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  • Philosophical theories

    Philosophical theories

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    • Theories of aesthetics

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    • Theories in ancient philosophy

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    • Axiological theories

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    • Conceptualism

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    • Theories of deduction

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    • Enactive cognition

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    • Epistemological theories

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    • Ethical theories

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    • Formalism (philosophy)

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    • Ideologies

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    • Theories of language

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    • Theories of law

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    • Metaphysical theories

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    • Theory of mind

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    • Philosophical arguments

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    • Philosophical movements

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    • Philosophical realism

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    • Philosophical traditions

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    • Process theory

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    • Realism

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    • Reductionism

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    • Metatheory of science

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    • Social theories

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    • Symbolism

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    • Philosophical theory

    • In the general sense, a philosophical position is a set of beliefs that explains or accounts for a general philosophy or specific branch of philosophy. The use of the term theory here is a statement of colloquial English and not reflective of the term theory. While any sort of thesis or opinion may be termed a positio ... Read »


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    • Abstract object theory

    • Abstract object theory, also known as abstract theory, is a branch of metaphysics regarding abstract objects. Originally devised by metaphysicist Edward Zalta in 1999, the theory was an expansion of mathematical Platonism. One who studies abstract object theory is called an abstract theorist. Abstract Objects: An Intr ... Read »


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    • Agathism

    • Agathism, from the Greek ἀγαθός agathos (good) is, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "The doctrine that all things tend towards ultimate good, as distinguished from optimism, which holds that all things are now for the best". An agathist accepts that evil and misfortune will ultimately hap ... Read »


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    • Animalism (philosophy)

    • In philosophy, animalism is a theory according to which we are human animals. Animalism is not a theory about personhood, that is, a theory about what it means to be a person. Animalists could hold that robots or angels were persons without that contradicting their animalism. The concept of animalism is among interes ... Read »


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    • Anthropocentrism

    • Anthropocentrism (/ˌænθroʊpoʊˈsɛntrɪzəm/; from Greek Ancient Greek: ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and Ancient Greek: κέντρον , kéntron, "center") the belief that considers human beings to be the most significant entity of the ... Read »


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    • Armchair theorizing

    • Armchair theorizing, armchair philosophizing, or armchair scholarship is an approach to providing new developments in a field that does not involve the collection of new information but, rather, a careful analysis or synthesis of existent scholarship. Different disciplines place different weight on purely theoreti ... Read »


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    • Bagism

    • Bagism is a term which was created by John Lennon and Yoko Ono as part of their extensive peace campaign in the late 1960s. The intent of bagism was to satirize prejudice and stereotyping. Bagism involved literally wearing a bag over one's entire body. According to John and Yoko, by living in a bag, a person could not ... Read »


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    • Byzantinism

    • Byzantinism, or Byzantism, is the political system and culture of the Byzantine Empire, and its spiritual successors, in particular, the Christian Balkan states (Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia) and Orthodox countries in Eastern Europe (Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus and most importantly, Russia). The term byzantinism itself was c ... Read »


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    • Chemism

    • Chemism refers to forces of attraction or adhesion between entities. It has uses in chemistry and philosophy. In the past, chemism referred to intramolecular forces between atoms, or more generally, any forces acting on atoms and molecules. It is now typically superseded by more precise terms such as hydrogen interact ... Read »


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    • Chronocentrism

    • Chronocentrism is a prioritization of certain time periods (typically the present) as being better, more important, or a more significant frame of reference than other time periods (either past or future). Chronocentrism (from the Greek meaning "time") was coined by sociologist Jib Fowles in an article in the jou ... Read »


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    • Cultural schema theory

    • Cultural schema theory (Nishida, 1999) explains the familiar and pre-acquainted knowledge one uses when entering a familiar situation in his/her own culture. Cultural schemas for social interaction are cognitive structures that contain knowledge for face-to-face interactions in a person's cultural environment. Schemas ... Read »


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    • Culturalism

    • Culturalism is a concept in philosophy and sociology originally developed by the Polish-American philosopher and sociologist, Florian Znaniecki to describe the central importance of culture as an organizing force in human affairs. The term was introduced in his book Cultural Reality (1919) in English and later translat ... Read »


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    • Emergent evolution

    • Emergent evolution is the hypothesis that, in the course of evolution, some entirely new properties, such as mind and consciousness, appear at certain critical points, usually because of an unpredictable rearrangement of the already existing entities. The term was originated by the psychologist C. Lloyd Morgan (1852-19 ... Read »


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    • Enactivism

    • Enactivism argues that cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. It claims that our environment is one which we selectively create through our capacities to interact with the world. "Organisms do not passively receive information from their environments, which they t ... Read »


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    • Exceptionalism

    • Exceptionalism is the perception that a species, country, society, institution, movement, individual, or time period is "" (i.e., unusual or extraordinary) in some way. Although the idea appears to have developed with respect to an era, today the term is particularly applied to national or regional exceptionalism. Othe ... Read »


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    • Exclusivism

    • Exclusivism is the practice of being ; mentality characterized by the disregard for opinions and ideas other than one's own, or the practice of organizing entities into groups by excluding those entities which possess certain traits. (for an opposite example, see essentialism). Religious exclusivism asserts that one r ... Read »


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    • Holism

    • Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that thei ... Read »


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    • Ideology

    • Ideology is a collection of beliefs held by an individual, group or society. It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's beliefs, goals, expectations, and motivations. An ideology is a comprehensive normative vision that is followed by people, governments, or other groups that is ... Read »


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    • Intellectualism

    • Intellectualism denotes the use, development, and exercise of the intellect; the practice of being an intellectual; and the Life of the Mind. In the field of philosophy, “intellectualism” occasionally is synonymous with “rationalism”, that is, knowledge mostly derived from reason and ratiocination. ... Read »


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    • Ironism

    • Ironist (n. Ironism) (from Greek: eiron, eironeia), a term coined by Richard Rorty, describes someone who fulfills three conditions: In Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Rorty argues that Proust, Nietzsche, Foucault, Heidegger, Derrida, and Nabokov, among others, all exemplify Ironism to different extents. ... Read »


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    • Kantianism

    • Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The term "Kantianism" or "Kantian" is sometimes also used to describe contemporary positions in philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics. Kantian ethics are deontological, revolving ent ... Read »


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    • Lebensphilosophie

    • Lebensphilosophie ("philosophy of life" or life-philosophy in German) is a philosophical school of thought which emphasises the meaning, value and purpose of life as the foremost focus of philosophy. Inspired by the critique of rationalism in the works of Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Ni ... Read »


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    • Lexical hypothesis

    • The lexical hypothesis (also the fundamental lexical hypothesis,lexical approach, or sedimentation hypothesis) is one of the most widely used hypothesis in personality psychology. Despite some variation in its definition and application, the Lexical hypothesis is generally defined by two postulates. The first states th ... Read »


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    • Life stance

    • A person's life stance, or lifestance, is their relation with what they accept as being of ultimate importance. It involves the presuppositions and theories upon which such a stance could be made, a belief system, and a commitment to potentially working it out in one's life. It connotes an integrated perspective on re ... Read »


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    • List of philosophies

    • Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. Ableism - Absolutism - Absurdism - Acquiescence - Activism - Actual Idealism - Actualism - Advaita Vedanta - Aesthetic Realism - Aestheti ... Read »


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    • List of schools of philosophy


    • Marx's theory of human nature


    • Neo-Aristotelianism (rhetorical criticism)

    • Neo-Aristotelianism is a view of literature and rhetorical criticism propagated by the Chicago School — Ronald S. Crane, Elder Olson, Richard McKeon, Wayne Booth, and others — which means. "A view of literature and criticism which takes a pluralistic attitude toward the history of literature and seeks to vi ... Read »


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    • Neo-medievalism

    • Neo-medievalism (or neomedievalism) is a neologism that was first popularized by the Italian medievalist Umberto Eco in his 1986 essay "Dreaming of the Middle Ages". Prior to this the term was used in Isaiah Berlin's "The Hedgehog and the Fox" to refer to a nostalgic romanticism for the simplicity and order of the med ... Read »


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    • Neo-Scholasticism

    • Neo-Scholasticism (also known as neo-scholastic Thomism or neo-Thomism because of the great influence of the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas on the movement), is a revival and development of medieval scholasticism in Roman Catholic theology and philosophy which began in the second half of the 19th century. During t ... Read »


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    • Obscurantism

    • Obscurantism (/ɒbˈskjʊərənˌtɪzəm, əb-/ and /ˌɒbskjʊˈræntɪzəm/) is the practice of deliberately preventing the facts of some subject matter from becoming known. There are two, historical and intellectual denotations of Obscurantism: (1) the deliberate restriction of knowle ... Read »


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    • Optimism

    • Optimism is a mental attitude. A common idiom used to illustrate optimism versus pessimism is a glass with water at the halfway point, where the optimist is said to see the glass as half full and the pessimist sees the glass as half empty. The term is originally derived from the Latin optimum, meaning "best". Being op ... Read »


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    • Part–whole theory


    • Perspectivism

    • Perspectivism (German: Perspektivismus) is the term coined by Friedrich Nietzsche in developing the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives. This means that there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in ... Read »


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    • Philistinism

    • In the fields of philosophy and æsthetics, the derogatory term philistinism describes the social attitude of anti-intellectualism that undervalues and despises art, beauty, spirituality, and intellect; "the manners, habits, and character, or mode of thinking of a philistine". A philistine person is a man or woman of ... Read »


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    • Philosophy of life

    • There are at least two senses in which the term philosophy is used: a formal and an informal sense. In the formal sense, philosophy is an academic study of the fields of aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, as well as social and political philosophy. One's "philosophy of life" is philosophy in the info ... Read »


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    • Postanalytic philosophy

    • Postanalytic philosophy describes a detachment from the mainstream philosophical movement of analytic philosophy, which is the predominant school of thought in English-speaking countries. Postanalytic philosophy derives mainly from contemporary American thought, especially from the works of philosophers Richard Rorty, ... Read »


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    • Posthumanism

    • Posthumanism or post-humanism (meaning "after humanism" or "beyond humanism") is a term with at least seven definitions according to philosopher Francesca Ferrando: Philosopher Ted Schatzki suggests there are two varieties of posthumanism of the philosophical kind: One, which he calls 'objectivism', tries to coun ... Read »


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    • Pragmaticism

    • Pragmaticism is a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for his pragmatic philosophy starting in 1905, in order to distance himself and it from pragmatism, the original name, which had been used in a manner he did not approve of in the "literary journals". Peirce in 1905 announced his coinage "pragmaticism", saying that ... Read »


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    • Pre-theoretic belief

    • Pre-theoretical belief has been an important notion in some areas of linguistics and philosophy, especially phenomenology and older versions of “ordinary language” philosophy. It is often assumed, rightly or wrongly, that language depends on mental concepts, and that certain concepts are innate. These innate ... Read »


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    • Providentialism

    • Providentialism refers to the belief in Christianity that all events on Earth are controlled by God. Providentialism was sometimes viewed by its adherents as differing between national providence and personal providence. Some English and American Christians came to view personal providentialism as backward and sup ... Read »


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    • Received view

    • A received view is any world view that is taken for granted or that is assumed to be true without further criticism by the part of the "receiver" – until he or she manages to "unhide" it, e.g. by getting to know another contrasting worldview. The expression is usually used by other philosophical schools to refer t ... Read »


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    • Reconstructivism

    • Reconstructivism is a philosophical theory holding that societies should continually reform themselves in order to establish more perfect governments or social networks. This ideology involves recombining or recontextualizing the ideas arrived at by the philosophy of deconstruction, in which an existing system or mediu ... Read »


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    • Reflectivism

    • Reflectivism is a broad umbrella label, used primarily in International Relations theory, for a range of theoretical approaches which oppose rational-choice accounts of social phenomena and, perhaps, positivism more generally. The label was popularised by Robert Keohane in his presidential address to the International ... Read »


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    • Relationalism

    • Relationalism is any theoretical position that gives importance to the relational nature of things. For relationalism, things exist and function only as relational entities. Relationalism may be contrasted with relationism, which tends to emphasize relations per se. Relationalism in a broader sense applies to any ... Read »


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    • Teachings and philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

    • Swami Vivekananda was a Hindu monk from India. He played significant role in the growing Indian nationalism of the 19th and 20th century, reinterpreting and harmonising certain aspects of Hinduism. His teachings and philosophy applied this reinterpretation to various aspects of education, faith, character building as w ... Read »


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    • Theoreticism

    • In philosophy and particularly political philosophy, theoreticism is the preference for theory over practice (or, more broadly, abstract knowledge over concrete action), or a philosophical position which would lead to such a preference. The term is often used pejoratively. In Marxist philosophy, for instance, theoreti ... Read »


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    • Universalism

    • Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept with universal application or applicability. Universalist doctrines consider all people in their formation. In terms of religion, in a broad sense, universalism claims that religion is a universal human quality. This can be contrasted with non-universalist religi ... Read »


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    • Wonderism

    • Wonderism is a term coined by French sinologist Terrien de Lacouperie (1845-1894) to differentiate the proto-Daoism of Jixia Academy from the philosophical Daoism of Laozi, although his ideas were received with skepticism at the time of assertion and have since been discredited by modern sinology. Lacouperie believed ... Read »


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