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    • 16th-century philosophy

    • 16th-century philosophy is generally regarded as the later part of Renaissance philosophy. Early 16th-century philosophy is often called the High Renaissance and is considered to succeed the Renaissance philosophy era and precede the Age of Rationalism. Notable philosophers from the time period include, Bartolomé d ... Read »


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    • 1000-Word Philosophy

    • 1000-Word Philosophy is a philosophy blog that publishes introductory 1000-word (or less) essays on philosophical topics. Most of the authors are the students and graduates of the University of Colorado at Boulder. The blog is created and edited by Andrew D. Chapman, a philosophy lecturer at this university. The essays ... Read »


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    • 1536 in philosophy

    • 1536 in philosophy ... Read »


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    • 1649 in philosophy

    • 1649 in philosophy ... Read »


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    • 1658 in philosophy

    • 1658 in philosophy ... Read »


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    • 1926 in philosophy

    • 1926 in philosophy ... Read »


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    • 1983 in philosophy

    • 1983 in philosophy ... Read »


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    • 1991 in philosophy

    • 1991 in philosophy ... Read »


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    • 2016 in philosophy

    • 2016 in philosophy The following list is arranged alphabetically: Birth years link to the corresponding "[year] in philosophy" article: ... Read »


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    • Absolute theory

    • In physics and philosophy, absolute theory usually refers to a theory based on concepts (such as the concept of space) that exist independently of other concepts and objects. An absolute theory is the opposite of a relational theory. ... Read »


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    • Abstract particulars

    • Abstract particulars are metaphysical entities which are both abstract objects and particulars. Individual numbers are often classified as abstract particulars because they are neither concrete objects nor universals — they are particular things which do not themselves occur in space or time. Tropes are anoth ... Read »


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    • Abstract process

    • The term abstract process refers to abstractions as being distinguishable as processes—i.e., as concepts which carry a meaning of functionality and operation with regard to other concepts. Within the study of abstractions, the term is used to refer to processes as distinct from "concepts" or other objects which ca ... Read »


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    • Abstractionism

    • Abstractionism is the theory that the mind obtains some or all of its concepts by abstracting them from concepts it already has, or from experience. One may, for example, abstract 'green' from a set of experiences which involve green along with other properties. Also, for example, one may abstract a generic concept lik ... Read »


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    • Accidental necessity

    • In philosophy and logic, accidental necessity, often stated in its Latin form, necessitas per accidens, refers to the necessity attributed to the past by certain views of time. It is a controversial concept: its supporters argue that it has intuitive validity while others contest it creates a contradiction in terms by ... Read »


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    • Accidentalism (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, accidentalism denies the causal closure of physical determinism and maintains that events can succeed one another haphazardly or by chance (not in the mathematical but in the popular sense). Opponents of accidentalism maintain that what seems to be a chance occurrence is actually the result of one or mor ... Read »


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    • Actus primus

    • Actus primus is a technical expression used in scholastic philosophy. The Latin word actus means determination, complement. In every being there are many actualities, which are subordinated. Thus existence supposes essence; power supposes existence; action supposes faculty. The first actuality (actus primus) begins a ... Read »


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    • Ad nauseam

    • Ad nauseam is a Latin term for argument or other discussion that has continued 'to [the point of] nausea'. For example, the sentence "This topic has been discussed ad nauseam" signifies that the topic in question has been discussed extensively, and that those involved in the discussion have grown tired of it. The falla ... Read »


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    • Adrsta

    • Adrsta (Sanskrit: अदृष्ट, Adr̥ṣṭa) is a concept in Indian philosophy which means that which is "unobserved, not seen, invisible". The concept of adrsta is discussed in the Vaiśeá¹£ika SÅ«tra, the main text of the Vaisheshika Hindu school of philosophy, as part of its ... Read »


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    • Affectionism

    • Affectionism is a school of thought which considers affections as central importance. Although it is not found in mainstream Western philosophy, it does exist in Indian philosophy. ... Read »


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    • Agathos kai sophos

    • Agathos kai sophos (Ancient Greek: ἀγαθὸς καὶ σοφὸς) is a phrase coined by Plato, which literally means "wise and good" in Greek. The Athenians used this phrase to describe the qualities of an honest man. Plato apparently derived this phrase from an earlier kalos ka ... Read »


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    • Ageneros

    • Ageneros, Aristotle's "On the Heavens", used when referring to a universe that has been created in his work. It means never existed or never created. It is a Greek concept. ... Read »


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    • Ahistoricism

    • Ahistoricism refers to a lack of concern for history, historical development, or tradition. Charges of ahistoricism are frequently critical, implying that the subject is historically inaccurate or ignorant (for example, an ahistorical attitude). It can also describe a person's failure to frame an argument or issue in ... Read »


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    • Amour de soi

    • Amour de soi (French, "love of self") is a concept in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that refers to the kind of self-love that humans share with brute animals and predates the appearance of society. Acts committed out of amour de soi tend to be for individual well-being. They are naturally good and not malicio ... Read »


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    • Amour-propre

    • Amour-propre (French, "self-love") is a concept in the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau that depends upon the opinion of others. Rousseau contrasts it with amour de soi, which also means "self-love", but which does not involve seeing oneself as others see one. According to Rousseau, amour de soi is more primitive a ... Read »


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    • Ampliative

    • Ampliative (from Latin ampliare, "to enlarge"), a term used mainly in logic, meaning "extending" or "adding to that which is already known." In Norman law, an "ampliation" was a postponement of a sentence in order to obtain further evidence. ... Read »


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    • Anangeon

    • Anangeon (Greek: ἀναγκαῖον, "necessary"), also known as dicaeologia (δικαιολογία, "a plea in defense"), is a specious method of argument, where the basis lies in inevitability or necessity. For example, "Yes, I missed school today, but I was sick and would ... Read »


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    • Anguish

    • Anguish is a term used in philosophy, often as a translation from the Latin for angst. It is a paramount feature of existentialist philosophy, in which anguish is often understood as the experience of an utterly free being in a world with zero absolutes (existential despair). In the theology of Kierkegaard, it refers t ... Read »


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    • Anima mundi

    • The world soul (Greek: ψυχὴ κόσμου, Latin: anima mundi) is, according to several systems of thought, an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet, which relates to our world in much the same way as the soul is connected to the human body. The idea originated with Plato ... Read »


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    • Animalism (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, animalism is a theory according to which we are human animals. Animalism is not a theory about personhood, that is, a theory about what it means to be a person. Animalists could hold that robots or angels were persons without that contradicting their animalism. The concept of animalism is among interes ... Read »


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    • Anthropopathism

    • Anthropopathism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος anthropos, "human" and πάθος pathos, "suffering") is the attribution of human emotions, or the ascription of human feelings or passions to a non-human being, generally to a deity. By comparison, the term anthropomorphism originally referred ... Read »


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    • Anti-individualism

    • Anti-individualism (also known as content externalism) is an approach to various areas of thought (both analytic and continental) including philosophy, the philosophy of psychology,French historical studies,literature,phenomenology and linguistics. The proponents arguing for anti-individualism in these areas have in co ... Read »


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    • Anti-nesting principle

    • In the philosophy of consciousness, the anti-nesting principle states that one state of consciousness cannot exist within another. Proponents of the anti-nesting principle include Giulio Tononi and Eric Schwitzgebel. ... Read »


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    • The Anti-Oedipus Papers

    • The Anti-Œdipus Papers

      The Anti-Œdipus Papers is a collection of journal entries and notes written between 1969 and 1973 by the French philosopher and psychotherapist Félix Guattari. These notes, addressed to Gilles Deleuze by Guattari in preparation for Anti-Oedipus, serve to substantiate their claims, finally bringing out the factory ... Read »


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    • Apophantic

    • Apophantic (Greek: ἀποφαντικός, "declaratory", from ἀποφαίνειν apophainein, "to show, to make known") is a term Aristotle coined to mean a specific type of declaratory statement that can determine the truth or falsity of a logical proposition or phenome ... Read »


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    • Appeal to ridicule

    • Appeal to ridicule (also called appeal to mockery, ab absurdo, or the horse laugh), is an informal fallacy which presents an opponent's argument as absurd, ridiculous, or in any way humorous, to the specific end of a foregone conclusion that the argument lacks any substance which would merit consideration. Appeal to r ... Read »


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    • Arborescent

    • Arborescent is a term used by the French thinkers Deleuze and Guattari to characterize thinking marked by insistence on totalizing principles, binarism and dualism. The term, first used in A Thousand Plateaus (1980) where it was opposed to the rhizome, comes from the way genealogy trees are drawn: unidirectional progre ... Read »


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    • Aretology

    • An aretology (from ancient Greek aretê, "excellence, virtue") in the strictest sense is a narrative about a divine figure's miraculous deeds. In the Greco-Roman world, aretologies represent a religious branch of rhetoric and are a prose development of the hymn as praise poetry. Asclepius, Isis, and Serapis are among ... Read »


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    • Argument from degree

    • The argument from degrees or the degrees of perfection argument is an argument for the existence of God first proposed by mediaeval Roman Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas as one of the five ways to philosophically argue in favour of God's existence in his Summa Theologica. It is based on ontological and theological n ... Read »


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    • Argumentum ad baculum

    • Argumentum ad baculum (Latin for "argument to the cudgel" or "appeal to the stick") is the fallacy committed when one appeals to force or the threat of force to bring about the acceptance of a conclusion. One participates in argumentum ad baculum when one points out the negative consequences of holding the contrary pos ... Read »


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    • Artificial philosophy

    • Artificial philosophy is a theory presented by author Louis Molnar to consider what artificial intelligence (AI) might consider about their own existence once they reach a higher state of consciousness. The author reasons in his paper that at some point, either through programming or organic self-development, that rob ... Read »


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    • Associationism

    • Associationism is the idea that mental processes operate by the association of one mental state with its successor states. The idea is first recorded in Plato and Aristotle, especially with regard to the succession of memories. Members of the principally British "Associationist School", including John Locke, David ... Read »


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    • Australasian Society for Continental Philosophy

    • Australasian Society for Continental Philosophy (ASCP) is a society dedicated to providing a broad intellectual forum for the scholars researching in continental philosophy. The society was established in Melbourne in 1995. Joanne Faulkner is the chair of the society. ... Read »


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    • Balance (metaphysics)

    • In the metaphysical or conceptual sense, balance is used to mean a point between two opposite forces that is desirable over purely one state or the other, such as a balance between the metaphysical Law and Chaos — law by itself being overly controlling, chaos being overly unmanageable, balance being the point that ... Read »


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    • Basic limiting principle

    • A Basic Limiting Principle (B.L.P.) is a general principle that limits our explanations metaphysically or epistemologically, and which normally goes unquestioned or even unnoticed in our everyday or scientific thinking. The term was introduced by the philosopher C. D. Broad in his 1949 paper "The Relevance of Psychical ... Read »


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    • Belief–desire–intention model


    • Biofacticity

    • Biofacticity is a philosophical concept that allows to identify a living object as a so-called biofact, i.e. a semi-natural living entitiy in which has been biotechnically interfered during its life-span, e.g. transgenic plants or cloned organisms. Biofacticity is an epistemological and ontological term that reflects u ... Read »


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    • Gustavo Bontadini

    • Gustavo Bontadini (27 March 1903 in Milan-12 April 1990) was an Italian philosopher, writer, and a teacher. He was born in Milan and died in 1990, aged 87. Bontadini was also a influential representative known for Neo-Scholasticism in the 20th century. From 1951 to 1973, he became a professor of Theoretical philosophy ... Read »


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    • Bracketing (phenomenology)

    • Bracketing (German: Einklammerung; also called epoché, or phenomenological reduction) is a term in the philosophical movement of phenomenology describing the act of suspending judgment about the natural world to instead focus on analysis of experience. Phenomenology, developed by Edmund Husserl (1859–1938) ... Read »


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    • Brainstorm machine

    • In the philosophy of mind, the Brainstorm machine is a thought experiment described by Daniel Dennett, to show that it is not possible to intersubjectively compare any two individuals' personal experiences, or qualia, even with perfect technology. It is based on a device described in the film Brainstorm, in which the v ... Read »


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    • Byzantine rhetoric

    • Byzantine rhetoric — of the Byzantine Empire — followed largely the precepts of ancient Greek rhetoricians, especially those belonging to the Second Sophistic that extended from the time of Augustus through the fifth century CE. Rhetoric was the most important and difficult topic studied in the Byzantine edu ... Read »


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    • Cambridge change

    • A Cambridge change is a philosophical concept of change according to which an entity x has changed if and only if there is some predicate F that is true (not true) of x at a time t1 but not true (true) of x at some later time t2. The term Cambridge change was coined by Peter Geach in the late 1960s, in reference to Ru ... Read »


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    • Canon (basic principle)

    • The concept of canon is very broad; in a general sense it refers to being a rule or a body of rules. There are definitions that state it as: “the body of rules, principles, or standards accepted as axiomatic and universally binding in a field of study or art”. This can be related to such topics as literary ca ... Read »


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    • Cardinal Mercier Prize for International Philosophy

    • The Cardinal Mercier Prize for International Philosophy is a prize given to recognise the recipients contribution to International Philosophy. The prize is named after the theologian Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier and has been won by Archbishop Fulton Sheen in 1923,John F. Wippel in 1981 and also Nicholas Rescher ... Read »


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    • Cartesian anxiety

    • Cartesian anxiety refers to the notion that, ever since René Descartes promulgated his influential form of body-mind dualism, Western civilization has suffered from a longing for ontological certainty, or feeling that scientific methods, and especially the study of the world as a thing separate from ourselves, shoul ... Read »


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    • Cartesian Other

    • The Cartesian Other is the counterpart to the Cartesian Self. According to Descartes, there is a divide intrinsic to human consciousness, such that you cannot ever bridge the space between your own consciousness and that of another. This "other" is in essence theoretical, since one cannot ever be empirically shown suc ... Read »


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    • Cartesian Self

    • In philosophy, the Cartesian Self is the counterpart to the Cartesian Other. According to Descartes, there is a divide intrinsic to human consciousness, such that one cannot ever bridge the space between one's own consciousness and that of another. Descartes concluded famously that Cogito Ergo Sum, "I think, therefore ... Read »


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    • Catorthoseis

    • Catorthoseis is a term first noted by Marcus Aurelius in his book Meditations based on Stoic philosophy. The term denotes the use of a philosophical approach based on right acts which follow a logical pattern. ... Read »


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    • Causa sui

    • Causa sui (Latin pronunciation: [kawsa sʊi], meaning "cause of itself" in Latin) denotes something which is generated within itself. This concept was central to the works of Baruch Spinoza, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Ernest Becker, where it relates to the purpose that objects can assign to themselves. I ... Read »


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    • Causal chain

    • In philosophy, a causal chain is an ordered sequence of events in which any one event in the chain causes the next. Some philosophers believe causation relates facts, not events, in which case the meaning is adjusted accordingly. Some philosophers believe that causality may not exist if determinism is true, as causali ... Read »


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    • Causal model

    • A causal model is an abstract model that describes the causal mechanisms of a system. The model must express more than correlation because correlation does not imply causation. Judea Pearl defines a causal model as an ordered triple ⟨U,V,E⟩{\displaystyle \langle U,V,E\rangle }, where U is a set of exogenous ... Read »


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    • Causalism

    • Causalism holds behavior and actions to be the result of previous , such as beliefs, desires, or intentions, rather than from a present conscious will guiding one's actions. Causalism is in accord with how most people have traditionally explained their actions, but critics point out that certain habitual actions such a ... Read »


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    • Causeless cause

    • Causeless Cause (or Uncaused Cause, All-Cause) in Theosophy, is 'An Omnipresent, Eternal, Boundless, and Immutable Principle...' also described as 'infinity' to (impersonal) 'intelligence' & (divine) 'spirit' & 'consciousness' (but also non-consciousness or at least unconsciousness) & 'essence' to 'the one life.' Caus ... Read »


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    • Centered world

    • A centered world, according to David Kellogg Lewis, consists of (1) a possible world, (2) an agent in that world, and (3) a time in that world. The concept of centered worlds has epistemic as well as metaphysical uses; for the latter, the three components of a centered world have connections to theories such as actuali ... Read »


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    • Chaordic organization

    • A chaordic organization refers to a system of organization that blends characteristics of chaos and . The term was coined by Dee Hock, the founder and former CEO of the VISA credit card association. The mix of chaos and order is often described as a harmonious coexistence displaying characteristics of both, with neith ... Read »


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    • Chemism

    • Chemism refers to forces of attraction or adhesion between entities. It has uses in chemistry and philosophy. In the past, chemism referred to intramolecular forces between atoms, or more generally, any forces acting on atoms and molecules. It is now typically superseded by more precise terms such as hydrogen interact ... Read »


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    • Cheng-Zhu school

    • The Cheng–Zhu school (Chinese: 程朱理學; pinyin: Chéng ZhÅ« lÄ­xué), is one of the major philosophical schools of Neo-Confucianism, based on the ideas of the Neo-Confucian philosophers Cheng Yi, Cheng Hao, and Zhu Xi. Zhu Xi's formulation of the Neo-Confucian world view is as follows. He ... Read »


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    • Chronocentrism

    • Chronocentrism is a prioritization of certain time periods (typically the present) as being better, more important, or a more significant frame of reference than other time periods (either past or future). Chronocentrism (from the Greek meaning "time") was coined by sociologist Jib Fowles in an article in the jou ... Read »


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    • Clarity test

    • In decision analysis, the clarity test (or clairvoyant test) is a test of how well a model element is defined. Although nothing (outside a formal system) can be completely defined, the clarity test allows the decision participants to determine whether such elements as variables, events, outcomes, and alternatives are s ... Read »


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    • Class (philosophy)

    • In at least one source, a "class" is a set in which an individual member can be recognized in one or both of two ways: a) it is included in an extensional definition of the whole set (a list of set members) b) it matches an Intensional definition of one set member. By contrast, a "type" is an intensional definition; it ... Read »


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    • Closed circle

    • A closed circle argument is one that is unfalsifiable. Psychoanalytic theory, for example, is held up by the proponents of Karl Popper as an example of an ideology rather than a science. A patient regarded by his psychoanalyst as "in denial" about his sexual orientation may be viewed as confirming he is homosexual sim ... Read »


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    • Closed concept

    • A closed concept is a concept where all the necessary and sufficient conditions required to include something within the concept can be listed. For example, the concept of a triangle is closed because a three-sided polygon, and only a three-sided polygon, is a triangle. All the conditions required to call something a t ... Read »


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    • Co-premise

    • A co-premise is a premise in reasoning and informal logic which is not the main supporting reason for a contention or a lemma, but is logically necessary to ensure the validity of an argument. One premise by itself, or a group of co-premises can form a reason. Every significant term or phrase appearing in a premise of ... Read »


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    • Cognitive description

    • Cognitive description is a term used in psychology to describe the cognitive workings of the human mind. A cognitive description specifies what information is utilized during a cognitive action, how this information is processed and transformed, what data structures are used, and what behaviour is generated. ... Read »


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    • Cognitive ontology

    • Cognitive ontology is ontology (study of being) which begins from features of human cognition directly, as opposed to its collective summary which is reflected in language. The more radical forms of it challenge also the central position of mathematics as "just another language" which biases human cognition. Perceptual ... Read »


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    • Complex equality

    • Complex equality is a theory of justice outlined by Michael Walzer in his work Spheres of Justice. The theory posits that inequalities in the several spheres of society should not invade one another. Walzer's definition of complex equality is: In formal terms, complex equality means that no citizen's standing in one ... Read »


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    • Compossibility

    • Compossibility is a philosophical concept from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. According to Leibniz, a complete individual thing (for example a person) is characterized by all its properties, and these determine its relations with other individuals. The existence of one individual may contradict the existence of another. A ... Read »


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    • Conceptual necessity

    • Conceptual necessity is a property of the certainty with which a state of affairs, as presented by a certain description, occurs: it occurs by conceptual necessity if and only if it occurs just by virtue of the meaning of the description. If someone is a bachelor, for instance, then he is bound to be unmarried by conce ... Read »


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    • Condition of possibility

    • Condition of possibility (Bedingungen der Möglichkeit) is a philosophical concept made popular by Immanuel Kant. A condition of possibility is a necessary framework for the possible appearance of a given list of entities. It is often used in contrast to the unilateral causality concept, or even to the notion of int ... Read »


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    • Conscious evolution

    • Conscious evolution refers to the claim that humanity has acquired the ability to choose what the species Homo sapiens becomes in the future, based on recent advancements in science, medicine, technology, psychology, sociology, and spirituality. Conscious evolution assumes that human beings may be positioned at the cre ... Read »


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    • Constructional system

    • A constructional system or a constitution system is a system of objects or concepts of a certain domain in which all objects or concepts of that domain can be logically constructed from a proper subset of those objects or concepts, called the basis of the system. The notion of constructional systems can be traced bac ... Read »


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    • Context principle

    • In the philosophy of language, the context principle is a form of semantic holism holding that a philosopher should "never ... ask for the meaning of a word in isolation, but only in the context of a proposition" (Frege [1884/1980] x). The context principle is one of Gottlob Frege's "three fundamental principles" ... Read »


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    • Contextual empiricism

    • Contextual empiricism is a theory about validating scientific knowledge. It is the view that scientific knowledge is shaped by contextual values as well as constitutive ones. ... Read »


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    • Core ontology

    • In philosophy, a core ontology is a basic and minimal ontology consisting only of the minimal concepts required to understand the other concepts. It must be based on a core glossary in some human language so humans can comprehend the concepts and distinctions made. Each natural language tends to rely on its own concept ... Read »


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    • Cosmography

    • Cosmography is the science that maps the general features of the cosmos or universe, describing both heaven and Earth (but without encroaching on geography or astronomy). The 14th-century work 'Aja'ib al-makhluqat wa-ghara'ib al-mawjudat by Arab physician Zakariya al-Qazwini is considered to be an early work of cosmogr ... Read »


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    • Cosmotheology

    • The term cosmotheology, along with the term "ontotheology", was invented by Immanuel Kant "in order to distinguish between two competing types of "transcendental theology". Kant defined the relationship between ontotheology and cosmostheology as follows: "Transcendental theology aims either at inferring the existence ... Read »


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    • Cratylism

    • Cratylism as a philosophical theory reflects the teachings of the Athenian Cratylus (Ancient Greek: Κρατύλος, also transliterated as Kratylos), fl. mid to late 5th century BCE. Vaguely exegetical, it holds that the fluid nature of ideas, words, and communications leaves them fundamentally bas ... Read »


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    • Credo ut intelligam

    • Credo ut intelligam (alternatively spelled Credo ut intellegam) is Latin for "I believe so that I may understand" and is a maxim of Anselm of Canterbury (Proslogion, 1), which is based on a saying of Augustine of Hippo (crede, ut intelligas, "believe so that you may understand"; Tract. Ev. Jo., 29.6) to relate faith an ... Read »


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    • Critical philosophy

    • Attributed to Immanuel Kant, the critical philosophy (German: kritische Philosophie) movement sees the primary task of philosophy as criticism rather than justification of knowledge; criticism, for Kant, meant judging as to the possibilities of knowledge before advancing to knowledge itself (from the Greek kritike (tec ... Read »


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    • Critical practice

    • Critical practice is the methodology used by a critic or observer to understand and evaluate a field of knowledge. While sometimes the fields of knowledge studied are academic, non-academic fields such as merchandising, law enforcement and medical clinical practice have been extensively studied. Critical practice is gr ... Read »


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    • Critique of ideology

    • The critique of ideology is a concept in critical theory. It entails the submission of received understanding to critical reappropriation for the purpose of human emancipation. An important part of ideology critique has to do with “looking suspiciously at works of art and debunking them as tools of oppression.†... Read »


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    • Czech philosophy

    • Czech philosophy, has often eschewed "pure" speculative philosophy, emerging rather in the course of intellectual debates in the fields of education (e.g. Jan Amos Komenský), art (e.g. Karel Teige), literature (e.g. Milan Kundera), and especially politics (e.g. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Karel Kosík, Ivan Svit ... Read »


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    • Danish philosophy

    • Danish philosophy has a long tradition as part of Western philosophy. Perhaps the most influential Danish philosopher was Søren Kierkegaard, the creator of Christian existentialism, which inspired the philosophical movement of Existentialism. Kierkegaard had a few Danish followers, including Harald Høffding, who ... Read »


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    • De se

    • De se is Latin for "of oneself" and, in philosophy, it is a phrase used to mark off what some believe to be a category of ascription distinct from "de dicto and de re". A sentence such as: "Peter thinks that he is pale" where the pronoun "he" is meant to refer to Peter is ambiguous in a way not captured by the de dict ... Read »


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    • Defeasibility

    • Defeasibility is the property of something – such as a contract, a proposition or an understanding – that can be annulled, invalidated, or similarly "defeated". In law, it refers to the possibility of a contract or other legal agreement being terminated by circumstances that arise later, or of legal reasoning ... Read »


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    • Defensivism

    • Defensivism is a philosophical standpoint related in spirit to the Non-aggression principle. It is also a midway point between other combat-based philosophies, that of Just War and Pacifism. The standpoint of Defensivism is that only Defensive actions are moral. You may move to someone's aid as long as they are in imm ... Read »


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    • Definitionism

    • Definitionism (also called the classical theory of concepts) is the school of thought in which it is believed that a proper explanation of a theory consists of all the concepts used by that theory being well-defined. This approach has been criticized for its dismissal of the importance of ostensive definitions. ... Read »


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    • Delegate model of representation

    • The delegate model of representation is a model of a representative democracy. In this model, constituents elect their representatives as delegates for their constituency. These delegates act only as a mouthpiece for the wishes of their constituency, and have no from the constituency. This model does not provide repre ... Read »


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    • Derech Hashem

    • Derech HaShem (The "Way of God") is a philosophical text written in the 1730s by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto. It systematizes the basic principles of Jewish belief regarding the existence of God, God's purpose in creation, and the logical consequence of other concepts in Judaism. The reader is led from thought to idea, ... Read »


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    • Diamond net

    • "Diamond net" is a metaphor Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel uses in his Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences for “the entire range of the universal determinations of thought…into which everything is brought and thereby first made intelligible.” In other words, the diamond net of which Hegel speaks is ... Read »


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    • Disciplinary institution

    • Disciplinary institutions (French: institution disciplinaire) is a concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975). School, prison, barracks, or the hospital are examples of historical disciplinary institutions, all created in their modern form in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution. Dis ... Read »


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    • Disposition

    • A disposition is an artificial habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way that may be learned. The terms dispositional belief and occurrent belief refer, in the former case, to a belief that is held in the mind but not currently being considered, and in the latter case, to a be ... Read »


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    • Distinction without a difference

    • A distinction without a difference is a type of logical fallacy where an author or speaker attempts to describe a distinction between two things where no discernible difference exists. It is particularly used when a word or phrase has connotations associated with it that one party to an argument prefers to avoid. ... Read »


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    • Downward causation

    • In philosophy, downward causation is a causal relationship from higher levels of a system to lower-level parts of that system: for example, mental events acting to cause physical events, The term was originally coined in 1974 by the philosopher and social scientist Donald T. Campbell. According to practopoietic th ... Read »


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    • Doxography

    • Doxography (Greek: δόξα - "an opinion, a point of view" + γράφειν - "to write, to describe") is a term used especially for the works of classical historians, describing the points of view of past philosophers and scientists. The term was coined by the German classical scholar Hermann Al ... Read »


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    • Dual consciousness

    • Dual consciousness is a concept developed by Frantz Fanon in his book Black Skins, White Masks. It deals with the nature of the colonized subject, and the way in which they must simultaneously embrace two different cultural identities. It is mostly used in discussions of post-colonialism, but is also important to othe ... Read »


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    • Dyad (Greek philosophy)

    • The Dyad is a title used by the Pythagoreans for the number two, representing the principle of "twoness" or "otherness". Numenius of Apamea, a Neopythagorean philosopher in the latter 2nd century CE, said that Pythagoras gave the name of Monad to God, and the name of Dyad to matter. Aristotle equated matter as the for ... Read »


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    • Dysteleology

    • Dysteleology is the philosophical view that existence has no telos or final cause from purposeful design. The term "dysteleology" is a modern word invented and popularized by Ernst Haeckel. Dysteleology is an aggressive, yet optimistic, form of science-oriented atheism originally perhaps associated with Haeckel and his ... Read »


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    • Early modern philosophy

    • Early modern philosophy is a period in the history of philosophy at the beginning or overlapping with the period known as modern philosophy. The early modern period in history is roughly 1500-1800, but the label "early modern philosophy" is sometimes used to refer to a more specific period of time. In the narrowest se ... Read »


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    • Earth immune system

    • The Earth immune system is a controversial proposal, claimed to be a consequence of the Gaia hypothesis. The Gaia hypothesis holds that the entire earth may be considered a single organism (Gaia). As a self-maintaining organism, Earth would have an immune system of some sort in order to maintain its health. Some propo ... Read »


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    • Eidetic reduction

    • Eidetic reduction is a technique in the study of essences in phenomenology whose goal is to identify the basic components of phenomena. Eidetic reduction requires that a phenomenologist examine the essence of a mental object, be it a simple mental act, or the unity of consciousness itself, with the intention of drawing ... Read »


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    • Eikasia

    • The term eikasía (Ancient Greek: εἰκασία), meaning imagination in Greek, was used by Plato to refer to a human way of dealing with appearances. It is the inability to perceive whether a perception is an image of something else. It therefore prevents us from perceiving that a dream or memor ... Read »


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    • Ekpyrosis

    • Ekpyrosis (/ˌɛkpɪˈroʊsɪs/; Ancient Greek: ἐκπύρωσις ekpírōsis, "conflagration") is a Stoic belief in the periodic destruction of the cosmos by a great conflagration every Great Year. The cosmos is then recreated (palingenesis) only to be destroyed again at the end ... Read »


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    • Emergent materialism

    • In the philosophy of mind, emergent (or emergentist) materialism is a theory which asserts that the mind is an irreducible existent in some sense, albeit not in the sense of being an ontological simple, and that the study of mental phenomena is independent of other sciences. The view can be divided into emergence whic ... Read »


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    • Empirical limits in science

    • In philosophy of science, the empirical limits of science define problems with observation, and thus are limits of human ability to inquire and answer questions about phenomena. These include topics such as infinity, the future and god. In the 20th century several of these were well-documented or proposed in physics: ... Read »


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    • Enantiosis

    • Enantiosis, synoeciosis or discordia concors is a rhetorical device in which opposites are juxtaposed so that the contrast between them is striking. Examples include the famous maxim of Augustus, festina lente (hasten slowly), and the following passage from Paul's second letter to the Corinthians: Dr. Johnson in his L ... Read »


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    • Endoxa

    • Endoxa (Greek: ἔνδοξα) derives from the word doxa (δόξα, meaning "beliefs", "opinions"). Whereas Plato condemned doxa as a starting point from which to attain truth, Aristotle used the term endoxa – in the sense of "commonplace", "everyday", "consensus" – to identify a gr ... Read »


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    • Endurantism

    • Endurantism or endurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity. According to the endurantist view material objects are persisting three-dimensional individuals wholly present at every moment of their existence. This conception of an individual as always present, is opposed to perdurantism or four ... Read »


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    • Energeticism

    • Energeticism is the ontology, or philosophy of being, which holds that all things are ultimately composed of energy. It is opposed to ontological materialism and idealism. Energeticism might be associated with the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, though his attitude to it is ambiguous. It is a theory that is large ... Read »


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    • Entention

    • Entention is a neologism coined by biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon in his 2011 book Incomplete Nature. The term is deliberately similar to the term intention, which has a long history of use in philosophy of mind, but was designed to have a broader scope. "Ententional" is an adjective that applies to the clas ... Read »


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    • Epilogism

    • Epilogism is a style of Inference invented by the ancient Empiric school of medicine. It is a theory-free method of looking at history by accumulating fact with minimal generalization and being conscious of the side effects of making causal claims. Epilogism is an inference which moves entirely within the domain of vis ... Read »


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    • Epiphany Philosophers

    • The Epiphany Philosophers was a group of philosophers, scientists and religious (priests, nuns and monks) who met regularly and published between 1950 and 2010. Their founders included Margaret Masterman, Richard Braithwaite, Dorothy Emmet, Robert H. Thouless, Michael Argyle and Ted Bastin. Later members included Kwame ... Read »


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    • Equality of autonomy

    • Equality of autonomy is a political philosophy concept of Amartya Sen that argues "that the ability and means to choose our life course should be spread as equally as possible across society"—i.e., an equal chance at autonomy or empowerment. Equality of autonomy strives to spread empowerment widely so that "given ... Read »


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    • Equality of sacrifice

    • Equality of sacrifice is a term used in political theory and political philosophy to refer to the perceived fairness of a coercive policy. John Stuart Mill noticed that citizens often view taxation laws as being fair, as long as taxation is also applied equally to everyone else in society. Political theorist Margaret ... Read »


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    • Eretrian school

    • The Eretrian school of philosophy was originally the School of Elis where it had been founded by Phaedo of Elis; it was later transferred to Eretria by his pupil Menedemus. It can be referred to as the Elian–Eretrian School, on the assumption that the views of the two schools were similar. It died out after the ti ... Read »


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    • Eternal feminine

    • The eternal feminine is a psychological archetype or philosophical principle that idealizes an immutable concept of "woman". It is one component of gender essentialism, the belief that men and women have different core "essences" that cannot be altered by time or environment. The conceptual ideal was particularly vivid ... Read »


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    • Ethnophilosophy

    • Ethnophilosophy is the study of indigenous philosophical systems. The implicit concept is that a specific culture can have a philosophy that is not applicable and accessible to all peoples and cultures in the world; however, this concept is disputed by traditional philosophers. An example of ethnophilosophy is African ... Read »


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    • Eunoia

    • In rhetoric, eunoia is the goodwill a speaker cultivates between himself/herself and his/her audience, a condition of receptivity. It comes from the Greek word εὔνοια, meaning "well mind" or "beautiful thinking". In book eight of Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle uses the term to refer to the kind and b ... Read »


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    • Euthymia (philosophy)

    • Euthymia (Greek: ευθυμία, "gladness, good mood, serenity", literally "good thumos"). Democritus used this term in ancient philosophy to refer to one of the root aspects of human life's goal. Diogenes Laertius records Democritus' position as "The chief good he asserts to be cheerfulness (euthymia); ... Read »


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    • Eutrapelia

    • Eutrapelia comes from the Greek for 'wittiness' (εὐτραπελία), referring to pleasantness in conversation. It is one of Aristotle's virtues, the "golden mean" between boorishness (ἀγροικία) and buffoonery (βωμολοχία). Later on it came to ... Read »


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    • Evidential existentiality

    • The principle of evidential existentiality in Philosophy is a principle that explains and gives value to the existence of entities. The principle states that the reality of an entity's existence gives greater value to prove its existence than would be given through any outward studies. The principle has become a backbo ... Read »


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    • Exact sciences

    • The exact sciences, sometimes called the exact mathematical sciences are those sciences "which admit of absolute precision in their results"; especially the mathematical sciences. Examples of the exact sciences are mathematics, optics, astronomy, and physics, which many philosophers from Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant to ... Read »


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    • Exclusivism

    • Exclusivism is the practice of being ; mentality characterized by the disregard for opinions and ideas other than one's own, or the practice of organizing entities into groups by excluding those entities which possess certain traits. (for an opposite example, see essentialism). Religious exclusivism asserts that one r ... Read »


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    • Existential phenomenology

    • Existential phenomenology is Martin Heidegger's brand of phenomenology. In contrast with his former mentor Edmund Husserl, Heidegger (in his Being and Time) put ontology before epistemology and thought that phenomenology would have to be based on an observation and analysis of Dasein ("being-there"), human being, ... Read »


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    • Experimentalism

    • Experimentalism is the philosophical belief that the way to truth is through experiments and empiricism. It is also associated with instrumentalism, the belief that truth should be evaluated based upon its demonstrated usefulness. Less formally, artists often pursue their visions through trial and error; this form of ... Read »


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    • Extensional context

    • In philosophy of language, a context in which a sub-sentential expression e appears is called extensional if and only if e can be replaced by an expression with the same extension and necessarily preserve truth-value. The extension of a term is the set of objects that that term denotes. Take the case of Clark Kent, wh ... Read »


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    • Extensionalism

    • Extensionalism, in the philosophy of language, in logic and semantics, is the view that all languages or at least all scientific languages should be extensional. Rudolf Carnap (in his earlier work) and Willard Van Orman Quine were prominent proponents of this view. ... Read »


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    • Extensionism

    • Extensionism holds that all objects and events extend indefinitely through time and space. Because of constraints inherent in human (and perhaps animal) perceptual apparatus we tend to regard all objects in the world as coherent and discrete, a limitation Professor Robert Pepperell considers to be caused, in part, by " ... Read »


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    • Extrinsic finality

    • Extrinsic finality is a principle of the philosophy of teleology that holds that a being has a final cause or purpose external to that being itself, in contrast to an intrinsic finality, or self-contained purpose. One example is the view that minerals are "designed" to be used by plants that are in turn "designed" to b ... Read »


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    • Facticity

    • In philosophy, facticity (French: facticité, German: Faktizität) has a multiplicity of meanings from "factuality" and "contingency" to the intractable conditions of human existence. The term is first used by German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) and has a variety of meanings. It can refer to ... Read »


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    • Faculties of the soul

    • The faculties of the soul are the individual characteristics of a soul. There have been different attempts to define them over the centuries. Plato defined the faculties of the soul in terms of a three-fold division: the intellect (noûs), the nobler affections (thumós), and the appetites or passions (epithum ... Read »


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    • Fictionalism

    • Fictionalism is the view in philosophy according to which statements that appear to be descriptions of the world should not be construed as such, but should instead be understood as cases of "make believe", of pretending to treat something as literally true (a "useful fiction"). Two important strands of fictionalism ar ... Read »


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    • Law of holes

    • The first law of holes, or the law of holes, is an adage which states that "if you find yourself in a hole, stop digging". Meaning that if in an untenable position, it is best to stop carrying on and exacerbating the situation. The adage has been attributed to a number of sources. It appeared in print on page six of T ... Read »


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    • Foreknowledge

    • Foreknowledge is the concept of knowledge regarding future events. Types of foreknowledge include: ... Read »


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    • Four Sages

    • The Four Sages, Assessors, or Correlates (Chinese: ; pinyin: Sì Pèi) are four eminent Chinese philosophers in the Confucian tradition. They are traditionally accounted a kind of sainthood and their spirit tablets are prominently placed in Confucian temples, two upon the east and two upon the west side of the Hall ... Read »


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    • Freedom versus license

    • In moral and legal philosophy, there exists a distinction between the concepts of freedom and license. The former deals with the rights of the individual; the latter covers the expressed permission (or lack thereof) for more than one individual to engage in an activity. As a result, freedoms usually include rights whi ... Read »


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    • General intellect

    • General intellect, according to Karl Marx in his Grundrisse, became a crucial force of production. It is a combination of technological expertise and social intellect, or general social knowledge - increasing importance of machinery in social organization. "Nature builds no machines, no locomotives, railways, electric ... Read »


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    • Gestell

    • Gestell (or sometimes Ge-stell) is a German word used by twentieth-century German philosopher Martin Heidegger to describe what lies behind or beneath modern technology. He introduced the term in 1954 in his The Question Concerning Technology (the text is based on the lecture "The Framework" ("Das Gestell"), which he f ... Read »


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    • Gnosology

    • In philosophy, gnosology literally means the study of gnosis, meaning knowledge or esoteric knowledge. Gnosology has also been used to render Johann Gottlieb Fichte's term for his own version of transcendental idealism, Wissenschaftslehre, meaning "Doctrine of Knowledge". In cognitive psychology, gnosology refers to t ... Read »


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    • Great Rationality Debate

    • The Rationality Debate—also called the Great Rationality Debate—is the question of whether humans are rational or not. This issue is a topic in the study of cognition and is important in fields such as economics where it is relevant to the theories of market efficiency. Many studies in experimental psycholog ... Read »


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    • Grounding (metaphysics)

    • Grounding is a topic in metaphysics. One thing is sometimes said to "ground" another when the first in some way accounts for the being of the second. For example, it is sometimes claimed that facts about physical particles ground facts about larger objects. ... Read »


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    • Growth of knowledge

    • A term coined by Karl Popper in his work The Logic of Scientific Discovery to denote what he regarded as the main problem of methodology and the philosophy of science, i.e. to explain and promote the further growth of scientific knowledge. To this purpose, Popper advocated his theory of falsifiability, testability and ... Read »


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    • Guerrilla ontology

    • Guerilla ontology is a practice described by author Robert Anton Wilson in his 1980 book The Illuminati Papers as "the basic technique of all my books. Ontology is the study of being; the guerrilla approach is to so mix the elements of each book that the reader must decide on each page 'How much of this is real and how ... Read »


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    • Gymnosophy

    • Gymnosophy (from Greek γυμνός gymnós "naked" and σοφία sophía "wisdom") was a movement and a philosophy practiced in Europe and the USA from the end of the 19th century to the mid 20th century. The practice involved nudity, asceticism and meditation. In the early 20th century, th ... Read »


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    • Haecceitism

    • Haecceitism is the perspective implied by the belief that entities can have haecceity or individual essence, "a set of principles which are essential to it and distinguish it from everything else."James Ladyman characterizes haecceitism as "the claim that worlds can differ solo numero, that worlds can differ de re whil ... Read »


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    • Hedone

    • Hedone was the personification and goddess of pleasure, enjoyment, and delight. Hedone, also known as Voluptas in Roman mythology, is the daughter of the Greek gods Eros (Cupid) and Psyche. She was associated more specifically with sensual pleasure. Her opposites were the Algos, personifications of pain. Hēdonē ... Read »


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    • Henology

    • Henology (from Greek ἕν hen, "one") refers to the philosophical account or discourse on "The One" that appears most notably in the philosophy of Plotinus.Reiner Schürmann describes it as a "metaphysics of radical transcendence" that extends beyond being and intellection. It can be contrasted with ontology, a ... Read »


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    • Heroic theory of invention and scientific development

    • The heroic theory of invention and scientific development is the hypothesis that the principal authors of inventions and scientific discoveries are unique heroic individuals – "great scientists" or "geniuses." A competing hypothesis ("multiple discovery") is that most inventions and scientific discoveries are ... Read »


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    • Heuristic argument

    • A heuristic argument is an argument that reasons from the value of a method or principle that has been shown by experimental (especially trial-and-error) investigation to be a useful aid in learning, discovery and problem-solving. A widely used and important example of a heuristic argument is Occam's Razor. It is a sp ... Read »


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    • Higher-order volition

    • Higher-order volitions (or higher-order desire), as opposed to action-determining volitions, are volitions about volitions. Higher-order volitions are potentially more often guided by long-term convictions and reasoning. A first-order volition is a desire about anything else, such as to own a new car, to meet the pope ... Read »


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    • Historical determinism

    • Historical determinism is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism) assert a histori ... Read »


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    • Historical subject

    • Nietzsche's critique of the historical subject is based in the rejection of an existing substance in favor of forces and wills combining to form combinations, sometimes in the form of a consciousness. Heidegger later traced the concept of subject to the metaphysical concept of ousia to demonstrate the impossibility of ... Read »


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    • Homo faber

    • Homo faber (Latin for "Man the Maker") is the concept of human beings able to control their fate and their environment through tools. In Latin literature, Appius Claudius Caecus uses this term in his Sententiæ, referring to the ability of man to control his destiny and what surrounds him: Homo faber suae quisqu ... Read »


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    • Hyle

    • In philosophy, hyle (/ˈhaɪliː/; from Ancient Greek: ὕλη) refers to matter or stuff. It can also be the material cause underlying a change in Aristotelian philosophy. The Greeks originally had no word for matter in general, as opposed to raw material suitable for some specific purpose or other, so ... Read »


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    • Hyperuranion

    • Hyperuranion or topos hyperuranios (Ancient Greek: ὑπερουράνιον τόπον,accusative of ὑπερουράνιος τόπος, "place beyond heaven") is alternately a concept used by Plato to mean a perfect realm of archetypal ideas, ... Read »


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    • I'm entitled to my opinion


    • Idealistic pluralism

    • Idealistic pluralism is a philosophical position that suggests while an individual's understanding of the world might be limited to only the ideas within his or her mind, it can be known in this way by more than one mind. Idealistic pluralism rejects the idea of solipsism, which would be an idealistic monism. In the p ... Read »


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    • Idée reçue


    • Ideological repression

    • Ideological repression refers to forceful activities against competing ideologies and philosophies. Alan Wolfe defines ideological repression as "the attempt to manipulate people's consciousness so they accept the ruling ideology, and distrust and refuse to be moved by competing ideologies". Among instruments of ideo ... Read »


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    • Idios kosmos

    • Idios kosmos comes from Greek and means private world. It exists with, and is opposite to, koinos kosmos (shared world). Idios kosmos is the view of the world that is developed from personal experience and knowledge and is therefore unique; however, it can be difficult to tell the difference between it and koinos kosmo ... Read »


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    • Illusionism (philosophy)

    • Illusionism is a metaphysical theory first propounded by professor Saul Smilansky of the University of Haifa. It holds that people have illusory beliefs about free will. Furthermore, it holds that it is both of key importance and morally right that people not be disabused of these beliefs, because the illusion has bene ... Read »


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    • Immaculate perception

    • The expression immaculate perception has been used in various senses by various philosophers. Rapper 8Ball released a song in March 2012 titled "immaculate perception" featuring Waka Flocka Flame and Yelawolf. ... Read »


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    • Immanent evaluation

    • Immanent evaluation is a philosophical concept used by Gilles Deleuze in Nietzsche and Philosophy (1962), opposed to transcendent judgment. Friedrich Nietzsche had argued, in On the Genealogy of Morals, that moral philosophy was nihilist in its judgment of the world based on transcendent values: life was rejected by s ... Read »


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    • Immaterial force

    • Immaterial forces, such as those found in the concepts of entelechy and élan vital, are metaphysical forces. They often are related to magic, and are sometimes theorized to be what makes up spirits. They are similar to the concept of energy in esotericism. ... Read »


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    • Immediacy (philosophy)

    • Immediacy is a philosophical concept related to time and temporal perspectives, both visual, cognitive. Considerations of immediacy reflect on how we experience the world and what reality is. It possesses characteristics of both of the homophonic heterographs 'immanent' and 'imminent', and what entails to both within o ... Read »


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    • Impenetrability

    • In metaphysics, impenetrability is the name given to that quality of matter whereby two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same time.The philosopher John Toland argued that impenetrability and extension were sufficient to define matter, a contention strongly disputed by Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz. Locke con ... Read »


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    • Incarnational humanism

    • Incarnational humanism is a brand of humanism which affirms the value and essential goodness of human reason and culture. Developed in a Christian framework, incarnational humanism asserts a unification of the secular and the sacred with the goal of a common humanity. This unification is fully realized in the participa ... Read »


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    • Indian political philosophy

    • Indian political philosophy may be categorized into several distinct traditions, including: the Vedic (c. 1200 BCE - 10th century CE); the Jain-Buddhist-Hindu (6th century BCE - 2nd century CE); the Indo-Islamic (10th century CE-1857); the modern or Indo-British (c. 1857 - 1947); and the contemporary (post-independence ... Read »


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    • Inductionism

    • Inductionism is the scientific philosophy where laws are "induced" from sets of data. As an example, one might measure the strength of electrical forces at varying distances from charges and induce the inverse square law of electrostatics. ... Read »


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    • Infinite regress

    • An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of proposition P3, ... , the truth of proposition Pn−1 requires the support of proposition Pn, ad infinitum. Distinction is made between in ... Read »


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    • Inherence

    • Inherence refers to Empedocles' idea that the qualities of matter come from the relative proportions of each of the four elements entering into a thing. The idea was further developed by Plato and Aristotle. That Plato accepted (or at least did not reject) Empedocles' claim can be seen in the Timaeus. However, Plato a ... Read »


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    • Instant

    • An instant is an infinitesimal moment in time, a moment whose passage is instantaneous. The continuous nature of time and its infinite divisibility was addressed by Aristotle in his Physics, where he wrote on Zeno's paradoxes. The philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell was still seeking to define the exact nat ... Read »


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    • Instantiation principle

    • The principle of instantiation or principle of exemplification is the concept in metaphysics and logic that there can be no uninstantiated or unexemplified properties (or universals). In other words, it is impossible for a property to exist which is not had by some object. Consider a chair. Presumably chairs did not e ... Read »


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    • Internal measurement

    • The internal measurement is one of the measurement theories. From, we introduce the definition of the internal measurement. The experience consists of "unremitting measurements". These "unremitting measurements" appear only in the experience. In the experience, if any individual has a relation to another individual the ... Read »


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    • Interpretivism (legal)

    • Interpretivism is a school of thought in contemporary jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. The main claims of interpretivism are that In the English speaking world, interpretivism is usually identified with Ronald Dworkin's theses on the nature of law as discussed in his text titled Law's Empire, which is sometime ... Read »


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    • Intertheoretic reduction

    • In philosophy of science, intertheoretic reduction occurs when a reducing theory makes predictions that perfectly or almost perfectly match the predictions of a reduced theory, while the reducing theory explains or predicts a wider range of phenomena under more general conditions. Special relativity, for example, can b ... Read »


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    • Invincible error

    • An invincible error is, in Christian philosophy, a normally sinful action which is not considered sinful because it was committed through blameless ignorance that one's actions were harmful or otherwise prohibited. In the stated philosophy, a sin occurs when a person knowingly commits an evil act, meaning that they mu ... Read »


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    • Involution (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, involution refers to a situation in which a process or object is ontologically "turned in" upon itself. In meta-ethics, involution of values is the extension of an otherwise convenient and decent system of values to its inevitable logical conclusion, with an indecent or inconvenient result. ... Read »


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    • Ironism

    • Ironist (n. Ironism) (from Greek: eiron, eironeia), a term coined by Richard Rorty, describes someone who fulfills three conditions: In Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Rorty argues that Proust, Nietzsche, Foucault, Heidegger, Derrida, and Nabokov, among others, all exemplify Ironism to different extents. ... Read »


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    • Irreducibility

    • The principle of Irreducibility, in philosophy, has the sense that a complete account of an entity will not be possible at lower levels of explanation and which has novel properties beyond prediction and explanation. Another way to state this is that Occam's razor requires the elimination of only those entities that ar ... Read »


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    • Isvarakrsna

    • Isvarakrsna (Sanskrit: ईश्वर कृष्णः Chinese: 自在黑; pinyin: Zìzàihēi) (5th century AD) is the author of the Samkhyakarika, an early account of the universe and its components (tattvas) according to the Samkhya school. Samkhya is one of the old ... Read »


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    • Iyyun

    • Iyyun: The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly ("Iyyun" literally means "inquiry" or "study") is published by the S. H. Bergman Center for Philosophical Studies of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. It was established in 1945 as a Hebrew philosophical quarterly by Martin Buber, S. H. Bergman, and Julius Guttmann. As of ... Read »


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    • Javelin argument

    • The javelin argument is an ancient logical argument in support of the cosmological idea that space, or the universe, must be infinite: This argument was used to support the Epicurean thesis about the universe. However, the argument assumes incorrectly that a finite universe must necessarily have a "limit" or edge. Th ... Read »


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    • Jesuitism

    • Jesuitism is a casuistic approach to moral questions and problems, so called because it was promoted by some Jesuits of the 17th century rather than being the beliefs of the Society of Jesus as a religious order. The earliest known citation is 1622. Jesuitism is not a systematically developed Moral Theology school (an ... Read »


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    • Junzi

    • The junzi (Chinese: , p jÅ«nzǐ, lit. "lord's son") is a Chinese philosophical term often translated as "gentleman" or "superior person" and employed by both the Duke of Wen in the I-ching and Confucius in his works to describe the ideal man. In Confucianism, the ideal personality is the sheng, translated as sage. ... Read »


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    • Justitium

    • Justitium is a concept of Roman law, equivalent to the declaration of the state of emergency. It was usually declared following a sovereign's death, during the troubled period of interregnum, but also in case of invasions. However, in this last case, it was not as much the physical danger of invasion that justified the ... Read »


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    • Kennisbank Filosofie Nederland

    • The Kennisbank Filosofie in Nederland (KFN) is a database in which information can be found about philosophy, especially from the Netherlands. The bibliography consists of about 35.000 records of publications on philosophy in the Netherlands and Flanders. This database was based in the first place on Prof. Poortman's 4 ... Read »


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    • KK thesis

    • The KK thesis or KK principle is a principle of epistemic logic which states that "If you know that p is the case then you know that you know that p is the case." In formal notation the principle can be stated as: "Kp→KKp" (literally: "Knowing p implies the knowing of knowing p"). ... Read »


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    • Landscapes of power

    • The Landscapes of power is a political philosophy term defined as features of the built environment that perform political functions — including establishing the hegemony of a governing entity or an ideological creed in a particular territory and cultivating a sense of pride in place in residents of a territory. A ... Read »


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