a concept in the legal theory of Carl Schmitt, similar to a state of emergency, but based in the sovereign's ability to transcend the rule of law in the name of the public good. This concept is developed in Giorgio Agamben's book State of Exception. ... Read »


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    • State of nature

    • The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence. There must have been a time before organized societies existed, a ... Read »


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    • State socialism

    • State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself. It is often used, sometimes interchangeably with state ca ... Read »


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    • Statolatry

    • Statolatry, which combines idolatry with the state, first appeared in Giovanni Gentile's Doctrine of Fascism, published in 1931 under Mussolini's name, and was also mentioned in Gramsci's Prison Notebooks (1971) sometime between 1931-1932, while he was imprisoned by Mussolini. The same year, the encyclical Non abbiamo ... Read »


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    • Subjectivity

    • Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources. Three common definitions include that subjectivity is the quality or condition of: These various definitions of subjectivity are sometimes joined together in p ... Read »


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    • Synoecism

    • Synoecism or synecism (/sᵻˈniːsɪzəm/ si-NEE-siz-əm; Ancient Greek: συνοικισμóς, sunoikismos, Ancient Greek: [syːnɔi̯kismós]), also spelled synoikism (/sᵻˈnɔɪkɪzəm/ si-NOY-kiz-əm), was originally the amalgamation of villages in ... Read »


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    • Tacitean studies

    • Tacitean studies, centred on the work of Tacitus (AD 56 – AD 117) the Ancient Roman historian, constitute an area of scholarship extending beyond the field of history. The work has traditionally been read for its moral instruction, its narrative, and its inimitable prose style; Tacitus has been (and still is) m ... Read »


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    • Theologia Poetica

    • Theologia Poetica ("poetic theology") was a designation adopted throughout the Renaissance for political philosophy independent of Biblical revelation. In Italy, discussions on "poetic theology" were articulated most notably by Boccaccio and Petrarch, both of whom promoted a philosophical life capable of withstanding t ... Read »


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    • Therapeutic governance

    • The term therapeutic governance has been used multiply in the social science literature, referring to two interrelated concepts. Therapeutic governance was first coined by Vannessa Pupavac to describe the management of the populations' psychology, and its significance for security. Allison McKim used the term therapeut ... Read »


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    • Third Way

    • In politics, the Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of right-wing economic and left-wing social policies. The Third Way was created as a serious re-evaluation of political policies within various centre-left progressive mo ... Read »


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    • Tory

    • A Tory holds a political philosophy (Toryism) based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history. The Tory ethos has been summed up with the phrase "God, King and Country". Tories generally advocate monarchism, are usually of a ... Read »


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    • Totalitarianism

    • Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible. A distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is an "elaborate ideology, a set of ideas that gives meaning and direction to the whole soci ... Read »


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    • Tractatus Politicus

    • Tractatus politicus (TP) or Political Treatise is a political paper by Baruch Spinoza written in 1675–76 and published posthumously in 1677. This paper has the subtitle, "In quo demonstratur, quomodo Societas, ubi Imperium Monarchicum locum habet, sicut et ea, ubi Optimi imperant, debet institui, ne in Tyrannidem ... Read »


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    • Transformative social change

    • Transformative social change is a philosophical, practical and strategic process to affect revolutionary change within society, i.e., social transformation. It is effectively a systems approach applied to broad-based social change and social justice efforts to catalyze sociocultural, socioeconomic and political revolut ... Read »


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    • Transnational governance

    • Transnational governance, within a European Union framework, is both a subset of governance in general and an application of it to situations outside its usual limits of corporate or governmental hierarchies, whether regional or national. When such disparate hierarchies within the EU find common goals, typically within ... Read »


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    • Truth

    • Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to self," or authenticity. The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also take on a logi ... Read »


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    • Unitary executive theory

    • The unitary executive theory is a theory of American constitutional law holding that the President possesses the power to control the entire executive branch. The doctrine is rooted in Article Two of the United States Constitution, which vests "the executive power" of the United States in the President. Although that ... Read »


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    • United States of the West

    • The United States of the West is a political union satirically advocated by French writer, philosopher, social commentator, and self-proclaimed mediologist, Régis Debray (born 1940), in his short essay entitled, "Empire 2.0: A Modest Proposal for a United States of the West by Xavier de C***." Empire 2.0 is pre ... Read »


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    • Virtù


    • Wagnerism

    • Wagnerism has a number of meanings: The first two of these aspects were promoted, often in distorted form, by the Nazi regime in Germany. Adolf Hitler argued that "Germany would be impossible without Wagner and all he represents." ... Read »


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    • Western conservatism

    • Western conservatism generally refers to a political orientation prevalent in the Western United States that some might otherwise call libertarian conservatism, Jeffersonian conservatism, or in some circles, classical liberalism, typified by politicians like Barry Goldwater,Ronald Reagan,Ron and Rand Paul,Rick Perry, a ... Read »


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    • What is a Nation?


    • Whiggism

    • Whiggism, in North America sometimes spelled Whigism, is a historical political philosophy that grew out of the Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651). The Whigs' key policy positions were the supremacy of Parliament (as opposed to that of the king), tolerance of Protestant dissenter ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Political philosophy

Extras