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  • Philosophy of education

    Philosophy of education

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    • Alternative education

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    • Anarchism and education

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    • Books about the philosophy of education

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    • Critical pedagogy

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    • Critical thinking

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    • Deschooling and criticism of the school system


    • Educational theorists

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    • Experiential learning

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    • Homeschooling

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    • Liberal arts education

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    • Life skills

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    • Philosophers of education

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    • Progressive education

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    • Special education

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    • Education theory

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    • Philosophy of education

    • Philosophy of education can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining the definition, goals and meaning of education, or to any particular vision of or approach to education. As an academic field, philosophy of education is "the philosophical study of education and its proble ... Read »


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    • Active learning

    • Active learning is a teaching method that strives to more directly involve students in the learning process. The term active learning "was introduced by the English scholar R W Revans (1907–2003)." Bonwell (1991) "states that in active learning, students participate in the process and students participate when th ... Read »


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    • Adaptive behaviors

    • Adaptive behavior refers to behavior that enables a person (usually used in the context of children) to get along in his or her environment with greatest success and least conflict with others. This is a term used in the areas of psychology and special education. Adaptive behavior relates to every day skills or tasks t ... Read »


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    • Adult educator

    • An adult educator is one who practices the profession of facilitating the learning of adults by applying the principles of androgogy. The broader term of trainer is sometimes used for an adult educator when listing job categories. However, a trainer is not necessarily an adult educator. As Malcolm Knowles proposes, to ... Read »


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    • Afrocentric education

    • Afrocentric education is designed to empower peoples of the African diaspora. A central premise behind it is that many Africans have been subjugated by limiting their awareness of themselves and indoctrinating them with ideas that work against them. Like educational leaders of other cultures, proponents assert that wha ... Read »


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    • Allegory of the Cave

    • The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work the Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education () and the lack of it on our nature". It is written as a dialogue between Plato's brother Glaucon and his mentor Socrates, narrated by the latter. The all ... Read »


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    • Alternative assessment

    • Alternative assessment is also known under various other terms, including: In education, "alternative assessment" is in direct contrast to what is known as "traditional testing" "traditional assessment," or "standardized assessment." Instead of traditional selected-response or constructed-response tests that look for ... Read »


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    • Andragogy

    • Andragogy refers to methods and principles used in adult education. From the Greek, "andr-", meaning "man", and "agogus", meaning "leader of", it literally means "leader of man", whereas "pedagogy" literally means "leading children". However, pedagogy concerns the theory and practice of educating people of all ages. ... Read »


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    • Anti-oppressive education

    • Anti-oppressive education encompasses multiple approaches to learning that actively challenge forms of oppression. Anti-oppressive education is premised on the notion that many traditional and commonsense ways of engaging in "education" actually contribute to oppression in schools and society. It also relies on th ... Read »


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    • Appropriation of knowledge

    • Appropriation of knowledge is the process of constructing knowledge from social and cultural sources, and integrating it into pre-existing schemas. It is a developmental process that comes about through socially formulated, goal-directed, and tool-mediated actions. Appropriation draws on the developmental theories of P ... Read »


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    • Artful Learning

    • Artful Learning

      Artful Learning is an educational philosophy model that is concept-based and interdisciplinary. Artful Learning was initiated by Leonard Bernstein and is rooted in using the arts to enhance all areas of education. In 1990, Leonard Bernstein received the Praemium Imperiale, an international prize awarded by the Jap ... Read »


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    • Bildung

    • Bildung (German: [ˈbɪldʊŋ], ) refers to the German tradition of self-cultivation (as related to the German for: creation, image, shape), wherein philosophy and education are linked in a manner that refers to a process of both personal and cultural maturation. This maturation is described as a harmonization ... Read »


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    • Block scheduling

    • Block scheduling is a type of academic scheduling in which each student has fewer classes per day. It is more common in middle and high schools than in primary schools. Each class is scheduled for a longer period of time than normal (e.g. 90 minutes instead of 50). In one form of block scheduling, a single class will m ... Read »


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    • CDIO

    • The CDIO Initiative (CDIO is a trademarked initialism for "Conceive Design Implement Operate") is an educational framework stressing engineering fundamentals set in the context of conceiving, designing, implementing and operating real-world systems and products. Throughout the world, CDIO Initiative collaborators have ... Read »


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    • Challenge-based learning

    • Challenge-based learning (CBL) is a framework for learning while solving real-world Challenges. The framework is collaborative and hands-on, asking all participants (students, teachers, families, and community members) to identify Big Ideas, ask good questions, discover and solve Challenges, gain in-depth subject area ... Read »


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    • Comparative education

    • Comparative education is a fully established academic field of study that examines education in one country (or group of countries) by using data and insights drawn from the practises and situation in another country, or countries. Programs and courses in comparative education are offered in many universities throughou ... Read »


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    • Comprehensive school

    • A comprehensive school is a secondary school or middle school that is a state school and does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. This is in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria. The term is commonly used in relatio ... Read »


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    • Connectivism

    • Connectivism is a hypothesis of learning which emphasizes the role of social and cultural context. In this sense, Connectivism proposes to see knowledge's structure as a network and learning as a process of pattern recognition. Connectivism is often associated with and proposes a perspective similar to Vygotsky's 'zone ... Read »


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    • Constructivism in science education

    • Constructivism has been considered as a dominant paradigm, or research programme, in the field of science education. The term constructivism is widely used in many fields, and not always with quite the same intention. This entry offers an account of how constructivism is most commonly understood in science education. ... Read »


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    • Contemplative education

    • Contemplative education is a philosophy of higher education that integrates introspection and experiential learning into academic study in order to support academic and social engagement, develop self-understanding as well as analytical and critical capacities, and cultivate skills for engaging constructively with othe ... Read »


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    • Cooperative learning

    • Cooperative learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences. There is much more to cooperative learning than merely arranging students into groups, and it has been described as "structuring positive interdependence." Students must work in gro ... Read »


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    • Corps Altsachsen Dresden

    • Corps Altsachsen Dresden

      The Corps Altsachsen is a fraternity (Studentenverbindung) in Dresden, Germany, founded on October 31, 1861. It is one of 162 German Student Corps in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Latvia and Hungary today. The Corps is a member of the Weinheimer Senioren-Convent (WSC), the second oldest federation of classica ... Read »


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    • Corps Berlin

    • The Corps Berlin is a fraternity (Studentenverbindung) in Berlin, Germany, founded on February 9, 2009 with roots dating back to December 2, 1859. It is one of 162 German Student Corps in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Latvia and Hungary today. The Corps is a member of the Weinheimer Senioren-Convent (WSC), th ... Read »


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    • Corps Marko-Guestphalia Aachen

    • Corps Marko-Guestphalia Aachen

      The Corps Marko-Guestphalia Aachen is a fraternity (Studentenverbindung) in Aachen, Germany, founded on December 2, 1871. It is one of 162 German Student Corps in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Latvia and Hungary today. The Corps is a member of the Weinheimer Senioren-Convent (WSC), the second oldest federatio ... Read »


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    • Corps Saxo-Thuringia München


    • Critical consciousness

    • Critical consciousness, conscientization, or , is a popular education and social concept developed by Brazilian pedagogue and educational theorist Paulo Freire, grounded in post-Marxist critical theory. Critical consciousness focuses on achieving an in-depth understanding of the world, allowing for the perception and e ... Read »


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    • Critical pedagogy

    • Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education and social movement that has developed and applied concepts from critical theory and related traditions to the field of education and the study of culture. Advocates of critical pedagogy view teaching as an inherently political act, reject the neutrality of knowledge, and ... Read »


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    • Critical thinking

    • Critical thinking was described by Richard Paul as a movement in two waves (1994). The "first wave" of critical thinking is often referred to as a 'critical analysis' that is clear, rational thinking involving critique. Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyer (1995), critical thinking ... Read »


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    • Currere

    • The "Method of Currere" is an approach to education based on post-modern philosophy and psychoanalytical technique, first described in a 1975 paper by William Pinar. Currere encourages educators and learners to undertake an autobiographical examination of themselves. Pinar suggests that the term currere, the infi ... Read »


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    • Curriculum of the Waldorf schools

    • In the curriculum of the Waldorf schools, much of the education in academic subjects takes place in blocks, generally of 3–5 weeks duration. Each pupil generally writes and illustrates a self-created textbook representing the material learned in the block. These blocks are supported by on-going classes in subjects ... Read »


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    • Curriculum theory

    • Curriculum theory (CT) is an academic discipline devoted to examining and shaping educational curricula. There are many interpretations of CT, being as narrow as the dynamics of the learning process of one child in a classroom to the lifelong learning path an individual takes. CT can be approached from the educational, ... Read »


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    • Deaf education

    • Deaf education is the education of students with any manner of hearing impairment which addresses their differences and individual needs. This process involves individually-planned, systematically-monitored teaching methods, adaptive materials, accessible settings and other interventions designed to help students achie ... Read »


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    • The Demands of Liberal Education

    • The Demands of Liberal Education

      The Demands of Liberal Education is a 1999 political philosophy book by Meira Levinson that establishes a liberal political theory of children's education that fits the mutual needs of the state and its diverse citizenry. She writes that the intent of a liberal education—an education that follows from a liberal so ... Read »


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    • The Democratic Intellect

    • The Democratic Intellect

      The Democratic Intellect: Scotland and her Universities in the Nineteenth Century is a 1961 book by philosopher George Elder Davie. ... Read »


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    • Deschooling

    • Deschooling is a term used by both education philosophers and proponents of alternative education and/or homeschooling, though it refers to different things in each context. It was popularized by Ivan Illich in his 1971 book Deschooling Society. Philosophically, it refers to the belief that schools and other learn ... Read »


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    • John Dewey

    • John Dewey

      John Dewey (/ˈduːi/; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the fathers of ... Read »


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    • Differential Education Achievement

    • Differential Educational Achievement (DEA) is a sociological term often given to a concept that disagrees with some of the functionalist views on education. Many functionalists believe that an individual's academic success depends completely upon that person's IQ (intelligence quotient) and the effort they apply to th ... Read »


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    • Dominies log

    • A.S. Neill's A Dominie's Log is a diary of his first year as headteacher at Gretna Green Village School, during 1914-15. It is an autobiographical novel. He changed a hard working, academic school controlled by corporal punishment and the fear of the authority of the teacher into one of happiness, play and children con ... Read »


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    • Dumbing down

    • Dumbing down is the deliberate oversimplification of intellectual content within education, literature, cinema, news, video games and culture in order to relate to those unable to assimilate more sophisticated information. The term "dumbing down" originated in 1933 as movie-business slang, used by motion picture scree ... Read »


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    • Education For All

    • Education For All (EFA) is a global movement led by UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015. UNESCO has been mandated to lead the movement and coordinate the international efforts to reach Education for All. G ... Read »


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    • Education Otherwise

    • Education Otherwise

      Education Otherwise (EO) is a registered charity based in England for families whose children are being educated otherwise than at school, and for those who wish to uphold the freedom of families to take responsibility for the education of their children. It provides support and information online, by telephone and thr ... Read »


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    • Education outreach

    • Education outreach is a variation of Cause Marketing and/or Strategic Philanthropy and other focused Public Affairs activities that are specific to education. These programs may include: While Cause Marketing or Strategic Philanthropy may focus on any pro-social topic or initiative, Education Outreach focuses chiefly ... Read »


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    • Educational essentialism

    • Educational essentialism is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects thoroughly. In this philosophical school of thought, the aim is to instill students with the "essentials" of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-basics approach. Essentialism ensure ... Read »


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    • Educational perennialism

    • Educational perennialism is a normative educational philosophy. Perennialists believe that one should teach the things that are of everlasting pertinence to all people everywhere, and that the emphasis should be on principles, not facts. Since people are human, one should teach first about humans, rather than machines ... Read »


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    • Electracy

    • Electracy is a theory by Gregory Ulmer that describes the kind of skills and facility necessary to exploit the full communicative potential of new electronic media such as multimedia, hypermedia, social software, and virtual worlds. According to Ulmer, electracy "is to digital media what literacy is to print." It encom ... Read »


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    • Emergent curriculum

    • Emergent curriculum is a philosophy of teaching and way of planning curriculum that focuses on being responsive to children's interests to create meaningful learning experiences. It can be practiced at any grade level. This philosophy prioritizes active participation, relationship building, flexible and adaptable metho ... Read »


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    • Emile, or On Education

    • Emile, or On Education

      Emile, or On Education or Émile, or Treatise on Education (French: Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important" of all his writings. Due to a section of the book entitled ... Read »


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    • Evolving capacities

    • Evolving capacities is the concept in which education, child development and youth development programs led by adults takes into account the capacities of the child or youth to exercise rights on his or her own behalf. The concept of evolving capacities is employed internationally as a direct alternative to popular con ... Read »


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    • Expeditionary learning schools

    • Expeditionary Learning Schools are models of comprehensive school reform based on the educational ideas of German educator Kurt Hahn, the founder of Outward Bound. There are more than 150 Expeditionary Learning Schools in 30 US states and the District of Columbia. They are exemplified by project-based learning expediti ... Read »


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    • Experience and Education (book)

    • Experience and Education

      Experience and Education is a short book written in 1938 by John Dewey, a pre-eminent educational theorist of the 20th century. It provides a concise and powerful analysis of education. In this and his other writings on education, Dewey continually emphasizes experience, experiment, purposeful learning, freedom, and ot ... Read »


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    • Experiential education

    • Experiential education is a philosophy of education that describes the process that occurs between a teacher and student that infuses direct experience with the learning environment and content. The term is not interchangeable with experiential learning; however experiential learning is a sub-field and operates under t ... Read »


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    • Faculty of Arts

    • A Faculty of Arts is a university division specializing in teaching in areas traditionally classified as "arts" for academic purposes, generally including creative arts, writing, philosophy, and humanities. It was one of the four traditional divisions of the teaching bodies of medieval universities, the others being La ... Read »


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    • Framework for Intervention

    • The Framework for Intervention is a preventive approach to meet concerns about behaviour in schools and nurseries. It concentrates on helping staff to change the school environment, rather than the child. This means that all the factors that might affect the student or child's behaviour in the classroom or around the s ... Read »


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    • Freie Waldorfschule Wetterau

    • An der Birkenkaute 9 The Freie Waldorfschule Wetterau is a private Waldorf school located in Bad Nauheim, Germany. The Freie Waldorfschule Wetterau is a general-education school starting with class 1, with an officially recognised senior high school until the Abitur in class 13 (diploma from German secondary school q ... Read »


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    • Caleb Gattegno

    • Caleb Gattegno

      Caleb Gattegno (1911–1988) was one of the most influential and prolific mathematics educators of the twentieth century. He is best known for his innovative approaches to teaching and learning mathematics (Visible & Tangible Math), foreign languages (The Silent Way) and reading (Words in Color). He is also the inve ... Read »


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    • Global education

    • Global education is a complex idea that is taught to enhance ones meaning of the world. Global Education is typically taught within the curriculum. Teachers of Global Education will integrate multiple dimensions, perspectives, and citizenships into the everyday lessons. Students learning to be global citizens through ... Read »


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    • Charles D. Hayes

    • "September University" Charles D. Hayes is a self-professed, self-taught philosopher and one of America's strongest advocates for lifelong learning. Charles D. Hayes is an unabashed liberal who professes to being a self-taught philosopher and one of America’s strongest advocates for lifelong learning. He spe ... Read »


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    • Herbartianism

    • Herbartianism is an educational philosophy, movement, and method loosely based on the educational and pedagogical thought of German educator Johann Friedrich Herbart, and influential on American school pedagogy of the late 19th century as the field worked towards a science of education. Herbart advocated for instructio ... Read »


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    • Heutagogy

    • In education, heutagogy is a term coined by Stewart Hase and Chris Kenyon of Southern Cross University in Australia, and is also called self-determined learning. The basic tenet of the approach states that a learner should be at the centre of his or her own learning, and, hence, that 'learning' should not be seen as te ... Read »


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    • Hidden curriculum

    • A hidden curriculum is a side effect of an education, "[lessons] which are learned but not openly intended" such as the transmission of norms, values, and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment. Any learning experience may teach unintended lessons. Hidden curriculum often refers to knowledge gain ... Read »


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    • The Hidden Curriculum

    • The Hidden Curriculum (1970) is a book by the psychiatrist Benson R. Snyder, the then-Dean of Institute Relations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Snyder advances a thesis that much of campus conflict and students' personal anxiety is caused by a unstated academic and social norms. These hidden norms affec ... Read »


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    • Holistic education

    • Holistic education is a philosophy of education based on the premise that each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to the community, to the natural world, and to humanitarian values such as compassion and peace. Holistic education aims to call forth from people an intrinsic reverence ... Read »


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    • Percy Hughes

    • Percy Hughes

      Percy Hughes (1872–1952) was a philosopher and teacher, and a leading figure in the Philosophy, Education, and Psychology department at Lehigh University. Hughes was born in Peshawar in British India. A child of missionary Anglican parents, Hughes lived in London before arriving to the United States at the ag ... Read »


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    • Humanistic education

    • Humanistic education (also called person-centered education) is an approach to education based on the work of humanistic psychologists, most notably Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Carl Rogers has been called the "Father of Humanistic Psychology" and devoted much of his efforts toward applying the results of his psycho ... Read »


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    • Humanitas

    • Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature, civilization and kindness. The Latin word humanitas corresponded to the Greek concepts of philanthrôpía (loving what makes us human) and paideia (education) which were amalgamated with a series of qualities that made up the traditional unwritten Roman code of c ... Read »


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    • Humboldt's Ideal


    • Robert Maynard Hutchins

    • Robert Maynard Hutchins (also Maynard Hutchins) (January 17, 1899 – May 17, 1977), was an American educational philosopher, dean of Yale Law School (1927–1929), and president (1929–1945) and chancellor (1945–1951) of the University of Chicago. He was the husband of novelist Maude Hutchins. Although ... Read »


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    • In Schools We Trust

    • In Schools We Trust

      In Schools We Trust is a book written by Deborah Meier and published on August 1, 2002. Meier uses her experiences as the founding principal of the Mission Hill School in Boston, and previous experiences leading the Central Park East schools in New York, to illustrate her vision for school reform in America. The book i ... Read »


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    • Incheon declaration

    • The Incheon declaration is a declaration on education adopted at the World Education Forum in Incheon, South Korea on 15 May 2015. It is the logical continuation of the Education For All (EFA) movement and the Millennium Development Goals on Education, and many of its goals were based on a review of progress made since ... Read »


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    • Inclusion (education)

    • Inclusion in education is an approach to educating students with special educational needs. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-special needs students. Inclusion rejects the use of special schools or classrooms to separate students with disabilities from stude ... Read »


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    • Innovation pedagogy

    • Innovation pedagogy is "a learning approach focused on the development of innovation competences, defining how knowledge is assimilated, produced and used in a manner that can create innovations". Innovation competences are learning outcomes that refer to knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for the innovation activi ... Read »


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    • Inquiry-based learning

    • Inquiry-based learning (also enquiry-based learning in British English) starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questio ... Read »


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    • Institución Libre de Enseñanza


    • Institute of Rural Management Anand

    • Institute of Rural Management Anand

      Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA) is an autonomous institution located in Anand in Gujarat, India with the mandate of contributing to the professional management of rural organisations. IRMA was founded with the belief, borne out by Dr. Verghese Kurien’s work in the dairy co-operatives which revolutionize ... Read »


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    • Institutional dichotomy

    • Institutional dichotomy, according to John Wolfenden (responsible for the Wolfenden Report), in his essay The Gap — The Bridge, states that the dichotomization of intellectual disciplines by educational institutions, specifically collegiate institutions, is to blame for the communication gap between specialists in ... Read »


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    • Institutional pedagogy

    • Institutional pedagogy is a practice of education that is centered on two factors: 1. the complexity of the learner, and the "unconscious" that he or she brings to the classroom. This unconscious is another name for the diversity of social, economic, cultural and other unspoken elements that an educator interacts with ... Read »


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    • International education

    • International education can mean many different things and its definition is debated. Some have defined two general meanings according to its involvement of students. The first refers to education that transcends national borders by the exchange of people, for example, by students travelling to study at an internationa ... Read »


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    • Interprofessional education

    • Interprofessional education (also known as inter-professional education or “IPE”) refers to occasions when students from two or more professions in health and social care learn together during all or part of their professional training with the object of cultivating collaborative practice for providing client ... Read »


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    • Journal of Philosophy of Education

    • The Journal of Philosophy of Education is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain. The journal was established in 1967. The journal publishes articles relating to education or educational practice from a philosophical poin ... Read »


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    • Just-in-time teaching

    • Just-in-time teaching (often abbreviated as JiTT) is a pedagogical strategy that uses feedback between classroom activities and work that students do at home, in preparation for the classroom meeting. The goals are to increase learning during classroom time, to enhance student motivation, to encourage students to prepa ... Read »


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    • Kodály method


    • Learning alliance

    • A learning alliance is a diverse network of individuals committed to improving knowledge on a specific research topic. Learning alliances are often made up of small networks of public, private and/or civil society actors seeking to further social or political change. Learning alliances consist of a series of fac ... Read »


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    • Learning community

    • A learning community is a group of people who share common academic goals and attitudes, who meet semi-regularly to collaborate on classwork. Such communities have become the template for a cohort-based, interdisciplinary approach to higher education. This may be based on an advanced kind of educational or 'pedagogical ... Read »


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    • Liberal education

    • A liberal education is a system or course of education suitable for the cultivation of a free (Latin: liber) human being. It is based on the medieval concept of the liberal arts or, more commonly now, the liberalism of the Age of Enlightenment. It has been described as "a philosophy of education that empowers individua ... Read »


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    • Lie-to-children

    • A lie-to-children (plural lies-to-children) is a simplified explanation of technical or complex subjects as a teaching method for children and laypeople. The phrase has been incorporated by academics within the fields of biology, evolution, bioinformatics and the social sciences. Media use has extended to publications ... Read »


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    • Lifelong learning

    • Lifelong learning is the "ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated" pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. Therefore, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship, and personal development, but also self-sustainability, as well as competitiveness and employability. Evolved from t ... Read »


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    • Lifewide learning

    • Lifewide learning (LWL) is a teaching strategy and an approach to learning and personal development that involves real contexts and authentic settings. The goal is to address different kinds of learning not covered in a traditional classroom. By including LWL with a traditional classroom, students are better equipped t ... Read »


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    • Living theory approach

    • Dr. William Barry, philosophy professor at Notre Dame de Namur University in Silicon Valley, California, created Living Educational Theory as a transpersonal and pragmatic approach to action research (Atkins & Wallace, 2012). Professor Barry pioneered Living Educational Theory as a pedagogical approach in both teacher ... Read »


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    • Loop (education)

    • Looping, in education, refers to the practice of a teacher remaining with the same group of students for more than one school year. For example, a teacher who teaches a third grade class and then goes on to teach the same students, the following year, for the fourth grade. This is distinct from the teacher of a multi- ... Read »


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    • Manualism

    • Manualism is a method of education of deaf students using sign language within the classroom. Manualism arose in the late 18th century with the advent of free public schools for the deaf in Europe. These teaching methods were brought over to the United States where the first school for the deaf was established in 1817. ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of mathematics education

    • The Philosophy of mathematics education is an interdisciplinary area of study and research based on the intersection of the fields of mathematics education and the philosophy of mathematics, the latter being understood in an inclusive sense to include multidisciplinary theorizing about mathematics incorporating philoso ... Read »


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    • Maturation and environmentalism

    • Maturation is the guiding notion in educational theory that developing children will develop their cognitive skills on their own with no influence from their environment. Names associated with Maturation Theory are Gessell, Hunt and Reisner. Environmentalism is the opposite view - that children acquire all their cogn ... Read »


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    • Maturationism

    • Maturationism is an early childhood educational philosophy that sees the child as a growing organism and believes that the role of education is to passively support this growth rather than actively fill the child with information. The idea is that genetic factors play a larger role in development than environmental on ... Read »


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    • Frederick Mayer

    • Frederick Mayer (11 August 1921, Frankfurt, Germany - 26 June 2006, Vienna, Austria) was an educational scientist and philosopher of the University of Redlands, California and one of the leading creativity experts. One of his most important aims was a global humanism. Until the very last days of his life he was active ... Read »


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    • Model-centered instruction

    • Model-centered instruction is a general theory of instructional design developed by Andrew S. Gibbons. This theory can be used to design individual and group instruction for all kinds of learning in any type of learning environment. In addition, this theory may be used to design instruction with a wide variety of techn ... Read »


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    • Willy Moog

    • Willy Moog (also: Wilhelm or Willi Moog; born 22 January 1888 in Neuengronau (community of Sinntal) – 24 October 1935 in Braunschweig) was a German philosopher and educator. Willy Moog studied from 1906 to 1909 in Berlin, Munich and Gießen; his areas of primary focus were Germanic Studies and Philosophy. H ... Read »


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    • A. S. Neill

    • A. S. Neill

      Alexander Sutherland Neill (17 October 1883 – 23 September 1973) was a Scottish educator and author known for his school, Summerhill, and its philosophies of freedom from adult coercion and community self-governance. Neill was raised in Scotland, where he was a poor student but became a schoolteacher. He taught in ... Read »


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    • Neo-Adlerian

    • Neo-Adlerian psychologists are those working in the tradition of, or influenced by Alfred Adler, an early associate of, and dissident from the ideas of, Sigmund Freud. Neo-Adlerian ideas have been identified in the field of education, associated particularly with the work of Rudolf Dreikurs. The Neo-Adlerian class ... Read »


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    • Neohumanism

    • Neohumanism is a holistic philosophical theory elaborated by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in his 1982 book, The Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism (ISBN ). With neohumanism, Sarkar redefines both humanity and humanism, as well as various commonly associated concepts. In addition, Sarkar introduces many new concepts intended ... Read »


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    • Of Education

    • The tractate Of Education was published in 1644, first appearing anonymously as a single eight-page quarto sheet (Ainsworth 6). Presented as a letter written in response to a request from the Puritan educational reformer Samuel Hartlib, it represents John Milton's most comprehensive statement on educational reform (Vis ... Read »


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    • Open learning

    • Open learning is an innovative movement in education that emerged in the 1970s and evolved into fields of practice and study. The term refers generally to activities that either enhance learning opportunities within formal education systems or broaden learning opportunities beyond formal education systems. Open learnin ... Read »


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    • Oralism

    • Oralism is the education of deaf students through oral language by using lip reading, speech, and mimicking the mouth shapes and breathing patterns of speech instead of using sign language within the classroom. Oralism came into popular use in the United States around the late 1860s. In 1867, the Clarke School for the ... Read »


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    • Oswego Movement

    • The Oswego Movement (or Oswego Plan as it is sometimes called) was a movement in American education during the late 19th Century. It was based on the methods of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and introduced by Edward Austin Sheldon at Oswego Primary Teachers' Training School (now State University of New York at Oswego). Th ... Read »


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    • Outcome-based education

    • Outcome-based education (OBE) is an educational theory that bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, each student should have achieved the goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE; instead, classes, opportunities, and as ... Read »


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    • Paideia Proposal

    • The Paideia Proposal is a K–12 educational reform plan proposed by Mortimer Adler. Adler was a prolific author, and references to the Paideia plan for educational reform can be found in a number of his books listed in the references below. The Paideia Proposal is a system of liberal education intended for all ... Read »


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    • Parent-controlled school

    • A parent-controlled school is a type of private school in which significant power is vested in the parents of students, usually through an association. Many parent-controlled schools are Christian schools, but do not usually have a denominational affiliation. In Australia, the first Christian parent-controlled school ... Read »


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    • Passive learning

    • Passive learning is a method of learning or instruction where students receive information from the instructor and internalize it, often through some form of memorization or rote learning, and "where the learner receives no feedback from the instructor". The term is often used together with direct instruction and lectu ... Read »


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    • Peer learning

    • One of the most visible approaches to peer learning comes out of cognitive psychology, and is applied within a "mainstream" educational framework: "Peer learning is an educational practice in which students interact with other students to attain educational goals." In this context, it can be compared to the practices t ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain

    • The Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain was established in 1964 'to promote the development and teaching of the rigorous philosophical study of educational questions'. Professor Louis Arnaud Reid was the first President. The Society has a regional network and its members are from both the UK and overseas. ... Read »


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    • Professional learning community

    • A professional learning community (PLC) is a method to foster collaborative learning among colleagues within a particular work environment or field. It is often used in schools as a way to organize teachers into working groups of practice-based professional learning. The phrase professional learning community bega ... Read »


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    • Progressive education

    • Progressive education is a pedagogical movement that began in the late nineteenth century; it has persisted in various forms to the present. The term progressive was engaged to distinguish this education from the traditional Euro-American curricula of the 19th century, which was rooted in classical preparation for the ... Read »


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    • Project method

    • The project method is a medium of instruction which was introduced during the 18th century into the schools of architecture and engineering in Europe when graduating students had to apply the skills and knowledge they had learned in the course of their studies to problems they had to solve as practicians of their trade ... Read »


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    • Public sphere pedagogy

    • Public sphere pedagogy (PSP) represents an approach to educational engagement that connects classroom activities with real world civic engagement. The focus of PSP programs is to connect class assignments, content, and readings with contemporary public issues. Students are then asked to participate with members of the ... Read »


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    • Purpose-centered education

    • Purpose-centered education (PCE) is a pedagogical model developed by Audrey Cohen and her colleagues at the College for Human Services, now Metropolitan College of New York, PCE blends theory and practice in students’ jobs and lives to produce graduates with a guiding vision of social justice and continues to unde ... Read »


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    • Purpose-guided education

    • Purpose-guided education prioritizes intrinsic motivation and helps students to become more engaged in learning experiences through connecting their beliefs and life goals to curricular requirements. Jerry Pattengale first coined the phrase “purpose-guided education”, and began its application at Indiana Wesl ... Read »


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    • Queer pedagogy

    • Queer pedagogy (QP) is an academic discipline devoted to exploring the intersection between queer theory and critical pedagogy, which are both grounded in Marxist critical theory. QP explores and interrogates the student/teacher relationship, the role of identities in the classroom, the role of eroticism in the teachi ... Read »


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    • Quincy Method

    • The Quincy Method, also known as the Quincy Plan, or the Quincy system of learning, was a child-centred, progressive approach to education developed by Francis W. Parker, then superintendent of schools in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1875. Parker, a pioneer of the progressive school movement, rejected the traditional rigi ... Read »


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    • Reggio Emilia approach

    • The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy focused on preschool and primary education. It was developed after World War II by a psychologist Loris Malaguzzi, and parents in the villages around Reggio Emilia in Italy. Following the war, people believed that children were in need of a new way of learning. Th ... Read »


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    • S.C.A.M.P.E.R

    • SCAMPER is an acronym that provides a structured way of assisting students to think out of the box and enhance their knowledge. It is thought to protect students' creativity as they mature. SCAMPER was proposed by Alex Osborne in 1953, and was further developed by Bob Eberle in 1971 in his book; SCAMPER: Games for Im ... Read »


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    • Scout method

    • The Scout method is the informal educational system used by Scouts. The aim of Scouting is character training with the goal of helping participants become independent and helpful, and thereby become "healthy, happy, helpful citizens". The Scout method uses appealing games in the primitive outdoors to generate challeng ... Read »


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    • Simply Music

    • Simply Music is a music education institution licensing teachers at over 700 locations in twelve countries. Australian music educator Neil Moore founded it on the core belief that all humans are naturally musical. Simply Music offers programs for students from birth through old age, with the stated goal that "students ... Read »


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    • Social networking pedagogy

    • Social Networking Pedagogy is a philosophy of education described by curriculum theorists Thomas Patrick Huston and Hallie DeCatherine Jones as a form of learner-driven participatory culture where the user’s experience is reciprocal, consisting of a range of input and output experiences mediated by social networki ... Read »


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    • Society for Advancing Philosophical Enquiry and Reflection in Education

    • The Society for Advancing Philosophical Enquiry and Reflection in Education (SAPERE) is a charity that promotes Philosophy for Children as an educational methodology in the UK. It is based at the Culham Innovation Centre, Abingdon, England, and its Chair is Elizabeth Jones, QC. Philosophy for Children (P4C) is a power ... Read »


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    • Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge

    • The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK), was founded in 1826, mainly at the instigation of Lord Brougham, with the object of publishing information to people who were unable to obtain formal teaching, or who preferred self-education. A Whiggish London organisation that published inexpensive texts inten ... Read »


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    • Some Thoughts Concerning Education

    • Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a 1693 treatise on the education of gentlemen written by the English philosopher John Locke. For over a century, it was the most important philosophical work on education in England. It was translated into almost all of the major written European languages during the eighteenth cen ... Read »


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    • William Spady

    • William Spady is the head of ChangeLeaders. William Spady is a sociologist and the self-proclaimed father of Outcome-Based Education (OBE). OBE is referred to by over 20 different names including Systemic education restructuring, Performance Based Education, Standards based education reform, High Performance Learning, ... Read »


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    • Steiner Schools Australia

    • Steiner Schools Australia refers to the fifty-two Steiner or Waldorf educational institutions, thirty-six of which are governed by Steiner Education Australia (SEA) and are located in each the States and Territories of Australia. As with all Steiner schools, teachers are given a large degree of flexibility in developin ... Read »


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    • Student-centred learning

    • Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centered education, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student. In original usage, student-centered learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning pat ... Read »


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    • Studies of Waldorf education

    • A number of national, international and topic-based studies have been made of Waldorf education. In 2005, British educational researchers Philip Woods, Martin Ashley and Glenys Woods evaluated Steiner-Waldorf schools for the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Skills. As part of their study, the authors evalu ... Read »


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    • Suzuki method

    • The Suzuki method is an internationally known music curriculum & teaching philosophy dating from the mid-20th century, created by Japanese violinist and pedagogue Shinichi Suzuki (1898–1998). The method aims to create an environment for learning music which parallels the linguistic environment of acquiring a nativ ... Read »


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    • Taking Children Seriously

    • Taking Children Seriously (T.C.S.) is a parenting movement and educational philosophy whose central idea is that it is possible and desirable to raise and educate children without either doing anything to them against their will, or making them do anything against their will. It was founded in 1994 as an on-line maili ... Read »


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    • Teaching dossier

    • Teaching dossier, also called a teaching portfolio, is a collection of a faculty's qualifications documenting their teaching effectiveness for tenure positions and promotions. ... Read »


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    • Teaching philosophy

    • Abbreviated title (ISO 4)
      Teach. Philos. Discipline Philosophy, education Language English Edited by Michael Cholbi Publication details Publisher
      Publication history
      1975–present Frequency Quarterly Indexing ISSN 0145-5788 (print)
      2153-6619 (web)
      LCCN 76-649637 OCLC no.
    • Teaching Philosophy  

      Teaching Philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to the practical and theoretical discussion of teaching and learning philosophy, that is philosophy education. Established by Arnold Wilson in 1975, it has published over 2,500 articles and reviews in this field. Notable contributors include Norman Bowie, ... Read »


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    • Traditional education

    • Traditional education, also known as back-to-basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to long-established customs that society traditionally used in schools. Some forms of education reform promote the adoption of progressive education practices, a more holistic approach which focuses on individual ... Read »


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    • Transcendental Meditation in education

    • Transcendental Meditation in education (also known as Consciousness-Based Education) is the application of the Transcendental Meditation technique in an educational setting or institution. These educational programs and institutions have been founded in the USA, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Africa and Japan. The T ... Read »


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    • Transformative learning

    • Transformative learning theory says that the process of "perspective transformation" has three dimensions: psychological (changes in understanding of the self), convictional (revision of belief systems), and behavioral (changes in lifestyle). Transformative learning is the expansion of consciousness through the transf ... Read »


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    • Trivium

    • The Trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output). The trivium is implicit in the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury") by Martianus Capella, although the term was not used until the Carolingian ... Read »


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    • Understanding by Design

    • Understanding by Design, or UbD, is an educational planning approach. UbD is an example of backward design, the practice of looking at the outcomes in order to design curriculum units, performance assessments, and classroom instruction. UbD focuses on teaching to achieve understanding. It is advocated by Jay McTighe an ... Read »


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    • Universal design for instruction

    • Universal instructional design (UID) or universal design for instruction (UDI) is an educational framework for applying universal design principles to learning environments with a goal toward greater accessibility for all students, including students with disabilities. UDI involves considering the potential needs of al ... Read »


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    • Unschooling

    • Unschooling is an educational method and philosophy that advocates learner-chosen activities as a primary means for learning. Unschooling students learn through their natural life experiences including play, household responsibilities, personal interests and curiosity, internships and work experience, travel, books, el ... Read »


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    • List of works on Waldorf education

    • This is a list of works on Waldorf education by authors other than Rudolf Steiner. See also this List of Rudolf Steiner's works on education. Works on Waldorf education include: ... Read »


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    • Waldorf education

    • Waldorf education, also known as Steiner education, is based on the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Its pedagogy emphasizes the role of imagination in learning, striving to integrate holistically the intellectual, practical, and artistic development of pupils. Steiner's division ... Read »


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    • Western canon

    • The Western canon is the body of books, music, and art that scholars generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping Western culture. It includes works of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama, music, art, sculpture, and architecture generally perceived as being of major artistic merit and representing ... Read »


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    • Wittgenstein's ladder


    • Youth engagement

    • Youth engagement is the sentiment young people feel towards a particular person, activity, place or outcome. It has been a focus of youth development, public policy and social change movements for at least forty years. A study exploring foster youth and aging out defines youth engagement as, "involving young peopl ... Read »


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    • Youth voice

    • Youth voice refers to the distinct ideas, opinions, attitudes, knowledge, and actions of young people as a collective body. The term youth voice often groups together a diversity of perspectives and experiences, regardless of backgrounds, identities, and cultural differences. It is frequently associated with the succes ... Read »


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    • Zero reject

    • Zero reject is an educational philosophy which says that no child can be denied an education because they are "uneducable". One of the six core principles of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that no child with a disability can be denied a free appropriate public education. The IDEA requires t ... Read »


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  • What Else?

    • Philosophy of education

Extras